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The Life of Cesare Borgia
Rafael Sabatini

The Life of Cesare Borgia Of France, Duke of Valentinois and Romagna,
Prince of Andria and Venafri Count of Dyois, Lord of Piombino,
Camerino and Urbino, Gonfalonier and Captain-General of Holy Church

A History and Some Criticisms


This is no Chronicle of Saints.  Nor yet is it a History of Devils.  It
is a record of certain very human, strenuous men in a very human,
strenuous age; a lustful, flamboyant age; an age red with blood and pale
with passion at white-heat; an age of steel and velvet, of vivid colour,
dazzling light and impenetrable shadow; an age of swift movement,
pitiless violence and high endeavour, of sharp antitheses and amazing

To judge it from the standpoint of this calm, deliberate, and correct
century--as we conceive our own to be--is for sedate middle-age to judge
from its own standpoint the reckless, hot, passionate, lustful humours of
youth, of youth that errs grievously and achieves greatly.

So to judge that epoch collectively is manifestly wrong, a hopeless
procedure if it be our aim to understand it and to be in sympathy with
it, as it becomes broad-minded age to be tolerantly in sympathy with the
youth whose follies it perceives.  Life is an ephemeral business, and we
waste too much of it in judging where it would beseem us better to
accept, that we ourselves may come to be accepted by such future ages as
may pursue the study of us.

But if it be wrong to judge a past epoch collectively by the standards of
our own time, how much more is it not wrong to single out individuals for
judgement by those same standards, after detaching them for the purpose
from the environment in which they had their being?  How false must be
the conception of them thus obtained!  We view the individuals so
selected through a microscope of modern focus.  They appear monstrous and
abnormal, and we straight-way assume them to be monsters and
abnormalities, never considering that the fault is in the adjustment of
the instrument through which we inspect them, and that until that is
corrected others of that same past age, if similarly viewed, must appear
similarly distorted.

Hence it follows that some study of an age must ever prelude and
accompany the study of its individuals, if comprehension is to wait upon
our labours.  To proceed otherwise is to judge an individual Hottentot or
South Sea Islander by the code of manners that obtains in Belgravia or

Mind being the seat of the soul, and literature being the expression of
the mind, literature, it follows, is the soul of an age, the surviving
and immortal part of it; and in the literature of the Cinquecento you
shall behold for the looking the ardent, unmoral, naïve soul of this
Renaissance that was sprawling in its lusty, naked infancy and bellowing
hungrily for the pap of knowledge, and for other things.  You shall infer
something of the passionate mettle of this infant: his tempestuous mirth,
his fierce rages, his simplicity, his naïveté, his inquisitiveness, his
cunning, his deceit, his cruelty, his love of sunshine and bright

To realize him as he was, you need but to bethink you that this was the
age in which the Decamerone of Giovanni Boccaccio, the Facetiae of
Poggio, the Satires of Filelfo, and the Hermaphroditus of Panormitano
afforded reading-matter to both sexes.  This was the age in which the
learned and erudite Lorenzo Valla--of whom more anon--wrote his famous
indictment of virginity, condemning it as against nature with arguments
of a most insidious logic.  This was the age in which Casa, Archbishop of
Benevento, wrote a most singular work of erotic philosophy, which, coming
from a churchman's pen, will leave you cold with horror should you chance
to turn its pages.  This was the age of the Discovery of Man; the pagan
age which stripped Christ of His divinity to bestow it upon Plato, so
that Marsilio Ficino actually burnt an altar-lamp before an image of the
Greek by whose teachings--in common with so many scholars of his day--he
sought to inform himself.

It was an age that had become unable to discriminate between the merits
of the Saints of the Church and the Harlots of the Town.  Therefore it
honoured both alike, extolled the carnal merits of the one in much the
same terms as were employed to extol the spiritual merits of the other. 
Thus when a famous Roman courtesan departed this life in the year 1511,
at the early age of twenty-six, she was accorded a splendid funeral and
an imposing tomb in the Chapel Santa Gregoria with a tablet bearing the
following inscription:


It was, in short, an age so universally immoral as scarcely to be termed
immoral, since immorality may be defined as a departure from the morals
that obtain a given time and in a given place.  So that whilst from our
own standpoint the Cinquecento, taken collectively, is an age of grossest
licence and immorality, from the standpoint of the Cinquecento itself few
of its individuals might with justice be branded immoral.

For the rest, it was an epoch of reaction from the Age of Chivalry: an
epoch of unbounded luxury, of the cult and worship of the beautiful
externally; an epoch that set no store by any inward virtue, by truth or
honour; an epoch that laid it down as a maxim that no inconvenient
engagement should be kept if opportunity offered to evade it.

The history of the Cinquecento is a history developed in broken pledges,
trusts dishonoured and basest treacheries, as you shall come to conclude
before you have read far in the story that is here to be set down.

In a profligate age what can you look for but profligates?  Is it just,
is it reasonable, or is it even honest to take a man or a family from
such an environment, for judgement by the canons of a later epoch?  Yet
is it not the method that has been most frequently adopted in dealing
with the vast subject of the Borgias?

To avoid the dangers that must wait upon that error, the history of that
House shall here be taken up with the elevation of Calixtus III to the
Papal Throne; and the reign of the four Popes immediately preceding
Roderigo Borgia--who reigned as Alexander VI--shall briefly be surveyed
that a standard may be set by which to judge the man and the family that
form the real subject of this work.

The history of this amazing Pope Alexander is yet to be written.  No
attempt has been made to exhaust it here.  Yet of necessity he bulks
large in these pages; for the history of his dazzling, meteoric son is so
closely interwoven with his own that it is impossible to present the one
without dealing at considerable length with the other.

The sources from which the history of the House of Borgia has been culled
are not to be examined in a preface.  They are too numerous, and they
require too minute and individual a consideration that their precise
value and degree of credibility may be ascertained.  Abundantly shall
such examination be made in the course of this history, and in a measure
as the need arises to cite evidence for one side or for the other shall
that evidence be sifted.

Never, perhaps, has anything more true been written of the Borgias and
their history than the matter contained in the following lines of Rawdon
Brown in his Ragguagli sulla Vita e sulle Opere di Marino Sanuto: "It
seems to me that history has made use of the House of Borgia as of a
canvas upon which to depict the turpitudes of the fifteenth and sixteenth

Materials for the work were very ready to the hand; and although they do
not signally differ from the materials out of which the histories of half
a dozen Popes of the same epoch might be compiled, they are far more
abundant in the case of the Borgia Pope, for the excellent reason that
the Borgia Pope detaches from the background of the Renaissance far more
than any of his compeers by virtue of his importance as a political

In this was reason to spare for his being libelled and lampooned even
beyond the usual extravagant wont.  Slanders concerning him and his son
Cesare were readily circulated, and they will generally be found to
spring from those States which had most cause for jealousy and resentment
of the Borgia might--Venice, Florence, and Milan, amongst others.

No rancour is so bitter as political rancour--save, perhaps, religious
rancour, which we shall also trace; no warfare more unscrupulous or more
prone to use the insidious weapons of slander than political warfare.  Of
this such striking instances abound in our own time that there can scarce
be the need to labour the point.  And from the form taken by such
slanders as are circulated in our own sedate and moderate epoch may be
conceived what might be said by political opponents in a fierce age that
knew no pudency and no restraint.  All this in its proper place shall be
more closely examined.

For many of the charges brought against the House of Borgia some
testimony exists; for many others--and these are the more lurid,
sensational, and appalling covering as they do rape and murder, adultery,
incest, and the sin of the Cities of the Plain--no single grain of real
evidence is forthcoming.  Indeed, at this time of day evidence is no
longer called for where the sins of the Borgias are concerned.  Oft-
reiterated assertion has usurped the place of evidence--for a lie
sufficiently repeated comes to be credited by its very utterer.  And
meanwhile the calumny has sped from tongue to tongue, from pen to pen,
gathering matter as it goes.  The world absorbs the stories; it devours
them greedily so they be sensational, and writers well aware of this have
been pandering to that morbid appetite for some centuries now with this
subject of the Borgias.  A salted, piquant tale of vice, a ghastly story
of moral turpitude and physical corruption, a hair-raising narrative of
horrors and abominations--these are the stock-in-trade of the sensation-
monger.  With the authenticity of the matters he retails such a one has
no concern.  "Se non é vero é ben trovato," is his motto, and in his
heart the sensation-monger--of whatsoever age--rather hopes the thing be
true.  He will certainly make his public so believe it; for to discredit
it would be to lose nine-tenths of its sensational value.  So he trims
and adjusts his wares, adds a touch or two of colour and what else he
accounts necessary to heighten their air of authenticity, to dissemble
any peeping spuriousness.

A form of hypnosis accompanies your study of the subject--a suggestion
that what is so positively and repeatedly stated must of necessity be
true, must of necessity have been proved by irrefutable evidence at some
time or other.  So much you take for granted--for matters which began
their existence perhaps as tentative hypotheses have imperceptibly
developed into established facts.

Occasionally it happens that we find some such sentence as the following
summing up this deed or that one in the Borgia histories: "A deal of
mystery remains to be cleared up, but the Verdict of History assigns the
guilt to Cesare Borgia."

Behold how easy it is to dispense with evidence.  So that your tale be
well-salted and well-spiced, a fico for evidence!  If it hangs not
overwell together in places, if there be contradictions, lacunae, or
openings for doubt, fling the Verdict of History into the gap, and so
strike any questioner into silence.

So far have matters gone in this connection that who undertakes to set
down to-day the history of Cesare Borgia, with intent to do just and
honest work, must find it impossible to tell a plain and straightforward
tale--to present him not as a villain of melodrama, not a monster,
ludicrous, grotesque, impossible, but as human being, a cold, relentless
egotist, it is true, using men for his own ends, terrible and even
treacherous in his reprisals, swift as a panther and as cruel where his
anger was aroused, yet with certain elements of greatness: a splendid
soldier, an unrivalled administrator, a man pre-eminently just, if
merciless in that same justice.

To present Cesare Borgia thus in a plain straightforward tale at this
time of day, would be to provoke the scorn and derision of those who have
made his acquaintance in the pages of that eminent German scholar,
Ferdinand Gregorovius, and of some other writers not quite so eminent yet
eminent enough to serve serious consideration.  Hence has it been
necessary to examine at close quarters the findings of these great ones,
and to present certain criticisms of those same findings.  The author is
overwhelmingly conscious of the invidious quality of that task; but he is
no less conscious of its inevitability if this tale is to be told at all.

Whilst the actual sources of historical evidence shall be examined in the
course of this narrative, it may be well to examine at this stage the
sources of the popular conceptions of the Borgias, since there will be no
occasion later to allude to them.

Without entering here into a dissertation upon the historical romance, it
may be said that in proper hands it has been and should continue to be
one of the most valued and valuable expressions of the literary art.  To
render and maintain it so, however, it is necessary that certain well-
defined limits should be set upon the licence which its writers are to
enjoy; it is necessary that the work should be honest work; that
preparation for it should be made by a sound, painstaking study of the
period to be represented, to the end that a true impression may first be
formed and then conveyed.  Thus, considering how much more far-reaching
is the novel than any other form of literature, the good results that
must wait upon such endeavours are beyond question.  The neglect of them
--the distortion of character to suit the romancer's ends, the like
distortion of historical facts, the gross anachronisms arising out of a
lack of study, have done much to bring the historical romance into
disrepute.  Many writers frankly make no pretence--leastways none that
can be discerned--of aiming at historical precision; others, however,
invest their work with a spurious scholarliness, go the length of citing
authorities to support the point of view which they have taken, and which
they lay before you as the fruit of strenuous lucubrations.

These are the dangerous ones, and of this type is Victor Hugo's famous
tragedy Lucrezia Borgia, a work to which perhaps more than to any other
(not excepting Les Borgias in Crimes Célèbres of Alexandre Dumas) is due
the popular conception that prevails to-day of Cesare Borgia's sister.

It is questionable whether anything has ever flowed from a distinguished
pen in which so many licences have been taken with the history of
individuals and of an epoch; in which there is so rich a crop of crude,
transpontine absurdities and flagrant, impossible anachronisms.  Victor
Hugo was a writer of rare gifts, a fertile romancer and a great poet, and
it may be unjust to censure him for having taken the fullest advantages
of the licences conceded to both.  But it would be difficult to censure
him too harshly for having--in his Lucrezia Borgia--struck a pose of
scholarliness, for having pretended and maintained that his work was
honest work founded upon the study of historical evidences.  With that
piece of charlatanism he deceived the great mass of the unlettered of
France and of all Europe into believing that in his tragedy he presented
the true Lucrezia Borgia.

"If you do not believe me," he declared, "read Tommaso Tommasi, read the
Diary of Burchard."

Read, then, that Diary, extending over a period of twenty-three years,
from 1483 to 1506, of the Master of Ceremonies of the Vatican (which
largely contributes the groundwork of the present history), and the one
conclusion to which you will be forced is that Victor Hugo himself had
never read it, else he would have hesitated to bid you refer to a work
which does not support a single line that he has written.

As for Tommaso Tommasi--oh, the danger of a little learning!  Into what
quagmires does it not lead those who flaunt it to impress you!

Tommasi's place among historians is on precisely the same plane as
Alexandre Dumas's.  His Vita di Cesare Borgia is on the same historical
level as Les Borgias, much of which it supplied.  Like Crimes Célèbres,
Tommasi's book is invested with a certain air of being a narrative of
sober fact; but like Crimes Célèbres, it is none the less a work of

This Tommaso Tommasi, whose real name was Gregorio Leti--and it is under
this that such works of his as are reprinted are published nowadays--was
a most prolific author of the seventeenth century, who, having turned
Calvinist, vented in his writings a mordacious hatred of the Papacy and
of the religion from which he had seceded.  His Life of Cesare Borgia was
published in 1670.  It enjoyed a considerable vogue, was translated into
French, and has been the chief source from which many writers of fiction
and some writers of "fact" have drawn for subsequent work to carry
forward the ceaseless defamation of the Borgias.

History should be as inexorable as Divine Justice.  Before we admit
facts, not only should we call for evidence and analyse it when it is
forthcoming, but the very sources of such evidence should be examined,
that, as far as possible, we may ascertain what degree of credit they
deserve.  In the study of the history of the Borgias, we repeat, there
has been too much acceptance without question, too much taking for
granted of matters whose incredibility frequently touches and
occasionally oversteps the confines of the impossible.

One man knew Cesare Borgia better, perhaps, than did any other
contemporary, of the many who have left more or less valuable records;
for the mind of that man was the acutest of its age, one of the acutest
Italy and the world have ever known.  That man was Niccolô Macchiavelli,
Secretary of State to the Signory of Florence.  He owed no benefits to
Cesare; he was the ambassador of a power that was ever inimical to the
Borgias; so that it is not to be dreamt that his judgement suffered from
any bias in Cesare's favour.  Yet he accounted Cesare Borgia--as we shall
see--the incarnation of an ideal conqueror and ruler; he took Cesare
Borgia as the model for his famous work The Prince, written as a grammar
of statecraft for the instruction in the art of government of that
weakling Giuliano de'Medici.

Macchiavelli pronounces upon Cesare Borgia the following verdict:

"If all the actions of the duke are taken into consideration, it will be
seen how great were the foundations he had laid to future power.  Upon
these I do not think it superfluous to discourse, because I should not
know what better precept to lay before a new prince than the example of
his actions; and if success did not wait upon what dispositions he had
made, that was through no fault of his own, but the result of an
extraordinary and extreme malignity of fortune."

In its proper place shall be considered what else Macchiavelli had to say
of Cesare Borgia and what to report of events that he witnessed connected
with Cesare Borgia's career.

Meanwhile, the above summary of Macchiavelli's judgement is put forward
as a justification for the writing of this book, which has for scope to
present to you the Cesare Borgia who served as the model for The Prince.

Before doing so, however, there is the rise of the House of Borgia to be
traced, and in the first two of the four books into which this history
will be divided it is Alexander VI, rather than his son, who will hold
the centre of the stage.

If the author has a mercy to crave of his critics, it is that they will
not impute it to him that he has set out with the express aim of
"whitewashing"--as the term goes--the family of Borgia.  To whitewash is
to overlay, to mask the original fabric under a superadded surface.  Too
much superadding has there been here already.  By your leave, all shall
be stripped away.  The grime shall be removed and the foulness of
inference, of surmise, of deliberate and cold-blooded malice, with which
centuries of scribblers, idle, fantastic, sensational, or venal, have
coated the substance of known facts.

But the grime shall be preserved and analysed side by side with the
actual substance, that you may judge if out of zeal to remove the former
any of the latter shall have been included in the scraping.

The author expresses his indebtedness to the following works which,
amongst others, have been studied for the purposes of the present

Alvisi, Odoardo, Cesare Borgia, Duca di Romagna.  Imola, 1878.
Auton, Jean d', Chroniques de Louis XII (Soc. de l'Hist. de France).
    Paris, 1889.
Baldi, Bernardino, Della Vita e Fatti di Guidobaldo.  Milano, 1821.
Barthélemy, Charles, Erreurs et Mensonges Historiques.  Paris, 1873.
Bernardi, Andrea, Cronache Forlivese, 1476-1517.  Bologna, 1897.
Bonnaffé, Edmond, Inventaire de la Duchesse de Valentinois, Paris,
Bonoli, Paolo, Istorie della Città di Forli.  Forli, 1661.
Bourdeilles, Pierre, Vie des Hommes Illustres.  Leyde, 1666.
Brown, Rawdon, Ragguagli Sulla Vita e sulle Opere di Marino Sanuto.
    Venezia, 1837.
Buonaccorsi, Biagio, Diario.  Firenze, 1568.
Burchard, Joannes, Diarium, sive Rerum Urbanarum Commentarii.
   (Edited by L. Thuasne.) Paris, 1885.
Burckhardt, Jacob, Der Cultur der Renaissance in Italien.  Basel, 1860.
Castiglione, Baldassare, Il Cortigiano.  Firenze, 1885.
Chapelles, Grillon des, Esquisses Biographiques.  Paris, 1862.
Cerri, Domenico, Borgia.  Tonino, 1857.
Clementini, Cesare, Raccolto Istorico delle Fondatione di Rimino.
    Rimini, 1617.
Corio, Bernardino, Storia di Milano.  Milano, 1885.
Corvo, Baron, Chronicles of the House of Borgia.  London, 1901.
Espinois, Henri de l', Le Pape Alexandre VI (in the Revue des Questions
    Historiques, Vol. XXIX).  Paris, 1881.
Giovio, Paolo, La Vita di Dicenove Uomini Illustri.  Venetia, 1561.
Giovio, Paolo, Delle Istorie del Suo Tempo.  Venetia, 1608.
Giustiniani, Antonio, Dispacci, 1502-1505.  (Edited by Pasquale Villari.)
    Firenze, 1876.
Granata, F., Storia Civile di Capua.  1752.
Gregorovius, Ferdinand, Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter.
    Stuttgart, 1889.
Gregorovius, Ferdinand, Lacrezia Borgia (Italian translation).  Firenze,
Guicciardini, Francesco, Istoria d'Italia.  Milan, 1803.
Guingené, P. L., Histoire Littéraire d'Italie.  Milano, 1820.
Infessura, Stefano, Diarum Rerum Romanum.  (Edited by 0. Tommassini.)
    Roma, 1887.
Leonetti, A., Papa Alessandro VI.  Bologna, 1880.
Leti, Gregorio ("Tommaso Tommasi"), Vita di Cesare Borgia, Milano, 1851.
Lucaire, Achille, Alain le Grand, Sire d'Albret.  Paris, 1877.
Macchiavelli, Niccolô, Il Principe.  Torino, 1853.
Macchiavelli, Niccolô, Le Istorie Fiorentine.  Firenze, 1848.
Macchiavelli, Niccolô, Opere Minori.  Firenze, 1852.
Matarazzo, Francesco, Cronaca della Città di Perugia, 1492-1503.
    (Edited by F. Bonaini and F. Polidori.) In Archivio Storico
    Italiano, Firenze, 1851.
Panvinio, Onofrio, Le Vite dei Pontefici.  Venezia, 1730.
Pascale, Aq., Racconto del Sacco di Capova.  Napoli, 1632.
Righi, B., Annali di Faenza.  Faenza, 1841.
Sanazzaro, Opere.  Padua, 1723.
Sanuto Marino, Diarii, Vols. I to V. (Edited by F. Stefani.) Venice,
Tartt, W. M., Pandolfo Collenuccio, Memoirs connected with his life.
"Tommaso Tommasi" (Gregorio Leti), Vita di Cesare Borgia.  1789.
Varchi, Benedetto, Storia Fiorentina.  Florence, 1858.
Visari, Gustavo, Vita degli Artefici.
Villari, Pasquale, La Storia di Girolamo Savonarola, etc.  Florence,
Villari, Pasquale, Niccolò Machiavelli e I suoi Tempi.  Milano, 1895.
Yriarte, Charles, La Vie de César Borgia.  Paris, 1889.
Yriarte, Charles, Autour des Borgia.  Paris, 1891.
Zurita, Geronimo, Historia del Rey Don Hernando el Catolico (in Anales).
    Çaragoça, i610.












































"Borgia stirps: BOS : atque Ceres transcendit Olympo, Cantabat nomen
saecula cuncta suum."

Michele Ferno



Although the House of Borgia, which gave to the Church of Rome two popes
and at least one saint,(1) is to be traced back to the eleventh century,
claiming as it does to have its source in the Kings of Aragon, we shall
take up its history for our purposes with the birth at the city of
Xativa, in the kingdom of Valencia, on December 30, 1378, of Alonso de
Borja, the son of Don Juan Domingo de Borja and his wife Doña Francisca.

1  St. Francisco Borgia, S.J.--great-grandson of Pope Alexander VI, born
at Gandia, in Spain, in 1510.

To this Don Alonso de Borja is due the rise of his family to its
stupendous eminence.  An able, upright, vigorous-minded man, he became a
Professor and Doctor of Jurisprudence at the University of Lerida, and
afterwards served Alfonso I of Aragon, King of Naples and the Two
Sicilies, in the capacity of secretary.  This office he filled with the
distinction that was to be expected from one so peculiarly fitted for it
by the character of the studies he had pursued.

He was made Bishop of Valencia, created Cardinal in 1444, and finally--in
1455--ascended the throne of St. Peter as Calixtus III, an old man,
enfeebled in body, but with his extraordinary vigour of mind all

Calixtus proved himself as much a nepotist as many another Pope before
and since.  This needs not to be dilated upon here; suffice it that in
February of 1456 he gave the scarlet hat of Cardinal-Deacon of San
Niccoló, in Carcere Tulliano, to his nephew Don Roderigo de Lanzol y

Born in 1431 at Xativa, the son of Juana de Borja (sister of Calixtus)
and her husband Don Jofrè de Lanzol, Roderigo was in his twenty-fifth
year at the time of his being raised to the purple, and in the following
year he was further created Vice-Chancellor of Holy Church with an annual
stipend of eight thousand florins.  Like his uncle he had studied
jurisprudence--at the University of Bologna--and mentally and physically
he was extraordinarily endowed.

From the pen-portraits left of him by Gasparino of Verona, and Girolamo
Porzio, we know him for a tall, handsome man with black eyes and full
lips, elegant, courtly, joyous, and choicely eloquent, of such health and
vigour and endurance that he was insensible to any fatigue.  Giasone
Maino of Milan refers to his "elegant appearance, serene brow, royal
glance, a countenance that at once expresses generosity and majesty, and
the genial and heroic air with which his whole personality is invested." 
To a similar description of him Gasparino adds that "all women upon whom
he so much as casts his eyes he moves to love him; attracting them as the
lodestone attracts iron;" which is, it must be admitted, a most
undesirable reputation in a churchman.

A modern historian(1) who uses little restraint when writing of Roderigo
Borgia says of him that "he was a man of neither much energy nor
determined will," and further that "the firmness and energy wanting to
his character were, however, often replaced by the constancy of his evil
passions, by which he was almost blinded."  How the constancy of evil
passions can replace firmness and energy as factors of worldly success is
not readily discernible, particularly if their possessor is blinded by
them.  The historical worth of the stricture may safely be left to be
measured by its logical value.  For the rest, to say that Roderigo Borgia
was wanting in energy and in will is to say something to which his whole
career gives the loud and derisive lie, as will--to some extent at least
--be seen in the course of this work.

1  Pasquale Villari in his Machiavelli i suoi Tempi

His honours as Cardinal-Deacon and Vice-Chancellor of the Holy See he
owed to his uncle; but that he maintained and constantly improved his
position--and he a foreigner, be it remembered--under the reigns of the
four succeeding Popes--Pius II, Paul II, Sixtus IV, and Innocent VIII--
until finally, six-and-twenty years after the death of Calixtus III, he
ascended, himself, the Papal Throne, can be due only to the unconquerable
energy and stupendous talents which have placed him where he stands in
history--one of the greatest forces, for good or ill, that ever occupied
St. Peter's Chair.

Say of him that he was ambitious, worldly, greedy of power, and a prey to
carnal lusts.  All these he was.  But for very sanity's sake do not let
it be said that he was wanting either in energy or in will, for he was
energy and will incarnate.

Consider that with Calixtus III's assumption of the Tiara Rome became the
Spaniard's happy hunting-ground, and that into the Eternal City streamed
in their hundreds the Catalan adventurers--priests, clerks, captains of
fortune, and others--who came to seek advancement at the hands of a
Catalan Pope.  This Spanish invasion Rome resented.  She grew restive
under it.

Roderigo's elder brother, Don Pedro Luis de Lanzol y Borja, was made
Gonfalonier of the Church, Castellan of all pontifical fortresses and
Governor of the Patrimony of St. Peter, with the title of Duke of Spoleto
and, later, Prefect of Rome, to the displacement of an Orsini from that
office.  Calixtus invested this nephew with all temporal power that it
was in the Church's privilege to bestow, to the end that he might use it
as a basis to overset the petty tyrannies of Romagna, and to establish a
feudal claim on the Kingdom of Naples.

Here already we see more than a hint of that Borgia ambition which was to
become a byword, and the first attempt of this family to found a dynasty
for itself and a State that should endure beyond the transient tenure of
the Pontificate, an aim that was later to be carried into actual--if
ephemeral--fulfilment by Cesare Borgia.

The Italians watched this growth of Spanish power with jealous, angry
eyes.  The mighty House of Orsini, angered by the supplanting of one of
its members in the Prefecture of Rome, kept its resentment warm, and
waited.  When in August of 1458 Calixtus III lay dying, the Orsini seized
the chance: they incited the city to ready insurgence, and with fire and
sword they drove the Spaniards out.

Don Pedro Luis made haste to depart, contrived to avoid the Orsini, who
had made him their special quarry, and getting a boat slipped down the
Tiber to Civita Vecchia, where he died suddenly some six weeks later,
thereby considerably increasing the wealth of Roderigo, his brother and
his heir.

Roderigo's cousin, Don Luis Juan, Cardinal-Presbyter of Santi Quattro
Coronati, another member of the family who owed his advancement to his
uncle Calixtus, thought it also expedient to withdraw from that zone of
danger to men of his nationality and name.

Roderigo de Lanzol y Borja alone remained--leastways, the only prominent
member of his house--boldly to face the enmity of the majority of the
Sacred College, which had looked with grim disfavour upon his uncle's
nepotism.  Unintimidated, he entered the Conclave for the election of a
successor to Calixtus, and there the chance which so often prefers to
bestow its favours upon him who knows how to profit by them, gave him the
opportunity to establish himself as firmly as ever at the Vatican, and
further to advance his interests.

It fell out that when the scrutiny was taken, two cardinals stood well in
votes--the brilliant, cultured Enea Silvio Bartolomeo de' Piccolomini,
Cardinal of Siena, and the French Cardinal d'Estouteville--though neither
had attained the minimum majority demanded.  Of these two, the lead in
number of votes lay with the Cardinal of Siena, and his election
therefore might be completed by Accession--that is, by the voices of such
cardinals as had not originally voted for him--until the minimum
majority, which must exceed two-thirds, should be made up.

The Cardinal Vice-Chancellor Roderigo de Lanzol y Borja led this
accession, with the result that the Cardinal of Siena became Pontiff--as
Pius II--and was naturally enough disposed to advance the interests of
the man who had been instrumental in helping him to that eminence.  Thus,
his position at the Vatican, in the very face of all hostility, became
stronger and more prominent than ever.

A letter written two years later from the Baths at Petriolo by Pius II to
Roderigo when the latter was in Siena--whither he had been sent by his
Holiness to superintend the building of the Cathedral and the Episcopal
and Piccolomini palaces--is frequently cited by way of establishing the
young prelate's dissolute ways.  It is a letter at once stern and
affectionate, and it certainly leaves no doubt as to what manner of man
was the Cardinal Vice-Chancellor in his private life, and to what manner
of unecciesiastical pursuits he inclined.  It is difficult to discover in
it any grounds upon which an apologist may build.


"When four days ago, in the gardens of Giovanni de Bichis, were assembled
several women of Siena addicted to worldly vanity, your worthiness, as we
have learnt, little remembering the office which you fill, was
entertained by them from the seventeenth to the twenty-second hour.  For
companion you had one of your colleagues, one whom his years if not the
honour of the Holy See should have reminded of his duty.  From what we
have heard, dancing was unrestrainedly indulged, and not one of love's
attractions was absent, whilst your behaviour was no different from that
which might have been looked for in any worldly youth.  Touching what
happened there, modesty imposes silence.  Not only the circumstance
itself, but the very name of it is unworthy in one of your rank.  The
husbands, parents, brothers, and relations of these young women were
excluded, in order that your amusements should be the more unbridled. 
You with a few servants undertook to direct and lead those dances.  It is
said that nothing is now talked of in Siena but your frivolity.  Certain
it is that here at the baths, where the concourse of ecclesiastics and
laity is great, you are the topic of the day.  Our displeasure is
unutterable, since all this reflects dishonourably upon the sacerdotal
estate and office.  It will be said of us that we are enriched and
promoted not to the end that we may lead blameless lives, but that we may
procure the means to indulge our pleasures.  Hence the contempt of us
entertained by temporal princes and powers and the daily sarcasms of the
laity.  Hence also the reproof of our own mode of life when we attempt to
reprove others.  The very Vicar of Christ is involved in this contempt,
since he appears to countenance such things.  You, beloved son, have
charge of the Bishopric of Valencia, the first of Spain; you are also
Vice-Chancellor of the Church; and what renders your conduct still more
blameworthy is that you are among the cardinals, with the Pope, one of
the counsellors of the Holy See.  We submit it to your own judgement
whether it becomes your dignity to court young women, to send fruit and
wine to her you love, and to have no thought for anything but pleasure. 
We are censured on your account; the blessed memory of your uncle
Calixtus is vituperated, since in the judgement of many he was wrong to
have conferred so many honours upon you.  If you seek excuses in your
youth, you are no longer so young that you cannot understand what duties
are imposed upon you by your dignity.  A cardinal should be
irreproachable, a model of moral conduct to all.  And what just cause
have we for resentment when temporal princes bestow upon us titles that
are little honourable, dispute with us our possessions, and attempt to
bend us to their will?  In truth it is we who inflict these wounds upon
ourselves, and it is we who occasion ourselves these troubles,
undermining more and more each day by our deeds the authority of the
Church.  Our guerdon is shame in this world and condign punishment in the
next.  May your prudence therefore set a restraint upon these vanities
and keep you mindful of your dignity, and prevent that you be known for a
gallant among married and unmarried women.  But should similar facts
recur, we shall be compelled to signify that they have happened against
our will and to our sorrow, and our censure must be attended by your
shame.  We have always loved you, and we have held you worthy of our
favour as a man of upright and honest nature.  Act therefore in such a
manner that we may maintain such an opinion of you, and nothing can
better conduce to this than that you should lead a well-ordered life. 
Your age, which is such as still to promise improvement, admits that we
should admonish you paternally."

"PETRIOLO, June 11, 1460."

Such a letter is calculated to shock us in our modern notions of a
churchman.  To us this conduct on the part of a prelate is scandalous
beyond words; that it was scandalous even then is obvious from the
Pontiff's letter; but that it was scandalous in an infinitely lesser
degree is no less obvious from the very fact that the Pontiff wrote that
letter (and in such terms) instead of incontinently unfrocking the

In considering Roderigo's conduct, you are to consider--as has been urged
already--the age in which he lived.  You are to remember that it was an
age in which the passions and the emotions wore no such masks as they
wear to-day, but went naked and knew no shame of their nudity; an age in
which personal modesty was as little studied as hypocrisy, and in which
men, wore their vices as openly as their virtues.

No amount of simple statement can convey an adequate notion of the
corrupt state of the clergy at the time.  To form any just appreciation
of this, it is necessary to take a peep at some of the documents that
have survived--such a document, for instance, as that Bull of this Pope
Pius II which forbade priests from plying the trades of keeping taverns,
gaming-houses, and brothels.

Ponder also that under his successor, Sixtus IV, the tax levied upon the
courtesans of Rome enriched the pontifical coffers to the extent of some
20,000 ducats yearly.  Ponder further that when the vicar of the
libidinous Innocent VIII published in 1490 an edict against the universal
concubinage practised by the clergy, forbidding its continuation under
pain of excommunication, all that it earned him was the severe censure of
the Holy Father, who disagreed with the measure and who straightway
repealed and cancelled the edict.(1)

1  See Burchard's Diarium, Thuasne Edition, Vol. II. p.442 et seq.

All this being considered, and man being admittedly a creature of his
environment, can we still pretend to horror at this Roderigo and at the
fact that being the man he was--prelate though he might be--handsome,
brilliant, courted, in the full vigour of youth, and a voluptuary by
nature, he should have succumbed to the temptations by which he was

One factor only could have caused him to use more restraint--the good
example of his peers.  That example he most certainly had not.

Virtue is a comparative estate, when all is said; and before we can find
that Roderigo was vile, that he deserves unqualified condemnation for his
conduct, we must ascertain that he was more or less exceptional in his
licence, that he was less scrupulous than his fellows.  Do we find that? 
To find the contrary we do not need to go beyond the matter which
provoked that letter from the Pontiff.  For we see that he was not even
alone, as an ecclesiastic, in the adventure; that he had for associate on
that amorous frolic one Giacopo Ammanati, Cardinal-Presbyter of San
Crisogno, Roderigo's senior and an ordained priest, which--without
seeking to make undue capital out of the circumstance--we may mention
that Roderigo was not.  He was a Cardinal-Deacon, be it remembered.(1) 
We know that the very Pontiff who admonished these young prelates, though
now admittedly a man of saintly ways, had been a very pretty fellow
himself in his lusty young days in Siena; we know that Roderigo's uncle--
the Calixtus to whom Pius II refers in that letter as of "blessed
memory"--had at least one acknowledged son.(2)  We know that Piero and
Girolamo Riario, though styled by Pope Sixtus IV his "nephews," were
generally recognized to be his sons.(3)  And we know that the numerous
bastards of Innocent VIII--Roderigo's immediate precursor on the
Pontifical Throne--were openly acknowledged by their father.  We know, in
short, that it was the universal custom of the clergy to forget its vows
of celibacy, and to circumvent them by dispensing with the outward form
and sacrament of marriage; and we have it on the word of Pius II himself,
that "if there are good reasons for enjoining the celibacy of the clergy,
there are better and stronger for enjoining them to marry."

1  He was not ordained priest until 1471, after the election of Sixtus
2  Don Francisco de Borja, born at Valencia in 1441.
3  Macchiavelli, Istorie Fiorentine.

What more is there to say?  If we must be scandalized, let us be
scandalized by the times rather than by the man.  Upon what reasonable
grounds can we demand that he should be different from his fellows; and
if we find him no different, what right or reason have we for picking him
out and rendering him the object of unparalleled obloquy?

If we are to deal justly with Roderigo Borgia, we must admit that, in so
far as his concessions to his lusts are concerned, he was a typical
churchman of his day; neither more nor less--as will presently grow
abundantly clear.

It may be objected by some that had such been the case the Pope would not
have written him such a letter as is here cited.  But consider a moment
the close relations existing between them.  Roderigo was the nephew of
the late Pope; in a great measure Pius II owed his election, as we have
seen, to Roderigo's action in the Conclave.  That his interest in him
apart from that was paternal and affectionate is shown in every line of
that letter.  And consider further that Roderigo's companion is shown by
that letter to be equally guilty in so far as the acts themselves are to
be weighed, guilty in a greater degree when we remember his seniority and
his actual priesthood.  Yet to Cardinal Ammanati the Pope wrote no such
admonition.  Is not that sufficient proof that his admonition of Roderigo
was dictated purely by his personal affection for him?

In this same year 1460 was born to Cardinal Roderigo a son--Don Pedro
Luis de Borja--by a spinster (mulier soluta) unnamed.  This son was
publicly acknowledged and cared for by the cardinal.

Seven years later--in 1467--he became the father of a daughter--Girolama
de Borja--by a spinster, whose name again does not transpire.  Like Pedro
Luis she too was openly acknowledged by Cardinal Roderigo.  It was widely
believed that this child's mother was Madonna Giovanna de' Catanei, who
soon became quite openly the cardinal's mistress, and was maintained by
him in such state as might have become a maîtresse en titre.  But, as we
shall see later, the fact of that maternity of Girolama is doubtful in
the extreme.  It was never established, and it is difficult to understand
why not if it were the fact.

Meanwhile Paul II--Pietro Barbo, Cardinal of Venice--had succeeded Pius
II in 1464, and in 1471 the latter was in his turn succeeded by the
formidable Sixtus IV--Cardinal Francesco Maria della Rovere--a Franciscan
of the lowest origin, who by his energy and talents had become general of
his order and had afterwards been raised to the dignity of the purple.

It was Cardinal Roderigo de Lanzol y Borja who, in his official capacity
of Archdeacon of Holy Church, performed the ceremony of coronation and
placed the triple crown on the head of Pope Sixtus.  It is probable that
this was his last official act as Arch­deacon, for in that same year
1471, at the age of forty, he was ordained priest and consecrated Bishop
of Albano.



The rule of Sixtus was as vigorous as it was scandalous.  To say--as has
been said--that with his succession to St. Peter's Chair came for the
Church a still sadder time than that which had preceded it, is not
altogether true.  Politically, at least, Sixtus did much to strengthen
the position of the Holy See and of the Pontificate.  He was not long in
giving the Roman factions a taste of his stern quality.  If he employed
unscrupulous means, he employed them against unscrupulous men--on the
sound principle of similia similibus curantur--and to some extent they
were justified by the ends in view.

He found the temporal throne of the Pontiffs tottering when he ascended
it.  Stefano Porcaro and his distinguished following already in 1453 had
attempted the overthrow of the pontifical authority, inspired, no doubt,
by the attacks that had been levelled against it by the erudite and
daring Lorenzo Valla.

This Valla was the distinguished translator of Homer, Herodotus, and
Thucydides, who more than any one of his epoch advanced the movement of
Greek and Latin learning, which, whilst it had the effect of arresting
the development of Italian literature, enriched Europe by opening up to
it the sources of ancient erudition, of philosophy, poetry, and literary
taste.  Towards the year 1435 he drifted to the court of Alfonso of
Aragon, whose secretary he ultimately became.  Some years later he
attacked the Temporal Power and urged the secularization of the States of
the Church.  "Ut Papa," he wrote, "tantum Vicarius Christi sit, et non
etiam Coesari."  In his De falso credita et ementita Constantini
Donatione, he showed that the decretals of the Donation of Constantine,
upon which rests the Pope's claim to the Pontifical States, was an
impudent forgery, that Constantine had never had the power to give, nor
had given, Rome to the Popes, and that they had no right to govern there. 
He backed up this terrible indictment by a round attack upon the clergy,
its general corruption and its practices of simony; and as a result he
fell into the hands of the Inquisition.  There it might have gone very
ill with him but that King Alfonso rescued him from the clutches of that
dread priestly tribunal.

Meanwhile, he had fired his petard.  If a pretext had been wanting to
warrant the taking up of arms against the Papacy, that pretext Valla had
afforded.  Never was the temporal power of the Church in such danger, and
ultimately it must inevitably have succumbed but for the coming of so
strong and unscrupulous a man as Sixtus IV to stamp out the patrician
factions that were heading the hostile movement.

His election, it is generally admitted, was simoniacal; and by simony he
raised the funds necessary for his campaign to reestablish and support
the papal authority.  This simony of his, says Dr. Jacob Burckhardt,
"grew to unheard-of proportions, and extended from the appointment of
cardinals down to the sale of the smallest benefice."

Had he employed these means of raising funds for none but the purpose of
putting down the assailants of the Pontificate, a measure of
justification (political if not ecclesiastical) might be argued in his
favour.  Unfortunately, having discovered these ready sources of revenue,
he continued to exploit them for purposes far less easy to condone.

As a nepotist Sixtus was almost unsurpassed in the history of the Papacy. 
Four of his nephews and their aggrandizement were the particular objects
of his attentions, and two of these--as we have already said--Piero and
Girolamo Riario, were universally recognized to be his sons.

Piero, who was a simple friar of twenty-six years of age at the time that
his father became Pope, was given the Archbishopric of Florence, made
Patriarch of Constantinople, and created Cardinal to the title of San
Sisto, with a revenue of 60,000 crowns.

We have it on the word of Cardinal Ammanati(1)--the same gentleman who,
with Roderigo de Lanzol y Borja made so scandalously merry in de Bichis'
garden at Siena--that Cardinal Riario's luxury "exceeded all that had
been displayed by our forefathers or that can even be imagined by our
descendants"; and Macchiavelli tells us(2) that "although of very low
origin and mean rearing, no sooner had he obtained the scarlet hat than
he displayed a pride and ambition so vast that the Pontificate seemed too
small for him, and he gave a feast in Rome which would have appeared
extraordinary even for a king, the expense exceeding 20,000 florins."

1  In a letter to Francesco Gonzaga.
2  Istorie Florentine.

Knowing so much, it is not difficult to understand that in one year or
less he should have dissipated 200,000 florins, and found himself in debt
to the extent of a further 60,000.

In 1473, Sixtus being at the time all but at war with Florence, this
Cardinal Riario visited Venice and Milan.  In the latter State he was
planning with Duke Galeazzo Maria that the latter should become King of
Lombardy, and then assist him with money and troops to master Rome and
ascend the Papal Throne--which, it appears, Sixtus was quite willing to
yield to him--thus putting the Papacy on a hereditary basis like any
other secular State.

It is as well, perhaps, that he should have died on his return to Rome in
January of 1474--worn out by his excesses and debaucheries, say some; of
poison administered by the Venetians, say others--leaving a mass of
debts, contracted in his transactions with the World, the Flesh, and the
Devil, to be cleared up by the Vicar of Christ.

His brother Girolamo, meanwhile, had married Caterina Sforza, a natural
daughter of Duke Galeazzo Maria.  She brought him as her dowry the City
of Imola, and in addition to this he received from his Holiness the City
of Forli, to which end the Ordelaffi were dispossessed of it.  Here again
we have a papal attempt to found a family dynasty, and an attempt that
might have been carried further under circumstances more propitious and
had not Death come to check their schemes.

The only one of the four "nephews" of Sixtus--and to this one was imputed
no nearer kinship--who was destined to make any lasting mark in history
was Giuliano della Rovere.  He was raised by his uncle to the purple with
the title of San Pietro in Vincoli, and thirty-two years later he was to
become Pope (as Julius II).  Of him we shall hear much in the course of
this story.

Under the pontificate of Sixtus IV the position	and influence of Cardinal
Roderigo were greatly increased, for once again the Spanish Cardinal had
made the most of his opportunities.  As at the election of Pius II, so at
the election of Sixtus IV it was Cardinal Roderigo who led the act of
accession which gave the new Pope his tiara, and for this act Roderigo--
in common with the Cardinals Orsini and Gonzaga who acceded with him--was
richly rewarded and advanced, receiving as his immediate guerdon the
wealthy Abbey of Subiaco.

At about this time, 1470, must have begun the relations between Cardinal
Roderigo and Giovanna Catanei, or Vannozza Catanei, as she is styled in
contemporary documents--Vannozza being a corruption or abbreviation of
Giovannozza, an affectionate form of Giovanna.

Who she was, or whence she came, are facts that have never been
ascertained.  She is generally assumed to have been a Roman; but there
are no obvious grounds for the assumption, her name, for instance, being
common to many parts of Italy.  And just as we have no sources of
information upon her origin, neither have we any elements from which to
paint her portrait.  Gregorovius rests the probability that she was
beautiful upon the known characteristics and fastidious tastes of the
cardinal.  Since it is unthinkable that such a man would have been
captivated by an ugly woman or would have been held by a stupid one, it
is fairly reasonable to conclude that she was beautiful and ready-witted.

All that we do know of her up to the time of her liaison with Cardinal
Roderigo is that she was born on July 13, 1442, this fact being
ascertainable by a simple calculation from the elements afforded by the
inscription on her tomb in Santa Maria del Popolo:

Vix ann. LXXVI m. IV d. XII Objit anno MDXVIII XXVI, Nov.

And again, just as we know nothing of her family origin, neither have we
any evidence of what her circumstances were when she caught the magnetic
eye of Cardinal Roderigo de Lanzol y Borja--or Borgia as by now his name,
which had undergone italianization, was more generally spelled.

Infessura states in his diaries that Roderigo desiring later--as Pope
Alexander VI--to create cardinal his son by her, Cesare Borgia, he caused
false witness to be borne to the fact that Cesare was the legitimate son
of one Domenico d'Arignano, to whom he, the Pope, had in fact married
her.  Guicciardini(1) makes the same statement, without, however,
mentioning name of this d'Arignano.

1  Istoria d'Italia.

Now, bastards were by canon law excluded from the purple, and it is
probably upon this circumstance that both Infessura and Guicciardini have
built the assumption that some such means as these had been adopted to
circumvent the law, and--as so often happens in chronicles concerning the
Borgias--the assumption is straightway stated as a fact.  But there were
other ways of circumventing awkward commandments, and, unfortunately for
the accuracy of these statements of Infessura and Guicciardini, another
way was taken in this instance.  As early as 1480, Pope Sixtus IV had
granted Cesare Borgia--in a Bull dated October 1(1)--dispensation from
proving the legitimacy of his birth.  This entirely removed the necessity
for any such subsequent measures as those which are suggested by these

1  See the supplement to the Appendix of Thuasne's edition of
Burchard's Diarium.

Moreover, had Cardinal Roderigo desired to fasten the paternity of Cesare
on another, there was ready to his hand Vannozza's actual husband,
Giorgio della Croce.(2)  When exactly this man became her husband is not
to be ascertained.  All that we know is that he was so in 1480, and that
she was living with him in that year in a house in Piazza Pizzo di Merlo
(now Piazza Sforza Cesarini) not far from the house on Banchi Vecchi
which Cardinal Roderigo, as Vice-Chancellor, had converted into a palace
for himself, and a palace so sumptuous as to excite the wonder of that
magnificent age.

2  D'Arignano is as much a fiction as the rest of Infessura's story.

This Giorgio della Croce was a Milanese, under the protection of Cardinal
Roderigo, who had obtained for him a post at the Vatican as apostolic
secretary.  According to some, he married him to Vannozza in order to
afford her an official husband and thus cloak his own relations with her. 
It is an assumption which you will hesitate to accept.  If we know our
Cardinal Roderigo at all, he was never the man to pursue his pleasures in
a hole-and-corner fashion, nor one to bethink him of a cloak for his
amusements.  Had he but done so, scandalmongers would have had less to
fasten upon in their work of playing havoc with his reputation.  What is
far more likely is that della Croce owed Cardinal Roderigo's protection
and the appointment as apostolic secretary to his own complacency in the
matter of his wife's relations with the splendid prelate.  However we
look at it, the figure cut in this story by della Croce is not heroic.

Between the years 1474 and 1476, Vannozza bore Roderigo two sons, Cesare
Borgia (afterwards Cardinal of Valencia and Duke of Valentinois), the
central figure of our story, and Giovanni Borgia (afterwards Duke of

Lucrezia Borgia, we know from documentary evidence before us, was born on
April 19, 1479.

But there is a mystery about the precise respective ages of Vannozza's
two eldest sons, and we fear that at this time of day it has become
impossible to establish beyond reasonable doubt which was the firstborn;
and this in spite of the documents discovered by Gregorovius and his
assertion that they remove all doubt and enable him definitely to assert
that Giovanni was born in 1474 and Cesare in 1476.

Let us look at these documents.  They are letters from ambassadors to
their masters; probably correct, and the more credible since they happen
to agree and corroborate one another; still, not so utterly and
absolutely reliable as to suffice to remove the doubts engendered by the
no less reliable documents whose evidence contradicts them.

The first letters quoted by Gregorovius are from the ambassador
Gianandrea Boccaccio to his master, the Duke of Ferrara, in 1493.  In
these he mentions Cesare Borgia as being sixteen to seventeen years of
age at the time.  But the very manner of writing--"sixteen to seventeen
years"--is a common way of vaguely suggesting age rather than positively
stating it.  So we may pass that evidence over, as of secondary

Next is a letter from Gerardo Saraceni to the Duke of Ferrara, dated
October 26, 1501, and it is more valuable, claiming as it does to be the
relation of something which his Holiness told the writer.  It is in the
post-scriptum that this ambassador says: "The Pope gave me to understand
that the said Duchess [Lucrezia Borgia] will complete twenty-two years of
age next April, and at that same time the Duke of Romagna will complete
his twenty-sixth year."(1)

1  "Facendomi intendere the epsa Duchessa é di etá di anni ventidui, li
quali finiranno a questo Aprile; in el qual tempo anche lo Illmo.  Duca
di Romagna fornirá anni ventisei."

This certainly fixes the year of Cesare's birth as 1476; but we are to
remember that Saraceni is speaking of something that the Pope had
recently told him; exactly how recently does not transpire.  An error
would easily be possible in so far as the age of Cesare is concerned.  In
so far as the age of Lucrezia is concerned, an error is not only
possible, but has actually been committed by Saraceni.  At least the age
given in his letter is wrong by one year, as we know by a legal document
drawn up in February of 1491--Lucrezia's contract of marriage with Don
Juan Cherubin de Centelles.(2)

2  A contract never executed.

According to this protocol in old Spanish, dated February 26, 1491,
Lucrezia completed her twelfth year on April 19, 1491,(3) which
definitely and positively gives us the date of her birth as April 19,

3  "Item mes attenent que dita Dona Lucretia a XVIIII de Abril prop.
vinent entrará in edat de dotze anys."

A quite extraordinary error is that made by Gregorovius when he says that
Lucrezia Borgia was born on April 18, 1480, extraordinary considering
that he made it apparently with this very protocol under his eyes, and
cites it, in fact (Document IV in the Appendix to his Lucrezia Borgia) as
his authority.

To return, however, to Cesare and Giovanni, there is yet another evidence
quoted by Gregorovius in support of his contention that the latter was
the elder and born in 1474; but it is of the same nature and of no more,
nor less, value than those already mentioned.

Worthy of more consideration in view of their greater official and legal
character are the Ossuna documents, given in the Supplement of the
Appendix in Thuasne's edition of Burchard's Diary, namely:

(a) October 1, 1480.--A Bull from Sixtus IV, already mentioned,
dispensing Cesare from proving his legitimacy.  In this he is referred to
as in his sixth year--"in sexto tuo aetatis anno."

This, assuming Boccaccio's letter to be correct in the matter of April
being the month of Cesare's birth, fixes the year of his birth as 1475.

(b) August 16, 1482.--A Bull of Sixtus IV, appointing Roderigo Borgia
administrator of Cesare's benefices.  In this he is mentioned as being
seven years of age (i.e., presumably in his eighth year), which again
gives us his birth-year as 1475.

(c) September 12, 1484.--A Bull of Sixtus IV, appointing Cesare treasurer
of the Church of Carthage.  In this he is mentioned as in his ninth year
--"in nono tuo aetatis anno."  This is at variance with the other two,
and gives us 1476 as the year of his birth.

To these evidences, conflicting as they are, may be added Burchard's
mention in his diary under date of September 12, 1491, that Cesare was
then seventeen years of age.  This would make him out to have been born
in 1474.

Clearly the matter cannot definitely be settled upon such evidence as we
have.  All that we can positively assert is that he was born between the
years 1474 and 1476, and we cannot, we think, do better for the purposes
of this story than assume his birth-year to have been 1475.

We know that between those same years, or in one or the other of them,
was born Giovanni Borgia; but just as the same confusion prevails with
regard to his exact age, so is it impossible to determine with any
finality whether he was Cesare's junior or senior.

The one document that appears to us to be the most important in this
connection is that of the inscription on their mother's tomb.  This runs:


If Giovanni was, as is claimed, the eldest of her children, why does his
name come second?  If Cesare was her second son, why does his name take
the first place on that inscription?

It has been urged that if Cesare was the elder of these two, he, and not
Giovanni, would have succeeded to the Duchy of Gandia on the death of
Pedro Luis--Cardinal Roderigo's eldest son, by an unknown mother.  But
that does not follow inevitably; for it is to be remembered that Cesare
was already destined for an ecclesiastical career, and it may well be
that his father was reluctant to change his plans.

Meanwhile the turbulent reign of Sixtus IV went on, until his ambition to
increase his dominions had the result of plunging the whole of Italy into

Lorenzo de'Medici had thwarted the Pope's purposes in Romagna, coming to
the assistance of Città di Castello when this was attacked in the Pope's
interest by the warlike Giuliano della Rovere.  To avenge himself for
this, and to remove a formidable obstacle to his family's advancement,
the Pope inspired the Pazzi conspiracy against the lives of the famous
masters of Florence.  The conspiracy failed; for although Giuliano
de'Medici fell stabbed to the heart--before Christ's altar, and at the
very moment of the elevation of the Host--Lorenzo escaped with slight
hurt, and, by the very risk to which he had been exposed, rallied the
Florentines to him more closely than ever.

Open war was the only bolt remaining in the papal quiver, and open war he
declared, preluding it by a Bull of Excommunication against the
Florentines.  Naples took sides with the Pope.  Venice and Milan came to
the support of Florence, whereupon Milan's attentions were diverted to
her own affairs, Genoa being cunningly set in revolt against her.

In 1480 a peace was patched up; but it was short-lived.  A few months
later war flared out again from the Holy See, against Florence this time,
and on the pretext of its having joined the Venetians against the Pope in
the late war.  A complication now arose, created by the Venetians, who
seized the opportunity to forward their own ambitions and increase their
territories on the mainland, and upon a pretext of the pettiest
themselves declared war upon Ferrara.  Genoa and some minor tyrannies
were drawn into the quarrel on the one side, whilst on the other
Florence, Naples, Mantua, Milan, and Bologna stood by Ferrara.  Whilst
the papal forces were holding in check the Neapolitans who sought to pass
north to aid Ferrara, whilst the Roman Campagna was being harassed by the
Colonna, and Milan was engaged with Genoa, the Venetians invested
Ferrara, forced her to starvation and to yielding-point.  Thereupon the
Pope, perceiving the trend of affairs, and that the only likely profit to
be derived from the campaign would lie with Venice, suddenly changed
sides that he might avoid a contingency so far removed from all his aims.

He made a treaty with Naples, and permitted the Neapolitan army passage
through his territories, of which they availed themselves to convey
supplies to Ferrara and neutralize the siege.  At the same time the Pope
excommunicated the Venetians, and urged all Italy to make war upon them.

In this fashion the campaign dragged on to every one's disadvantage and
without any decisive battle fought, until at last the peace of Bagnolo
was concluded in August of 1484, and the opposing armies withdrew from

The news of it literally killed Sixtus.  When the ambassadors declared to
him the terms of the treaty he was thrown into a violent rage, and
declared the peace to be at once shameful and humiliating.  The gout from
which he suffered flew to his heart, and on the following day--August 12,
1484--he died.

Two things he did during his reign to the material advantage of the
Church, however much he may have neglected the spiritual.  He
strengthened her hold upon her temporal possessions and he enriched the
Vatican by the addition of the Sistine Chapel.  For the decoration of
this he procured the best Tuscan talent of his day--and of many days--and
brought Alessandro Filipeppi (Botticelli), Pietro Vannuccio (Il
Perugino), and Domenico Bigordi (IL Ghirlandajo) from Florence to adorn
its walls with their frescoes.(1)

1  The glory of the Sistine Chapel, however, is Michelangelo's "Last
Judgement," which was added later, in the reign of Pope Julius II
(Giuliano della Rovere).

In the last years of the reign of Pope Sixtus, Cardinal Roderigo's family
had suffered a loss and undergone an increase.

In 1481 Vannozza bore him another son--Giuffredo Borgia, and in the
following year died his eldest son (by an unknown mother) Pedro Luis de
Borgia, who had reached the age of twenty-two and was betrothed at the
time of his decease to the Princess Maria d'Aragona.

In January of that same year, 1482, Cardinal Roderigo had married his
daughter Girolama--now aged fifteen--to Giovanni Andrea Cesarini, the
scion of a patrician Roman house.  The alliance strengthened the bonds of
good feeling which for some considerable time had prevailed between the
two families.  Unfortunately the young couple were not destined to many
years of life together, as in 1483 both died.

Of Cesare all that we know at this period is what we learn from the Papal
Bulls conferring several benefices upon him.  In July 1482 he was granted
the revenues from the prebendals and canonries of Valencia; in the
following month he was appointed Canon of Valencia and apostolic notary. 
In April 1484 he was made Provost of Alba, and in September of the same
year treasurer of the Church of Carthage.  No doubt he was living with
his mother, his brothers, and his sister at the house in the Piazza Pizzo
di Merlo, where an ample if not magnificent establishment was maintained.

By this time Cardinal Roderigo's wealth and power had grown to stupendous
proportions, and he lived in a splendour well worthy of his lofty rank. 
He was now fifty-three years of age, still retaining the air and vigour
of a man in his very prime, which, no doubt, he owed as much as to
anything to his abstemious and singularly sparing table-habits.  He
derived a stupendous income from his numerous abbeys in Italy and Spain,
his three bishoprics of Valencia, Porto, and Carthage, and his
ecclesiastical offices, among which the Vice-Chancellorship alone yielded
him annually eight thousand florins.(1)

1  The gold florin, ducat, or crown was equal to ten shillings of	our
present money, and had a purchasing power of five times that amount.

Volterra refers with wonder to the abundance of	his plate, to his pearls,
his gold embroideries, and his books, the splendid equipment of his beds,
the trappings of his horses, and other similar furnishings in gold, in
silver, and in silk.  In short, he was the wealthiest prince of the
Church of his day, and he lived with a magnificence worthy of a king or
of the Pope himself.

Of the actual man, Volterra, writing in 1586, says: "He is of a spirit
capable of anything, and of a great intelligence.  A ready speaker, and
of distinction, notwithstanding his indifferent literary culture;
naturally astute, and of marvellous talent in the conduct of affairs."

In the year in which Volterra wrote of Cardinal	Roderigo in such terms
Vannozza was left a widow by the death of Giorgio della Croce.  Her
widowhood was short, however, for in the same year--on June 6--she took a
second husband, possibly at the instance of Roderigo Borgia, who did not
wish to leave her unprotected; that, at least, is the general inference,
although there is very little evidence upon which to base it.  This
second husband was Carlo Canale, a Mantovese scholar who had served
Cardinal Francesco Gonzaga in the capacity of chamberlain, and who had
come to Rome on the death of his patron.

The marriage contract shows that by this time Vannozza had removed her
residence to Piazza Branchis.  In addition to this she had by this time
acquired a villa with its beautiful gardens and vine­yards in the Suburra
near S. Pietro in Vincoli.  She is also known to have been the proprietor
of an inn--the Albergo del Leone--in Via del Orso, opposite the Torre di
Nona, for she figures with della Croce in a contract regarding a lease of
it in 1483.

With her entrance into second nuptials, her relations with Cardinal
Roderigo came to an end, and his two children by her, then in Rome--
Lucrezia and Giuffredo--went to take up their residence with Adriana
Orsini (née de Mila) at the Orsini Palace on Monte Giordano.  She was a
cousin of Roderigo's, and the widow of Lodovico Orsini, by whom she had a
son, Orso Orsini, who from early youth had been betrothed to Giulia
Farnese, the daughter of a patrician family, still comparatively obscure,
but destined through this very girl to rise to conspicuous eminence.

For her surpassing beauty this Giulia Farnese has been surnamed La Bella
--and as Giulia La Bella was she known in her day--and she has been
immortalized by Pinturicchio and Guglielmo della Porta.  She sat to the
former as a model for his Madonna in the Borgia Tower of the Vatican, and
to the latter for the statue of Truth which adorns the tomb of her
brother Alessandro Farnese, who became Pope Paul III.

Here in Adriana Orsini's house, where his daughter Lucrezia was being
educated, Cardinal Roderigo, now at the mature age of some six-and-fifty
years, made the acquaintance and became enamoured of this beautiful
golden-headed Giulia, some forty years his junior.  To the fact that she
presently became his mistress--somewhere about the same time that she
became Orso Orsini's wife--is due the sudden rise of the House of
Farnese.  This began with her handsome, dissolute brother Alessandro's
elevation to the purple by her lover, and grew to vast proportions during
his subsequent and eminently scandalous occupation of the Papal Throne as
Paul III.

In the year 1490 Lucrezia was the only one of Roderigo's children by
Vannozza who remained in Rome.

Giovanni Borgia was in Spain, whither he had gone on the death of his
brother Pedro Luis, to take posession of the Duchy of Gandia, which the
power of his father's wealth and vast influence at the Valencian Court
had obtained for that same Pedro Luis.  To this Giovanni now succeeded.

Cesare Borgia--now aged fifteen--had for some two years been studying his
humanities in an atmosphere of Latinity at the Sapienza of Perugia. 
There, if we are to believe the praises of him uttered by	Pompilio, he
was already revealing his unusual talents and a precocious wit.  In the
preface of the Syllabica on the art of Prosody dedicated to him by
Pompilio, the latter hails him as the hope and ornament of the Hous
	of Borgia--"Borgiae familiae spes et decus."

From Perugia he was moved in 1491 to the famous	University of Pisa, a
college frequented by the best of Italy.  For preceptor he had Giovanni
Vera of Arcilla, a Spanish gentleman who was later created a cardinal by
Cesare's father.  There in Pisa Cesare maintained an establishment of a
magnificence in keeping with his father's rank and with the example set
him by that same father.

It was Cardinal Roderigo's wish that Cesare should follow an
ecclesiastical career; and the studies of canon law which he pursued
under Filippo Decis, the most rated lecturer on canon law of his day,
were such as peculiarly to fit him for that end and for the highest
honours the Church might have to bestow upon him later.  At the age of
seventeen, while still at Pisa, he was appointed prothonotary of the
Church and preconized Bishop of Pampeluna.

Sixtus IV died, as we have seen, in August 1482.  The death of a Pope was
almost invariably the signal for disturbances in Rome, and they certainly
were not wanting on this occasion.  The Riario palaces were stormed and
looted, and Girolamo Riario--the Pope's "nepot"--threw himself into the
castle of Sant' Angelo with his forces.

The Orsini and Colonna were in arms, "so that in a few days incendiarism,
robbery, and murder raged in several parts of the city.  The cardinals
besought the Count to surrender the castle to the Sacred College,
withdraw his troops, and deliver Rome from the fear of his forces; and
he, that he might win the favour of the future Pope, obeyed, and withdrew
to Imola."(1)

1  Macchiavelli, Istorie Fiorentine.

The cardinals, having thus contrived to restore some semblance of order,
proceeded to the creation of a new Pontiff, and a Genoese, Giovanni
Battista Cibo, Cardinal of Malfetta, was elected and took the name of
Innocent VIII.

Again, as in the case of Sixtus, there is no lack of those who charge
this Pontiff with having obtained his election by simony.  The Cardinals
Giovanni d' Aragona (brother to the King of Naples) and Ascanio Sforza
(brother of Lodovico, Duke of Milan) are said to have disposed of their
votes in the most open and shameless manner, practically putting them up
for sale to the highest bidder.  Italy rang with the scandal of it, we
are told.

Under Innocent's lethargic rule the Church again began to lose much of
the vigour with which Sixtus had inspired it.  If the reign of Sixtus had
been scandalous, infinitely worse was that of Innocent--a sordid,
grasping sensualist, without even the one redeeming virtue of strength
that had been his predecessor's.  Nepotism had characterized many
previous pontificates; open paternity was to characterize his, for he was
the first Pope who, in flagrant violation of canon law, acknowledged his
children for his own.  He proceeded to provide for some seven bastards,
and that provision appears to have been the only aim and scope of his

Not content with raising money by the sale of preferments, Innocent
established a traffic in indulgences, the like of which had never been
seen before.  In the Rome of his day you might, had you the money, buy
anything, from a cardinal's hat to a pardon for the murder of your

The most conspicuous of his bastards was Francesco Cibo--conspicuous
chiefly for the cupidity which distinguished him as it distinguished the
Pope his father.  For the rest he was a poor-spirited fellow who sorely
disappointed Lorenzo de'Medici, whose daughter Maddalena he received in
marriage.  Lorenzo had believed that, backed by the Pope's influence,
Francesco would establish for himself a dynasty in Romagna.  But father
and son were alike too invertebrate--the one to inspire, the other to
execute any such designs as had already been attempted by the nepots of
Calixtus III and Sixtus IV.

Under the weak and scandalous rule of Innocent VIII Rome appears to have
been abandoned to the most utter lawlessness.  Anarchy, robbery, and
murder preyed upon the city.  No morning dawned without revealing corpses
in the streets; and if by chance the murderer was caught, there was
pardon for him if he could afford to buy it, or Tor di Nona and the
hangman's noose if he could not.

It is not wonderful that when at last Innocent VIII died Infessura should
have blessed the day that freed the world of such a monster.

But his death did not happen until 1492.  A feeble old man, he had become
subject to lethargic or cataleptic trances, which had several times
already deceived those in attendance into believing him dead.  He grew
weaker and weaker, and it became impossible to nourish him upon anything
but woman's milk.  Towards the end came, Infessura tells us, a Hebrew
physician who claimed to have a prescription by which he could save the
Pope's life.  For his infusion(1) he needed young human blood, and to
obtain it he took three boys of the age of ten, and gave them a ducat
apiece for as much as he might require of them.  Unfortunately he took so
much that the three boys incontinently died of his phlebotomy, and the
Hebrew was obliged to take to flight to save his own life, for the Pope,
being informed of what had taken place, execrated the deed and ordered
the physician's arrest.  "Judeus quidem aufugit, et Papa sanatus not
est," concludes Infessura.

1  The silly interpretation of this afforded by later writers, that this
physician attempted transfusion of blood--silly, because unthinkable in
an age which knew nothing of the circulation of the blood--has already
been exploded.

Innocent VIII breathed his last on July 25, 1492.



The ceremonies connected with the obsequies of Pope Innocent VIII lasted
--as prescribed--nine days; they were concluded on August 5, 1492, and,
says Infessura naïvely, "sic finita fuit eius memoria."

The Sacred College consisted at the time of twenty-seven cardinals, four
of whom were absent at distant sees and unable to reach Rome in time for
the immuring of the Conclave.  The twenty-three present were, in the
order of their seniority: Roderigo Borgia, Oliviero Caraffa, Giuliano
della Rovere, Battista Zeno, Giovanni Michieli, Giorgio Costa, Girolamo
della Rovere, Paolo Fregosi, Domenico della Rovere, Giovanni dei Conti,
Giovanni Giacomo Sclafetani, Lorenzo Cibo, Ardicino della Porta,
Antoniotto Pallavicino, Maffeo Gerardo, Francesco Piccolomini, Raffaele
Riario, Giovanni Battista Savelli, Giovanni Colonna, Giovanni Orsini,
Ascanio Maria Sforza, Giovanni de'Medici, and Francesco Sanseverino.

On August 6 they assembled in St. Peter's to hear the Sacred Mass of the
Holy Ghost, which was said by Giuliano della Rovere on the tomb of the
Prince of the Apostles, and to listen to the discourse "Pro eligendo
Pontefice," delivered by the learned and eloquent Bishop of Carthage. 
Thereafter the Cardinals swore upon the Gospels faithfully to observe
their trust, and thereupon the Conclave was immured.

According to the dispatches of Valori, the Ferrarese ambassador in Rome,
it was expected that either the Cardinal of Naples (Oliviero Caraffa) or
the Cardinal of Lisbon (Giorgio Costa) would be elected to the
Pontificate; and according to the dispatch of Cavalieri the ambassador of
Modena, the King of France had deposited 200,000 ducats with a Roman
banker to forward the election of Giuliano della Rovere.  Nevertheless,
early on the morning of August 11 it was announced that Roderigo Borgia
was elected Pope, and we have it on the word of Valori that the election
was unanimous, for he wrote on the morrow to the Council of Eight (the
Signory of Florence) that after long contention Alexander VI was created
"omnium consensum--ne li manco un solo voto."

The subject of this election is one with which we rarely find an author
dealing temperately or with a proper and sane restraint.  To vituperate
in superlatives seems common to most who have taken in hand this and
other episodes in the history of the Borgias.  Every fresh writer who
comes to the task appears to be mainly inspired by a desire to emulate
his forerunners, allowing his pen to riot zestfully in the accumulation
of scandalous matter, and seeking to increase if possible its lurid
quality by a degree or two.  As a rule there is not even an attempt made
to put forward evidence in substantiation of anything that is alleged. 
Wild and sweeping statement takes the place that should be held by calm
deduction and reasoned comment.

"He was the worst Pontiff that ever filled St. Peter's Chair," is one of
these sweeping statements, culled from the pages of an able, modern,
Italian author, whose writings, sound in all that concerns other matters,
are strewn with the most foolish extravagances and flagrant inaccuracies
in connection with Alexander VI and his family.

To say of him, as that writer says, that "he was the worst Pontiff that
ever filled St. Peter's Chair," can only be justified by an utter
ignorance of papal history.  You have but to compare him calmly and
honestly--your mind stripped of preconceptions--with the wretched and
wholly contemptible Innocent VIII whom he succeeded, or with the latter's
precursor, the terrible Sixtus IV.

That he was better than these men, morally or ecclesiastically, is not to
be pretended; that he was worse--measuring achievement by opportunity--is
strenuously to be denied.  For the rest, that he was infinitely more
gifted and infinitely more a man of affairs is not to be gainsaid by any
impartial critic.

If we take him out of the background of history in which he is set, and
judge him singly and individually, we behold a man who, as a churchman
and Christ's Vicar, fills us with horror and loathing, as a scandalous
exception from what we are justified in supposing from his office must
have been the rule.  Therefore, that he may be judged by the standard of
his own time if he is to be judged at all, if we are even to attempt to
understand him, have we given a sketch of the careers of those Popes who
immediately preceded him, with whom as Vice-Chancellor he was intimately
associated, and whose examples were the only papal examples that he

That this should justify his course we do not pretend.  A good churchman
in his place would have bethought him of his duty to the Master whose
Vicar he was, and would have aimed at the sorely needed reform.  But we
are not concerned to study him as a good churchman.  It is by no means
clear that we are concerned to study him as a churchman at all.  The
Papacy had by this time become far less of an ecclesiastical than a
political force; the weapons of the Church were there, but they were
being employed for the furtherance not of churchly, but of worldly aims. 
If the Pontiffs in the pages of this history remembered or evoked their
spiritual authority, it was but to employ it as an instrument for the
advancement of their temporal schemes.  And personal considerations
entered largely into these.

Self-aggrandizement, insufferable in a cleric, is an ambition not
altogether unpardonable in a temporal prince; and if Alexander aimed at
self-aggrandizement and at the founding of a permanent dynasty for his
family, he did not lack examples in the careers of those among his
predecessors with whom he had been associated.

That the Papacy was Christ's Vicarage was a fact that had long since been
obscured by the conception that the Papacy was a kingdom of this world. 
In striving, then, for worldly eminence by every means in his power,
Alexander is no more blameworthy than any other.  What, then, remains? 
The fact that he succeeded better than any of his forerunners.  But are
we on that account to select him for the special object of our
vituperation?  The Papacy had tumbled into a slough of materialism in
which it was to wallow even after the Reformation had given it pause and
warning.  Under what obligation was Alexander VI, more than any other
Pope, to pull it out of that slough?  As he found it, so he carried it
on, as much a self-seeker, as much a worldly prince, as much a family man
and as little a churchman as any of those who had gone immediately before

By the outrageous discrepancy between the Papacy's professed and actual
aims it was fast becoming an object of execration, and it is Alexander's
misfortune that, coming when he did, he has remained as the type of his

The mighty of this world shall never want for detractors.  The mean and
insignificant, writhing under the consciousness of his shortcomings,
ministers to his self-love by vilifying the great that he may lessen the
gap between himself and them.  To achieve greatness is to achieve
enemies.  It is to excite envy; and as envy no seed can raise up such a
crop of hatred.

Does this need labouring?  Have we not abundant instances about us of the
vulgar tittle-tattle and scandalous unfounded gossip which, born Heaven
alone knows on what back-stairs or in what servants' hall, circulates
currently to the detriment of the distinguished in every walk of life? 
And the more conspicuously great the individual, the greater the
incentive to slander him, for the interest of the slander is commensurate
with the eminence of the personage assailed.

Such to a great extent is the case of Alexander VI.  He was too powerful
for the stomachs of many of his contemporaries, and he and his son Cesare
had a way of achieving their ends.  Since that could not be denied, it
remained to inveigh loudly against the means adopted; and with pious
uplifting of hands and eyes, to cry, "Shame!" and "Horror!" and "The like
has never been heard of!" in wilful blindness to what had been happening
at the Vatican for generations.

Later writers take up the tale of it.  It is a fine subject about which
to make phrases, and the passion for phrase-making will at times outweigh
the respect for truth.  Thus Villari with his "the worst Pontiff that
ever filled St. Peter's Chair," and again, elsewhere, echoing what many a
writer has said before him from Guicciardini downwards, in utter and
diametric opposition to the true facts of the case: "The announcement of
his election was received throughout Italy with universal dismay."  To
this he adds the ubiquitous story of King Ferrante's bursting into tears
at the news--"though never before known to weep for the death of his own

Let us pause a moment to contemplate the grief the Neapolitan King.  What
picture is evoked in your minds by that statement of his bursting into
tears at Alexander's election?  We see--do we not?--a pious, noble soul,
horror-stricken at the sight of the Papacy's corruption; a truly sublime
figure, whose tears will surely stand to his credit in heaven; a great
heart breaking; a venerable head bowed down with lofty, righteous grief,
weeping over the grave of Christian hopes.  Such surely is the image we
are meant to see by Guicciardini and his many hollow echoers.

Turn we now for corroboration of that noble picture to the history of
this same Ferrante.  A shock awaits us.  We find, in this bastard of the
great and brilliant Alfonso a cruel, greedy, covetous monster, so
treacherous and so fiendishly brutal that we are compelled to extend him
the charity of supposing him to be something less than sane.  Let us
consider but one of his characteristics.  He loved to have his enemies
under his own supervision, and he kept them so--the living ones caged and
guarded, the dead ones embalmed and habited as in life; and this
collection of mummies was his pride and delight.  More, and worse could
we tell you of him.  But--ex pede, Herculem.

This man shed tears we are told.  Not another word.  It is left to our
imagination to paint for us a picture of this weeping; it is left to us
to conclude that these precious tears were symbolical of the grief of
Italy herself; that the catastrophe that provoked them must have been
terrible indeed.

But now that we know what manner of man was this who wept, see how
different is the inference that we may draw from his sorrow.  Can we
still imagine it--as we are desired to do--to have sprung from a lofty,
Christian piety?  Let us track those tears to their very source, and we
shall find it to be compounded of rage and fear.

Ferrante saw trouble ahead of him with Lodovico Sforza, concerning a
matter which shall be considered in the next chapter, and not at all
would it suit him at such a time that such a Pope as Alexander--who, he
had every reason to suppose, would be on the side of Lodovico--should
rule in Rome.

So he had set himself, by every means in his power, to oppose Roderigo's
election.  His rage at the news that all his efforts had been vain, his
fear of a man of Roderigo's mettle, and his undoubted dread of the
consequences to himself of his frustrated opposition of that man's
election, may indeed have loosened the tears of this Ferrante who had not
even wept at the death of his own children.  We say "may" advisedly; for
the matter, from beginning to end, is one of speculation.  If we leave it
for the realm of fact, we have to ask--Were there any tears at all?  Upon
what authority rests the statement of the Florentine historian?  What, in
fact, does he say?

"It is well known that the King of Naples, for all that in public he
dissembled the pain it caused him, signified to the queen, his wife, with
tears--which were Unusual in him even on the death of his children--that
a Pope had been created who would be most pernicious to Italy."

So that, when all is said, Ferrante shed his kingly tears to his wife in
private, and to her in private he delivered his opinion of the new
Pontiff.  How, then, came Guicciardini to know of the matter?  True, he
says, "It is well known"--meaning that he had those tears upon hearsay. 
It is, of course, possible that Ferrante's queen may have repeated what
passed between herself and the king; but that would surely have been in
contravention of the wishes of her husband, who had, be it remembered,
"dissembled his grief in public."  And Ferrante does not impress one as
the sort of husband whose wishes his wife would be bold enough to

It is surprising that upon no better authority than this should these
precious tears of Ferrante's have been crystallized in history.

If this trivial instance has been dealt with at such length it is
because, for one reason, it is typical of the foundation of so many of
the Borgia legends, and, for another, because when history has been
carefully sifted for evidence of the "universal dismay with which the
election of Roderigo Borgia was received" King Ferrante's is the only
case of dismay that comes through the mesh at all.  Therefore was it
expedient to examine it minutely.

That "universal dismay"--like the tears of Ferrante--rests upon the word
of Guicciardini.  He says that "men were filled with dread and horror by
this election, because it had been effected by such evil ways [con arte
si brutte]; and no less because the nature and condition of the person
elected were largely known to many."

Guicciardini is to be read with the greatest caution and reserve when he
deals with Rome.  His bias against, and his enmity of, the Papacy are as
obvious as they are notorious, and in his endeavours to bring it as much
as possible into discredit he does not even spare his generous patrons,
the Medicean Popes--Leo X and Clement VII.  If he finds it impossible to
restrain his invective against these Pontiffs, who heaped favours and
honours upon him, what but virulence can be expected of him when he
writes of Alexander VI?  He is largely to blame for the flagrant
exaggeration of many of the charges brought against the Borgias; that he
hated them we know, and that when he wrote of them he dipped his golden
Tuscan pen in vitriol and set down what he desired the world to believe
rather than what contemporary documents would have revealed to him, we
can prove here and now from that one statement of his which we have

Who were the men who were filled with dismay, horror, or dread at
Roderigo's election?

The Milanese?  No.  For we know that Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, the Duke of
Milan's brother, was the most active worker in favour of Roderigo's
election, and that this same election was received and celebrated in
Milan with public rejoicings.

The Florentines?  No.  For the Medici were friendly to the House of
Borgia, and we know that they welcomed the election, and that from
Florence Manfredi--the Ferrarese ambassador--wrote home: "It is said he
will be a glorious Pontiff" ("Dicesi che sará glorioso Pontefice").

Were Venice, Genoa, Mantua, Siena, or Lucca dismayed by this election? 
Surely not, if the superlatively laudatory congratulations of their
various ambassadors are of any account.

Venice confessed that "a better pastor could not have been found for the
Church," since he had proved himself "a chief full of experience and an
excellent cardinal."

Genoa said that "his merit lay not in having been elected, but in having
been desired."

Mantua declared that it "had long awaited the pontificate of one who,
during forty years, had rendered himself, by his wisdom and justice,
capable of any office."

Siena expressed its joy at seeing the summit of eminence attained by a
Pope solely upon his merits--"Pervenuto alla dignitá pontificale
meramente per meriti proprii."

Lucca praised the excellent choice made, and extolled the
accomplishments, the wisdom, and experience of the Pontiff.

Not dismay, then, but actual rejoicing must have been almost universal in
Italy on the election of Pope Alexander VI.  And very properly--always
considering the Pontificate as the temporal State it was then being
accounted; for Roderigo's influence was vast, his intelligence was
renowned, and had again and again been proved, and his administrative
talents and capacity for affairs were known to all.  He was well-born,
cultured, of a fine and noble presence, and his wealth was colossal,
comprising the archbishoprics of Valencia and Porto, the bishoprics of
Majorca, Carthage, Agria, the abbeys of Subiaco, the Monastery of Our
Lady of Bellefontaine, the deaconry of Sancta Maria in Via Lata, and his
offices of Vice-Chancellor and Dean of Holy Church.

We are told that he gained his election by simony.  It is very probable
that he did.  But the accusation has never been categorically
established, and until that happens it would be well to moderate the
vituperation hurled at him.  Charges of that simony are common;
conclusive proof there is none.  We find Giacomo Trotti, the French
ambassador in Milan, writing to the Duke of Ferrara a fortnight after
Roderigo's election that "the Papacy has been sold by simony and a
thousand rascalities, which is a thing ignominious and detestable."

Ignominious and detestable indeed, if true; but be it remembered that
Trotti was the ambassador of France, whose candidate, backed by French
influence and French gold, as we have seen, was della Rovere; and, even
if his statement was true, the "ignominious and detestable thing" was at
least no novelty.  Yet Guicciardini, treating of this matter, says: "He
gained the Pontificate owing to discord between the Cardinals Ascanio
Sforza and Giuliano di San Pietro in Vincoli; and still more because, in
a manner without precedent in that age [con esempio nuovo in quella etá]
he openly bought the votes of many cardinals, some with money, some with
promises of his offices and benefices, which were very great."

Again Guicciardini betrays his bias by attempting to render Roderigo's
course, assuming it for the moment to be truly represented, peculiarly
odious by this assertion that it was without precedent in that age.

Without precedent!  What of the accusations of simony against Innocent
VIII, which rest upon a much sounder basis than these against Alexander,
and what of those against Sixtus IV?  Further, if a simoniacal election
was unprecedented, what of Lorenzo Valla's fierce indictment of simony--
for which he so narrowly escaped the clutches of the Inquisition some
sixty years before this date?

Simony was rampant at the time, and it is the rankest hypocrisy to make
this outcry against Alexander's uses of it, and to forget the others.

Whether he really was elected by simony or not depends largely--so far as
the evidence available goes--upon what we are to consider as simony.  If
payment in the literal sense was made or promised, then unquestionably
simony there was.  But this, though often asserted, still awaits proof. 
If the conferring of the benefices vacated by a cardinal on his elevation
to the Pontificate is to be considered simony, then there never was a
Pope yet against whom the charge could not be levelled and established.

Consider that by his election to the Pontificate his Archbishoprics,
offices, nay, his very house itself--which at the time of which we write
it was customary to abandon to pillage--are vacated; and remember that,
as Pope, they are now in his gift and that they must of necessity be
bestowed upon somebody.  In a time in which Pontiffs are imbued with a
spiritual sense of their office and duties, they will naturally make such
bestowals upon those whom they consider best fitted to use them for the
greater honour and glory of God.  But we are dealing with no such
spiritual golden age as that when we deal with the Cinquecento, as we
have already seen; and, therefore, all that we can expect of a Pope is
that he should bestow the preferment he has vacated upon those among the
cardinals whom he believes to be devoted to himself.  Considering his
election in a temporal sense, it is natural that he should behave as any
other temporal prince; that he should remember those to whom he owes the
Pontificate, and that he should reward them suitably.  Alexander VI
certainly pursued such a course, and the greatest profit from his
election was derived by the Cardinal Sforza who--as Roderigo himself
admitted--had certainly exerted all his influence with the Sacred College
to gain him the Pontificate.  Alexander gave him the vacated Vice-
Chancellorship (for which, when all is said, Ascanio Sforza was
excellently fitted), his vacated palace on Banchi Vecchi, the town of
Nepi, and the bishopric of Agri.

To Orsini he gave the Church of Carthage and the legation of Marche; to
Colonna the Abbey of Subiaco; to Savelli the legation of Perugia (from
which he afterwards recalled him, not finding him suited to so difficult
a charge); to Raffaele Riario went Spanish benefices worth four thousand
ducats yearly; to Sanseverino Roderigo's house in Milan, whilst he
consented that Sanseverino's nephew--known as Fracassa--should enter the
service of the Church with a condotta of a hundred men-at-arms and a
stipend of thirteen thousand ducats yearly.

Guicciardini says of all this that Ascanio Sforza induced many of the
cardinals "to that abominable contract, and not only by request and
persuasion, but by example; because, corrupt and of an insatiable
appetite for riches, he bargained for himself, as the reward of so much
turpitude, the Vice-Chancellorships, churches, fortresses [the very
plurals betray the frenzy of exaggeration dictated by his malice] and his
[Roderigo's] palace in Rome full of furniture of great value."

What possible proof can Guicciardini have--what possible proof can there
be--of such a "bargain"?  It rests upon purest assumption formed after
those properties had changed hands--Ascanio being rewarded by them for
his valuable services, and, also--so far as the Vice-Chancellorship was
concerned--being suitably preferred.  To say that Ascanio received them
in consequence of a "bargain" and as the price of his vote and
electioneering services is not only an easy thing to say, but it is the
obvious thing for any one to say who aims at defaming.

It is surprising that we should find in Guicciardini no mention of the
four mule-loads of silver removed before the election from Cardinal
Roderigo's palace on Banchi Vecchi to Cardinal Ascanio's palace in
Trastevere.  This is generally alleged to have been part of the price of
Ascanio's services.  Whether it was so, or whether, as has also been
urged, it was merely removed to save it from the pillaging by the mob of
the palace of the cardinal elected to the Pontificate, the fact is
interesting as indicating in either case Cardinal Roderigo's assurance of
his election.

M. Yriarte does not hesitate to say: "We know to-day, by the dispatches
of Valori, the narrative of Girolamo Porzio, and the Diarium of Burchard,
the Master of Ceremonies, each of the stipulations made with the electors
whose votes were bought."

Now whilst we do know from Valori and Porzio what benefices Alexander
actually conferred, we do not know, nor could they possibly have told us,
what stipulations had been made which these benefices were insinuated to

Burchard's Diarium might be of more authority on this subject, for
Burchard was the Master of Ceremonies at the Vatican; but, unfortunately
for the accuracy of M. Yriarte's statement, Burchard is silent on the
subject, for the excellent reason that there is no diary for the period
under consideration.  Burchard's narrative is interrupted on the death of
Innocent VIII, on July 12, and not resumed until December 2, when it is
not retrospective.

There is, it is true, the Diarium of Infessura.  But that is of no more
authority on such a matter than the narrative of Porzio or the letters of

Lord Acton--in his essay upon this subject--has not been content to rest
the imputation of simony upon such grounds as satisfied M. Yriarte.  He
has realized that the only testimony of any real value in such a case
would be the actual evidence of such cardinals as might be willing to
bear witness to the attempt to bribe them.  And he takes it for granted--
as who would not at this time of day, and in view of such positive
statements as abound?--that such evidence has been duly collected; thus,
he tells us confidently that the charge rests upon the evidence of those
cardinals who refused Roderigo's bribes.

That it most certainly does not.  If it did there would be an end to the
matter, and so much ink would not have been spilled over it; but no
single cardinal has left any such evidence as Lord Acton supposes and
alleges.  It suffices to consider that, according to the only evidences
available--the Casanatense Codices(1) and the dispatches of that same
Valori(2) whom M. Yriarte so confidently cites, Roderigo Borgia's
election was unanimous.  Who, then, were these cardinals who refused his
bribes?  Or are we to suppose that, notwithstanding that refusal--a
refusal which we may justifiably suppose to have been a scandalized and
righteously indignant one--they still afforded him their votes?

1  "...essendo concordi tutti i cardinali, quasi da contrari voti rivolti
tutti in favore di uno solo, crearono lui sommo ponteflce" (Casanatense
MSS).  See P. Leonetti, Alessandro VI.
2  "Fu pubblicato il Cardinale Vice-Cancelliere in Sommo Pontefice
Alessandro VI(to) nuncupato, el quale dopo una lunga contentione fu
creato omnium consensum--ne ii manco un solo voto" (Valori's letter to
the Otto di Pratica, August 12, 1492).  See Supplement to Appendix in E.
Thuasne's edition of Burchard's Diarium.

This charge of simony was levelled with the object of making Alexander VI
appear singularly heinous.  So much has that object engrossed and blinded
those inspired by it, that, of itself, it betrays them.  Had their horror
been honest, had it sprung from true principles, had it been born of any
but a desire to befoul and bespatter at all costs Roderigo Borgia, it is
not against him that they would have hurled their denunciations, but
against the whole College of Cardinals which took part in the sacrilege
and which included three future Popes.(1)

1  Cardinals Piccolomini, de'Medici, and Giuliano della Rovere.

Assuming not only that there was simony, but that it was on as wholesale
a scale as was alleged, and that for gold--coined or in the form of
benefices--Roderigo bought the cardinal's votes, what then?  He bought
them, true.  But they--they sold him their sacred trust, their duty to
their God, their priestly honour, their holy vows.  For the gold he
offered them they bartered these.  So much admitted, then surely, in that
transaction, those cardinals were the prostitutes!  The man who bought so
much of them, at least, was on no baser level than were they.  Yet
invective singles him out for its one object, and so betrays the
aforethought malice of its inspiration.

Our quarrel is with that; with that, and with those writers who have
taken Alexander's simony for granted--eagerly almost--for the purpose of
heaping odium upon him by making him appear a scandalous exception to the
prevailing rule.

If, nevertheless, we hold, as we have said, that simony probably did take
place, we do so, not so much upon the inconclusive evidence of the fact,
as upon the circumstance that it had become almost an established custom
to purchase the tiara, and that Roderigo Borgia--since his ambition
clearly urged him to the Pontificate--would have been an exception had he

It may seem that to have disputed so long to conclude by admitting so
much is no better than a waste of labour.  Not so, we hope.  Our aim has
been to correct the adjustment of the focus and properly to trim the
light in which Roderigo Borgia is to be viewed, to the end that you may
see him as he was--neither better nor worse--the creature of his times,
of his environment, and of the system in which he was reared and trained. 
Thus shall you also get a clearer view of his son Cesare, when presently
he takes the stage more prominently.

During the seventeen days of the interregnum between the death of
Innocent and the election of Alexander the wild scenes usual to such
seasons had been taking place in Rome; and, notwithstanding the Cardinal-
Chamberlain's prompt action in seizing the gates and bridges, and the
patrols' endeavours to maintain order, crime was unfettered to such an
extent that some 220 murders are computed to have taken place--giving the
terrible average of thirteen a day.

It was a very natural epilogue to the lax rule of the lethargic Innocent. 
One of the first acts of Alexander's reign was to deal summarily with
this lawlessness.  He put down violence with a hard hand that knew no
mercy.  He razed to the ground the house of a murderer caught red-handed,
and hanged him above the ruins, and so dealt generally that such order
came to prevail as had never before been known in Rome.

Infessura tells us how, in the very month of his election, he appointed
inspectors of prisons and four commissioners to administer justice, and
that he himself gave audience on Tuesdays and settled disputes,
concluding, "et justitiam mirabili modo facere coepit."

He paid all salaries promptly--a striking departure, it would seem, from
what had been usual under his predecessor--and the effect of his improved
and strenuous legislation was shortly seen in the diminished prices of

He was crowned Pope on August 6, on the steps of the Basilica of St.
Peter, by the Cardinal-Archdeacon Piccolomini.  The ceremony was
celebrated with a splendour worthy of the splendid figure that was its
centre.  Through the eyes of Michele Ferno--despite his admission that he
is unable to convey a worthy notion of the spectacle--you may see the
gorgeous procession to the Lateran in which Alexander VI showed himself
to the applauding Romans; the multitude of richly adorned men, gay and
festive; the seven hundred priests and prelates, with their familiars the
splendid cavalcade of knights and nobles of Rome; the archers and Turkish
horsemen, and the Palatine Guard, with its great halberds and flashing
shields; the twelve white horses, with their golden bridles, led by
footmen; and then Alexander himself on a snow-white horse, "serene of
brow and of majestic dignity," his hand uplifted--the Fisherman's Ring
upon its forefinger--to bless the kneeling populace.  The chronicler
flings into superlatives when he comes to praise the personal beauty of
the man, his physical vigour and health, "which go to increase the
veneration shown him."

Thus in the brilliant sunshine of that Italian August, amid the plaudits
of assembled Rome, amid banners and flowers, music and incense, the flash
of steel and the blaze of decorations with the Borgian arms everywhere
displayed--or, a grazing steer gules--Alexander VI passes to the Vatican,
the aim and summit of his vast ambition.

Friends and enemies alike have sung the splendours of that coronation,
and the Bull device--as you can imagine--plays a considerable part in
those verses, be they paeans or lampoons.  The former allude to Borgia as
"the Bull," from the majesty and might of the animal that was displayed
upon their shield; the latter render it the subject of much scurrilous
invective, to which it lends itself as readily.  And thereafter, in
almost all verse of their epoch, writers ever say "the Bull" when they
mean the Borgia.



At the time of his father's election to the throne of St. Peter, Cesare
Borgia--now in his eighteenth year--was still at the University of Pisa.

It is a little odd, considering the great affection for his children
which was ever one of Roderigo's most conspicuous characteristics, that
he should not have ordered Cesare to Rome at once, to share in the
general rejoicings.  It has been suggested that Alexander wished to avoid
giving scandal by the presence of his children at such a time.  But that
again looks like a judgement formed upon modern standards, for by the
standards of his day one cannot conceive that he would have given very
much scandal; moreover, it is to be remembered that Lucrezia and
Giuffredo, at least, were in Rome at the time of their father's election
to the tiara.

However that may be, Cesare did not quit Pisa until August of that year
1492, and even then not for Rome, but for Spoleto--in accordance with his
father's orders--where he took up his residence in the castle.  Thence he
wrote a letter to Piero de'Medici, which is interesting, firstly, as
showing the good relations prevailing between them; secondly, as refuting
a story in Guicciardini, wherewith that historian, ready, as ever, to
belittle the Borgias, attempts to show him cutting a poor figure.  He
tells us(1) that, whilst at Pisa, Cesare had occasion to make an appeal
to Piero de'Medici in the matter of a criminal case connected with one of
his familiars; that he went to Florence and waited several hours in vain
for an audience, whereafter he returned to Pisa "accounting himself
despised and not a little injured."

1  Istoria d'Italia, tom. V.

No doubt Guicciardini is as mistaken in this as in many another matter,
for the letter written from Spoleto expresses his regret that, on the
occasion of his passage through Florence (on his way from Pisa to
Spoleto), he should not have had time to visit Piero, particularly as
there was a matter upon which he desired urgently to consult with him. 
He recommends to Piero his faithful Remolino, whose ambition it is to
occupy the chair of canon law at the University of Pisa, and begs his
good offices in that connection.  That Juan Vera, Cesare's preceptor and
the bearer of that letter, took back a favourable answer is highly
probable, for in Fabroni's Hist. Acad. Pisan we find this Remolino duly
established as a lecturer on canon law in the following year.

The letter is further of interest as showing Cesare's full consciousness
of the importance of his position; its tone and its signature--"your
brother, Cesar de Borgia, Elect of Valencia"--being such as were usual
between princes.

The two chief aims of Alexander VI, from the very beginning of his
pontificate, were to re-establish the power of the Church, which was then
the most despised of the temporal States of Italy, and to promote the
fortune of his children.  Already on the very day of his coronation he
conferred upon Cesare the bishopric of Valencia, whose revenues amounted
to an annual yield of sixteen thousand ducats.  For the time being,
however, he had his hands very full of other matters, and it behoved him
to move slowly at first and with the extremest caution.

The clouds of war were lowering heavily over Italy when Alexander came to
St. Peter's throne, and it was his first concern to find for himself a
safe position against the coming of the threatening storm.  The chief
menace to the general peace was Lodovico Maria Sforza, surnamed Il
Moro,(1) who sat as regent for his nephew, Duke Gian Galeazzo, upon the
throne of Milan.  That regency he had usurped from Gian Galeazzo's
mother, and he was now in a fair way to usurp the throne itself.  He kept
his nephew virtually a prisoner in the Castle of Pavia, together with his
young bride, Isabella of Aragon, who had been sent thither by her father,
the Duke of Calabria, heir to the crown of Naples.

1  Touching Lodovico Maria's by-name of "Il Moro"--which is generally
translated as "The Moor," whilst in one writer we have found him
mentioned as "Black Lodovico," Benedetto Varchi's explanation (in his
Storia Fiorentina) may be of interest.  He tells us that Lodovico was not
so called on account of any swarthiness of complexion, as is supposed by
Guicciardini, because, on the contrary, he was fair; nor yet on account
of his device, showing a Moorish squire, who, brush in hand, dusts the
gown of a young woman in regal apparel, with the motto, "Per Italia
nettar d'ogni bruttura"; this device of the Moor, he tells us, was a
rébus or pun upon the word "moro," which also means the mulberry, and was
so meant by Lodovico.  The mulberry burgeons at the end of winter and
blossoms very early.  Thus Lodovico symbolized his own prudence and
readiness to seize opportunity betimes.

Gian Galeazzo thus bestowed, Lodovico Maria went calmly about the
business of governing, like one who did not mean to relinquish the
regency save to become duke.  But it happened that a boy was born to the
young prisoners at Pavia, whereupon, spurred perhaps into activity by
this parenthood and stimulated by the thought that they had now a son's
interests to fight for as well as their own, they made appeal to King
Ferrante of Naples that he should enforce his grandson-in-law's rights to
the throne of Milan.  King Ferrante could desire nothing better, for if
his grandchild and her husband reigned in Milan, and by his favour and
contriving, great should be his influence in the North of Italy. 
Therefore he stood their friend.

Matters were at this stage when Alexander VI ascended the papal throne.

This election gave Ferrante pause, for, as we have seen, he had schemed
for a Pope devoted to his interests, who would stand by him in the coming
strife, and his schemes were rudely shaken now.  Whilst he was still
cogitating the matter of his next move, the wretched Francesco Cibo (Pope
Innocent's son) offered to sell the papal fiefs of Cervetri and
Anguillara, which had been made over to him by his father, to Gentile
Orsini--the head of his powerful house.  And Gentile purchased them under
a contract signed at the palace of Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, on
September 3, for the sum of forty thousand ducats advanced him by

Alexander protested strongly against this illegal transaction, for
Cervetri and Anguillara were fiefs of the Church, and neither had Cibo
the right to sell nor Orsini the right to buy them.  Moreover, that they
should be in the hands of a powerful vassal of Naples such as Orsini
suited the Pope as little as it suited Lodovico Maria Sforza.  It stirred
the latter into taking measures against the move he feared Ferrante might
make to enforce Gian Galeazzo's claims.

Lodovico Maria went about this with that sly shrewdness so characteristic
of him, so well symbolized by his mulberry badge--a humorous shrewdness
almost, which makes him one of the most delightful rogues in history,
just as he was one of the most debonair and cultured.  He may indeed be
considered as one of the types of the subtle, crafty, selfish politician
that was the ideal of Macchiavelli.

You see him, then, effacing the tight-lipped, cunning smile from his
comely face and pointing out to Venice with a grave, sober countenance
how little it can suit her to have the Neapolitan Spaniards ruffling it
in the north, as must happen if Ferrante has his way with Milan.  The
truth of this was so obvious that Venice made haste to enter into a
league with him, and into the camp thus formed came, for their own sakes,
Mantua, Ferrara, and Siena.  The league was powerful enough thus to cause
Ferrante to think twice before he took up the cudgels for Gian Galeazzo. 
If Lodovico could include the Pope, the league's might would be so
paralysing that Ferrante would cease to think at all about his
grandchildren's affairs.

Foreseeing this, Ferrante had perforce to dry the tears Guicciardini has
it that he shed, and, replacing them by a smile, servile and obsequious,
repaired, hat in hand, to protest his friendship for the Pope's Holiness.

And so, in December of 1492, came the Prince of Altamura--Ferrante's
second son--to Rome to lay his father's homage at the feet of the
Pontiff, and at the same time to implore his Holiness to refuse the King
of Hungary the dispensation the latter was asking of the Holy See, to
enable him to repudiate his wife, Donna Leonora--Ferrante's daughter.

Altamura was received in Rome and sumptuously entertained by the Cardinal
Giuliano della Rovere.  This cardinal had failed, as we have seen, to
gain the Pontificate for himself, despite the French influence by which
he had been supported.  Writhing under his defeat, and hating the man who
had defeated him with a hatred so bitter and venomous that the imprint of
it is on almost every act of his life--from the facilities he afforded
for the assignment to Orsini of the papal fiefs that Cibo had to sell--he
was already scheming for the overthrow of Alexander.  To this end he
needed great and powerful friends; to this end had he lent himself to the
Cibo-Orsini transaction; to this end did he manifest himself the warm
well-wisher of Ferrante; to this end did he cordially welcome the
latter's son and envoy, and promise his support to Ferrante's petition.

But the Holy Father was by no means as anxious for the friendship of the
old wolf of Naples.  The matter of the King of Hungary was one that
required consideration, and, meanwhile, he may have hinted slyly there
was between Naples and Rome a little matter of two fiefs to be adjusted.

Thus his most shrewd Holiness thought to gain a little time, and in that
time he might look about him and consider what alliances would suit his
interests best.

At this Cardinal della Rovere, in high dudgeon, flung out of Rome and
away to his Castle of Ostia to fortify--to wield the sword of St. Paul,
since he had missed the keys of St. Peter.  It was a shrewd move.  He
foresaw the injured dignity of the Spanish House of Naples, and
Ferrante's wrath at the Pope's light treatment of him and apathy for his
interests; and the cardinal knew that with Ferrante were allied the
mighty houses of Colonna and Orsini.  Thus, by his political divorcement
from the Holy See, he flung in his lot with theirs, hoping for red war
and the deposition of Alexander.

But surely he forgot Milan and Lodovico Maria, whose brother, Ascanio
Sforza, was at the Pope's elbow, the energetic friend to whose efforts
Alexander owed the tiara, and who was therefore hated by della Rovere
perhaps as bitterly as Alexander himself.

Alexander went calmly about the business of fortifying the Vatican and
the Castle of Sant' Angelo, and gathering mercenaries into his service. 
And, lest any attempt should be made upon his life when he went abroad,
he did so with an imposing escort of men-at-arms; which so vexed and
fretted King Ferrante, that he did not omit to comment upon it in
scathing terms in a letter that presently we shall consider.  For the
rest, the Pope's Holiness preserved an unruffled front in the face of the
hostile preparations that were toward in the kingdom of Naples, knowing
that he could check them when he chose to lift his finger and beckon the
Sforza into alliance.  And presently Naples heard an alarming rumour that
Lodovico Maria had, in fact, made overtures to the Pope, and that the
Pope had met these advances to the extent of betrothing his daughter
Lucrezia to Giovanni Sforza, Lord of Pesaro and cousin to Lodovico.

So back to the Vatican went the Neapolitan envoys with definite proposals
of an alliance to be cemented by a marriage between Giuffredo Borgia--
aged twelve--and Ferrante's granddaughter Lucrezia of Aragon.  The Pope,
with his plans but half-matured as yet, temporized, was evasive, and
continued to arm and to recruit.  At last, his arrangements completed, he
abruptly broke off his negotiations with Naples, and on April 25, 1493,
publicly proclaimed that he had joined the northern league.

The fury of Ferrante, who realized that he had been played with and
outwitted, was expressed in a rabid letter to his ambassador at the Court
of Spain.

"This Pope," he wrote, "leads a life that is the abomination of all,
without respect for the seat he occupies.  He cares for nothing save to
aggrandize his children, by fair means or foul, and this is his sole
desire.  From the beginning of his Pontificate he has done nothing but
disturb the peace, molesting everybody, now in one way, now in another. 
Rome is more full of soldiers than of priests, and when he goes abroad it
is with troops of men-at-arms about him, with helmets on their heads and
lances by their sides, all his thoughts being given to war and to our
hurt; nor does he overlook anything that can be used against us, not only
inciting in France the Prince of Salerno and other of our rebels, but
befriending every bad character in Italy whom he deems our enemy; and in
all things he proceeds with the fraud and dissimulation natural to him,
and to make money he sells even the smallest office and preferment."

Thus Ferrante of the man whose friendship he had been seeking some six
weeks earlier, and who had rejected his advances.  It is as well to know
the precise conditions under which that letter was indited, for extracts
from it are too often quoted against Alexander.  These conditions known,
and known the man who wrote it, the letter's proper value is at once

It was Ferrante's hope, and no doubt the hope of Giuliano della Rovere,
that the King of Spain would lend an ear to these grievances, and move in
the matter of attempting to depose Alexander; but an event more important
than any other in the whole history of Spain--or of Europe, for that
matter--was at the moment claiming its full attention, and the trifling
affairs of the King of Naples--trifling by comparison--went all unheeded. 
For this was the year in which the Genoese navigator, Cristofero Colombo,
returned to tell of the new and marvellous world he had discovered beyond
the seas, and Ferdinand and Isabella were addressing an appeal to the
Pope--as Ruler of the World--to establish them in the possession of the
discovered continent.  Whereupon the Pope drew a line from pole to pole,
and granted to Spain the dominion over all lands discovered, or to be
discovered, one hundred miles westward of Cape Verde and the Azores.

And thus Ferrante's appeal to Spain against a Pope who showed himself so
ready and complaisant a friend to Spain went unheeded by Ferdinand and
Isabella.  And what time the Neapolitan nursed his bitter chagrin, the
alliance between Rome and Milan was consolidated by the marriage of
Lucrezia Borgia to Giovanni Sforza, the comely weakling who was Lord of
Pesaro and Cotignola.

Lucrezia Borgia's story has been told elsewhere; her rehabilitation has
been undertaken by a great historian(1) among others, and all serious-
minded students must be satisfied at this time of day that the Lucrezia
Borgia of Hugo's tragedy is a creature of fiction, bearing little or no
resemblance to the poor lady who was a pawn in the ambitious game played
by her father and her brother Cesare, before she withdrew to Ferrara,
where eventually she died in child-birth in her forty-first year.  We
know that she left the duke, her husband, stricken with a grief that was
shared by his subjects, to whom she had so deeply endeared herself by her
exemplary life and loving rule.(2)

1  Ferdinand Gregorovius, Lucrezia Borgia.
2  See, inter alia, the letters of Alfonso d'Este and Giovanni Gonzaga on
her death, quoted in Gregorovius, Lucrezia Borgia.

Later, in the course of this narrative, where she crosses the story of
her brother Cesare, it will be necessary to deal with some of the
revolting calumnies concerning her that were circulated, and, in passing,
shall be revealed the sources of the malice that inspired them and the
nature of the evidence upon which they rest, to the eternal shame alike
of those pretended writers of fact and those avowed writers of fiction
who, as dead to scruples as to chivalry, have not hesitated to make her
serve their base melodramatic or pornographic ends.

At present, however, there is no more than her first marriage to be
recorded.  She was fourteen years of age at the time, and, like all the
Borgias, of a rare personal beauty, with blue eyes and golden hair. 
Twice before, already, had she entered into betrothal contracts with
gentlemen of her father's native Spain; but his ever-soaring ambition had
caused him successively to cancel both those unfulfilled contracts.  A
husband worthy of the daughter of Cardinal Roderigo Borgia was no longer
worthy of the daughter of Pope Alexander VI, for whom an alliance must
now be sought among Italy's princely houses.  And so she came to be
bestowed upon the Lord of Pesaro, with a dowry of 30,000 ducats.

Her nuptials were celebrated in the Vatican on June 12, 1493, in the
splendid manner worthy of the rank of all concerned and of the reputation
for magnificence which the Borgia had acquired.  That night the Pope gave
a supper-party, at which were present some ten cardinals and a number of
ladies and gentlemen of Rome, besides the ambassadors of Ferrara, Venice,
Milan, and France.  There was vocal and instrumental music, a comedy was
performed, the ladies danced, and they appear to have carried their
gaieties well into the dawn.  Hardly the sort of scene for which the
Vatican was the ideal stage.  Yet at the time it should have given little
or no scandal.  But what a scandal was there not, shortly afterwards, in
connection with it, and how that scandal was heaped up later, by stories
so revolting of the doings of that night that one is appalled at the
minds that conceived them and the credulity that accepted them.

Infessura writes of what he heard, and he writes venomously, as he
betrays by the bitter sarcasm with which he refers to the fifty silver
cups filled with sweetmeats which the Pope tossed into the laps of ladies
present at the earlier part of the celebration.  "He did it," says
Infessura, "to the greater honour and glory of Almighty God and the
Church of Rome."  Beyond that he ventures into no great detail, checking
himself betimes, however, with a suggested motive for reticence a
thousand times worse than any formal accusation.  Thus: "Much else is
said, of which I do not write, because either it is not true, or, if
true, incredible."(1)

1  "Et multa alia dicta sunt; que hic non scribo, que aut non sunt; vel
si sunt, incredibilia" (Infessura, Diarium).

It is amazing that the veil which Infessura drew with those words should
have been pierced--not indeed by the cold light of fact, but by the hot
eye of prurient imagination; amazing that he should be quoted at all--he
who was not present--considering that we have the testimony of what did
take place from the pen of an eye-witness, in a letter from Gianandrea
Boccaccio, the ambassador of Ferrara, to his master.

At the end of his letter, which describes the proceedings and the
wedding-gifts and their presentation, he tells us how the night was
spent.  "Afterwards the ladies danced, and, as an interlude, a worthy
comedy was performed, with much music and singing, the Pope and all the
rest of us being present throughout.  What else shall I add?  It would
make a long letter.  The whole night was spent in this manner; let your
lordship decide whether well or ill."

Is not that sufficient to stop the foul mouth of inventive slander?  What
need to suggest happenings unspeakable?  Yet it is the fashion to quote
the last sentence above from Boccaccio's letter in the original--"totam
noctem comsumpsimus; judicet modo Ex(ma.) Dominatio vestra si bene o
male"--as though decency forbade its translation; and at once this
poisonous reticence does its work, and the imagination--and not only that
of the unlettered--is fired, and all manner of abominations are
speculatively conceived.

Infessura, being absent, says that the comedies performed were licentious
("lascive").  But what comedies of that age were not?  It was an age
which had not yet invented modesty, as we understand it.  That Boccaccio,
who was present, saw nothing unusual in the comedy--there was only one,
according to him--is proved by his description of it as "worthy" ("una
degna commedia.")

M. Yriarte on this same subject(1) is not only petty, but grotesque.  He
chooses to relate the incident from the point of view of Infessura, whom,
by the way, he translates with an amazing freedom,(2) and he makes bold
to add regarding Gianandrea Boccaccio that: "It must also be said that
the ambassador of Ferrara, either because he did not see everything, or
because he was less austere than Infessura, was not shocked by the
comedies, etc." ("soit qu'il n'ait pas tout vu, soit qu'il ait été moins
austère qu'Infessura, n'est pas choqué....")

1  La Vie de César Borgia.
2  Thus in the matter of the fifty silver cups tossed by the Pope into
the ladies' laps, "sinum" is the word employed by Infessura--a word which
has too loosely been given its general translation of "bosom," ignoring
that it equally means "lap" and that "lap" it obviously means in this
instance.  M. Yriarte, however, goes a step further, and prefers to
translate it as "corsage," which at once, and unpleasantly, falsifies the
picture; and he adds matter to dot the I's to an extent certainly not
warranted even by Infessura.

M. Yriarte, you observe, does not scruple to opine that Boccaccio, who
was present, did not see everything; but he has no doubt that Infessura,
who was not present, and who wrote from "hearsay," missed nothing.

Alas!  Too much of the history of the Borgias has been written in this
spirit, and the discrimination in the selection of authorities has ever
been with a view to obtaining the more sensational rather than the more
truthful narrative.

Although it is known that Cesare came to Rome in the early part of 1493--
for his presence there is	reported by Gianandrea Boccaccio in March
of that year--there is no mention of him at this time in connection with
his sister's wedding.  Apparently, then, he was not present, although it
is impossible to suggest where he might have been at the time.

Boccaccio draws a picture of him in that letter, which is worthy of
attention, "On the day before yesterday I found Cesare at home in
Trastevere.  He was on the point of setting out to go hunting, and
entirely in secular habit; that is to say, dressed in silk and armed. 
Riding together, we talked a while.  I am among his most intimate
acquaintances.  He is man of great talent and of an excellent nature; his
manners are those of the son of a great prince; above everything, he is
joyous and light-hearted.  He is very modest, much superior to, and of a
much finer appearance than, his brother the Duke of Gandia, who also is
not short of natural gifts.  The archbishop never had any inclination for
the priesthood.  But his benefice yields him over 16,000 ducats."

It may not be amiss--though perhaps no longer very necessary, after what
has been written--to say a word at this stage on the social position of
bastards in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, to emphasize the fact
that no stigma attached to Cesare Borgia or to any other member of his
father's family on the score of the illegitimacy of their birth.

It is sufficient to consider the marriages they contracted to perceive
that, however shocking the circumstances may appear to modern notions,
the circumstance of their father being a Pope not only cannot have been
accounted extraordinarily scandalous (if scandalous at all) but, on the
contrary, rendered them eligible for alliances even princely.

In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries we see the bastard born of a
noble, as noble as his father, displaying his father's arms without
debruisement and enjoying his rank and inheritance unchallenged on the
score of his birth, even though that inheritance should be a throne--as
witness Lucrezia's husband Giovanni, who, though a bastard of the house
of Sforza, succeeded, nevertheless, his father in the Tyranny of Pesaro
and Cotignola.

Later we shall see this same Lucrezia, her illegitimacy notwithstanding,
married into the noble House of Este and seated upon the throne of
Ferrara.  And before then we shall have seen the bastard Cesare married
to a daughter of the royal House of Navarre.  Already we have seen the
bastard Francesco Cibo take to wife the daughter of the great Lorenzo
de'Medici, and we have seen the bastard Girolamo Riario married to
Caterina Sforza--a natural daughter of the ducal House of Milan--and we
have seen the pair installed in the Tyranny of Imola and Forli.  A score
of other instances might be added; but these should suffice.

The matter calls for the making of no philosophies, craves no explaining,
and, above all, needs no apology.  It clears itself.  The fifteenth and
sixteenth centuries--more just than our own more enlightened times--
attributed no shame to the men and women born out of wedlock, saw no
reason--as no reason is there, Christian or Pagan--why they should suffer
for a condition that was none of their contriving.

To mention it may be of help in visualizing and understanding that direct
and forceful epoch, and may even suggest some lenience in considering a
Pope's carnal paternity.  To those to whom the point of view of the
Renaissance does not promptly suggest itself from this plain statement of
fact, all unargued as we leave it, we recommend a perusal of Gianpietro
de Crescenzi's Il Nobile Romano.

The marriage of Lucrezia Borgia to Giovanni Sforza tightened the
relations between the Pope and Milan, as the Pope intended.  Meanwhile,
however, the crafty and mistrustful Lodovico, having no illusions as to
the true values of his allies, and realizing them to be self-seekers like
himself, with interests that were fundamentally different from his own,
perceived that they were likely only to adhere to him for just so long as
it suited their own ends.  He bethought him, therefore, of looking about
him for other means by which to crush the power of Naples.  France was
casting longing eyes upon Italy, and it seemed to Lodovico that in France
was a ready catspaw.  Charles VIII, as the representative of the House of
Anjou, had a certain meagre claim upon the throne of Naples; if he could
be induced to ride south, lance on thigh, and press that claim there
would be an end to the dominion of the House of Aragon, and so an end to
Lodovico's fears of a Neapolitan interference with his own occupation of
the throne of Milan.

To an ordinary schemer that should have been enough; but as a schemer
Lodovico was wholly extraordinary.  His plans grew in the maturing, and
took in side-issues, until he saw that Naples should be to Charles VIII
as the cheese within the mouse-trap.  Let his advent into Italy to break
the power of Naples be free and open; but, once within, he should find
Milan and the northern allies between himself and his retreat, and
Lodovico's should it be to bring him to his knees.  Thus schemed Lodovico
to shiver, first Naples and then France, before hurling the latter back
across the Alps.  A daring, bold, and yet simple plan of action.  And
what a power in Italy should not Lodovico derive from its success!

Forthwith he got secretly to work upon it, sending his invitation to
Charles to come and make good his claim to Naples, offering the French
troops free passage through his territory.(1)  And in the character of
his invitation he played upon the nature of malformed, ambitious Charles,
whose brain was stuffed with romance and chivalric rhodomontades.  The
conquest of Naples was an easy affair, no more than a step in the
glorious enterprise that awaited the French king, for from Naples he
could cross to engage the Turk, and win back the Holy Sepulchre, thus
becoming a second Charles the Great.

1  See Corlo, Storia di Milano, and Lodovico's letter to Charles VIII,
quoted therein, lib. vii.

Thus Lodovico Maria the crafty, to dazzle Charles the romantic, and to
take the bull of impending invasion by the very horns.

We have seen the failure of the appeal to Spain against the Pope made by
the King of Naples.  To that failure was now added the tightening of
Rome's relations with Milan by the marriage between Lucrezia Borgia and
Giovanni Sforza, and Ferrante--rumours of a French invasion, with Naples
for its objective being already in the air--realized that nothing
remained him but to make another attempt to conciliate the Pope's
Holiness.  And this time he went about his negotiations in a manner
better calculated to serve his ends, since his need was grown more
urgent.  He sent the Prince of Altamura again to Rome for the ostensible
purpose of settling the vexatious matter of Cervetri and Anguillara and
making alliance with the Holy Father, whilst behind Altamura was the
Neapolitan army ready to move upon Rome should the envoy fail this time.

But on the terms now put forward, Alexander was willing to negotiate, and
so a peace was patched up between Naples and the Holy See, the conditions
of which were that Orsini should retain the fiefs for his lifetime, but
that they should revert to Holy Church on his death, and that he should
pay the Church for the life-lease of them the sum of 40,000 ducats, which
already he had paid to Francesco Cibo; that the peace should be
consolidated by the marriage of the Pope's bastard, Giuffredo, with
Sancia of Aragon, the natural daughter of the Duke of Calabria, heir to
the throne of Naples, and that she should bring the Principality of
Squillace and the County of Coriate as her dowry.

The other condition demanded by Naples--at the suggestion of Cardinal
Giuliano della Rovere--was	that the Pope should disgrace and dismiss
his Vice­Chancellor, Ascanio Sforza, which would have shattered the
pontifical relations with Milan.  To this, however, the Pope would not
agree, but he met Naples in the matter to the extent of consenting to
overlook Cardinal della Rovere's defection and receive him back into

On these terms the peace was at last concluded in August of 1493, and
immediately afterwards there arrived in Rome the Sieur Peron de Basche,
an envoy from the King of France charged with the mission to prevent any
alliance between Rome and Naples.

The Frenchman was behind the fair.  The Pope took the only course
possible under the awkward circumstances, and refused to see the
ambasssador.  Thereupon the offended King of France held a grand council
"in which were proposed and treated many things against the Pope and for
the reform of the Church."

These royal outbursts of Christianity, these pious kingly frenzies to
unseat an unworthy Pontiff and reform the Church, follow always, you will
observe, upon the miscarriage of royal wishes.

In the Consistory of September 1493 the Pope created twelve new cardinals
to strengthen the Sacred College in general and his own hand in

Amongst these new creations were the Pope's son Cesare, and Alessandro
Farnese, the brother of the beautiful Giulia.  The grant of the red hat
to the latter appears to have caused some scandal, for, owing to the
Pope's relations with his sister, to which it was openly said that
Farnese owed the purple, he received the by-name of Cardinal della
Gonella--Cardinal of the Petticoat.

That was the first important step in the fortunes of the House of
Farnese, which was to give dukes to Parma, and reach the throne of Spain
(in the person of Isabella Farnese) before becoming extinct in 1758.



Roma Bovem invenit tunc, cum fundatur aratro, Et nunc lapsa suo est ecce
renata Bove.

From an inscription quoted by Bernardino Coaxo.



You see Cesare Borgia, now in his nineteenth year, raised to the purple
with the title of Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria Nuova--notwithstanding
which, however, he continues to be known in preference, and, indeed, to
sign himself by the title of his archbishopric, Cardinal of Valencia.

It is hardly necessary to mention that, although already Bishop of
Pampeluna and Archbishop of Valencia, he had received so far only his
first tonsure.  He never did receive any ecclesiastical orders beyond the
minor and revocable ones.

It was said by Infessura, and has since been repeated by a multitude of
historians, upon no better authority than that of this writer on hearsay
and inveterate gossip, that, to raise Cesare to the purple, Alexander was
forced to prove the legitimacy of that young man's birth, and that to
this end he procured false witnesses to swear that he was "the son of
Vannozza de' Catanei and her husband, Domenico d'Arignano."  Already has
this been touched upon in an earlier chapter, here it was shown that
Vannozza never had a husband of the name of d'Arignano, and it might
reasonably be supposed that this circumstance alone would have sufficed
to restrain any serious writer from accepting and repeating Infessura's
unauthoritative statement.

But if more they needed, it was ready to their hands in the Bull of
Sixtus IV of October 1, 1480--to which also allusion has been made--
dispensing Cesare from proving his legitimacy: "Super defectum natalium
od ordines et quoecumque beneficia."

Besides that, of what avail would any false swearing have been,
considering that Cesare was openly named Borgia, that he was openly
acknowledged by his father, and that in the very Bull above mentioned he
is stated to be the son of Roderigo Borgia?

This is another instance of the lightness, the recklessness with which
Alexander VI has been accused of unseemly and illicit conduct, which it
may not be amiss to mention at this stage, since, if not the accusation
itself, at least the matter that occasioned it belongs chronologically

During the first months of his reign--following in the footsteps of
predecessors who had made additions to the Vatican--Alexander set about
the building of the Borgia Tower.  For its decoration he brought
Perugino, Pinturicchio, Volterrano, and Peruzzi to Rome.  Concerning
Pinturicchio and Alexander, Vasari tells us, in his Vita degli Artefici,
that over the door of one of the rooms in the Borgia Tower the artist
painted a picture of the Virgin Mary in the likeness of Giulia Farnese
(who posed to him as the model) with Alexander kneeling to her in
adoration, arrayed in full pontificals.

Such a thing would have been horrible, revolting, sacrilegious. 
Fortunately it does not even amount to a truth untruly told; and well
would it be if all the lies against the Borgias were as easy to refute. 
True, Pinturicchio did paint Giulia Farnese as the Madonna; true also
that he did paint Alexander kneeling in adoration--but not to the
Madonna, not in the same picture at all.  The Madonna for which Giulia
Farnese was the model is over a doorway, as Vasari says.  The kneeling
Alexander is in another room, and the object of his adoration is the
Saviour rising from His tomb.

Yet one reputable writer after another has repeated that lie of Vasari's,
and shocked us by the scandalous spectacle of a Pope so debauched and
lewd that he kneels in pontificals, in adoration, at the feet of his
mistress depicted as the Virgin Mary.

In October of that same year of 1493 Cesare accompanied his father on a
visit to Orvieto, a journey which appears to have been partly undertaken
in response to an invitation from Giulia Farnese's brother Alessandro.

Orvieto was falling at the time into decay and ruin, no longer the
prosperous centre it had been less than a hundred years earlier; but the
shrewd eye of Alexander perceived its value as a stronghold, to be used
as an outpost of Rome or as a refuge in time of danger, and he proceeded
to repair and fortify it.  In the following summer Cesare was invested
with its governorship, at the request of its inhabitants, who sent an
embassy to the Pope with their proposal,--by way, no doubt, of showing
their gratitude for his interest in the town.

But in the meantime, towards the end of 1493, King Ferrante's uneasiness
at the ever-swelling rumours of the impending French invasion was
quickened by the fact that the Pope had not yet sent his son Giuffredo to
Naples to marry Donna Sancia, as had been contracted.  Ferrante feared
the intrigues of Milan with Alexander, and that the latter might be
induced, after all, to join the northern league.  In a frenzy of
apprehension, the old king was at last on the point of going to Milan to
throw himself at the feet of Lodovico Sforza, who was now his only hope,
when news reached him that his ambassadors had been ordered to leave

That death-blow to his hopes was a death-blow to the man himself.  Upon
receiving the news he was smitten by an apoplexy, and upon January 25,
1494, he departed this life without the consolation of being able to
suppose that any of his schemes had done anything to avert the impending
ruin of his house.

In spite of all Alexander's intercessions and representations, calculated
to induce Charles VIII to abandon his descent upon Italy; in spite, no
less, of the counsel he received at home from such far-seeing men as had
his ear, the Christian King was now determined upon the expedition and
his preparations were well advanced.  In the month of March he assumed
the title of King of Sicily, and sent formal intimation of it to
Alexander, demanding his investiture at the hands of the Pope and
offering to pay him a heavy annual tribute.  Alexander was thus given to
choose between the wrath of France and the wrath of Naples, and--to put
the basest construction on his motives--he saw that the peril from an
enemy on his very frontiers would be more imminent than that of an enemy
beyond the Alps.  It is also possible that he chose to be guided by his
sense of justice and to do in the matter what he considered right.  By
whatever motive he was prompted, the result was that he refused to accede
to the wishes of the Christian King.

The Consistory which received the French ambassador--Peron de Basche--
became the scene of stormy remonstrances, Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere,
of course, supporting the ambassador and being supported in his act of
insubordination by the Vice-Chancellor Ascanio Sforza (who represented
his brother Lodovico in the matter) and the Cardinals Sanseverino,
Colonna, and Savelli, all attached to French interests.  Peron de Basche
so far presumed, no doubt emboldened by this support, as to threaten the
Pope with deposition if he persisted in his refusal to obey the King of

You see once more that kingly attitude, and you shall see it yet again
presently and be convinced of its precise worth.  In one hand a bribe of
heavy annual tribute, in the other a threat of deposition; it was thus
they conducted their business with the Holy Father.  In this instance his
Holiness took the threat, and dismissed the insolent ambassador.  Della
Rovere, conceiving that in France he had a stouter ally than in Naples,
and seeing that he had once more incurred the papal anger by his open
enmity, fled back to Ostia; and, not feeling safe there, for the
pontifical forces were advancing upon his fortress, took ship to Genoa,
and thence to France, to plot the Pope's ruin with the exasperated
Charles; and, the charge of simony being the only weapon with which they
could attack Alexander's seat upon the papal throne, the charge of simony
was once more brandished.

His Holiness took the matter with a becoming and stately calm.  He sent
his nephew, Giovanni Borgia, to Naples to crown Alfonso, and with him
went Giuffredo Borgia to carry out the marriage contract with Alfonso's
daughter, and thus strengthen the alliance between Rome and Naples.

By the autumn Charles had crossed the Alps with the most formidable army
that had ever been sent out of France, full ninety thousand strong.  And
so badly was the war conducted by the Neapolitan generals who were sent
to hold him in check that the appearance of the French under the very
walls of Rome was almost such as to take the Pope by surprise.  Charles's
advance from the north had been so swift and unhindered that Alexander
contemptuously said the French soldiers had come into Italy with wooden
spurs and chalk in their hands to mark their lodgings.

Charles had been well received by the intriguing Lodovico Sforza, with
whom he visited the Castle of Pavia and the unfortunate Gian Galeazzo,
who from long confinement, chagrin, and other causes was now reduced to
the sorriest condition.  Indeed, on October 22, some days after that
visit, the wretched prince expired.  Whether or not Lodovico had him
poisoned, as has been alleged--a charge, which, after all, rests on no
proof, nor even upon the word of any person of reliance--his death most
certainly lies at his ambitious uncle's door.

Charles was at Piacenza when the news of Gian Galeazzo's death reached
him.  Like the good Christian that he accounted himself, he ordered the
most solemn and imposing obsequies for the poor youth for whom in life he
had done nothing.

Gian Galeazzo left a heart-broken girl-widow and two children to succeed
him to the throne he had never been allowed to occupy--the eldest,
Francesco Sforza, being a boy of five.  Nevertheless, Lodovico was
elected Duke of Milan.  Not only did he suborn the Parliament of Milan to
that end, but he induced the Emperor to confirm him in the title.  To
this the Emperor consented, seeking to mask the unscrupulous deed by a
pitiful sophism.  He expounded that the throne of Milan should originally
have been Lodovico's, and never Galeazzo Maria's (Gian Galeazzo's
father), because the latter was born before Francesco Sforza had become
Duke of Milan, whereas Lodovico was born when he already was so.

The obsequies of Gian Galeazzo completed, Charles pushed on.  From
Florence he issued his manifesto, and although this confined itself to
claiming the kingdom of Naples, and said no word of punishing the Pope
for his disobedience in crowning Alfonso and being now in alliance with
him, it stirred up grave uneasiness at the Vatican.

The Pope's position was becoming extremely difficult; nevertheless, he
wore the boldest possible face when he received the ambassadors of
France, and on December 9 refused to grant the letters patent of passage
through the Pontifical States which the French demanded.  Thereupon
Charles advanced threateningly upon Rome, and was joined now by those
turbulent barons Orsini, Colonna, and Savelli.

Alexander VI has been widely accused of effecting a volte-face at this
stage and betraying his Neapolitan allies; but his conduct, properly
considered, can hardly amount to that.  What concessions he made to
France were such as a wise and inadequately supported man must make to an
army ninety thousand strong.  To be recklessly and quixotically heroic is
not within the function of Popes; moreover, Alexander had Rome to think
of, for Charles had sent word that, if he were resisted he would leave
all in ruins, whereas if a free passage were accorded him he would do no
hurt nor suffer any pillage to be done in Rome.

So the Pope did the only thing consistent with prudence: he made a virtue
of necessity and gave way where it was utterly impossible for him to
resist.  He permitted Charles the passage through his territory which
Charles was perfectly able to take for himself if refused.  There ensued
an interchange of compliments between Pope and King, and early in January
Charles entered Rome in such warlike panoply as struck terror into the
hearts of all beholders.  Of that entrance Paolo Giovio has left us an
impressive picture.

The vanguard was composed of Swiss and German mercenaries--tall fellows,
these professional warriors, superb in their carriage and stepping in
time to the beat of their drums; they were dressed in variegated, close-
fitting garments that revealed all their athletic symmetry.  A fourth of
them were armed with long, square-bladed halberts, new to Italy; the
remainder trailed their ten-foot pikes, and carried a short sword at
their belts, whilst to every thousand of them there were a hundred
arquebusiers.  After them came the French infantry, without armour save
the officers, who wore steel corselets and head-pieces.  These, again,
were followed by five thousand Gascon arbalisters, each shouldering his
arbalest--a phalanx of short, rude fellows, not to be compared with the
stately Swiss.  Next came the cavalry, advancing in squadrons, glittering
and resplendent in their steel casings; 2,500 of these were in full heavy
armour, wielding iron maces and the ponderous lances that were usual also
in Italy.  Every man-at-arms had with him three horses, mounted by a
squire and two valets (four men going to the lance in France).  Some
5,000 of the cavalry were more lightly armed, in corselets and head-piece
only, and they carried long wooden bows in the English fashion; whilst
some were armed with pikes, intended to complete the work of the heavier
cavalry.  These were followed by 200 knights--the very flower of French
chivalry for birth and valour--shouldering their heavy iron maces, their
armour covered by purple, gold-embroidered surcoats.  Behind them came
400 mounted archers forming the bodyguard of the king.

The misshapen monarch himself was the very caricature of a man, hideous
and grotesque as a gargoyle.  He was short of stature, spindle-shanked,
rachitic and malformed, and of his face, with its colossal nose, loose
mouth and shallow brow, Giovio says that "it was the ugliest ever seen on

Such was the person of the young king--he was twenty-four years of age at
the time--who poured his legions into Rome, and all full-armed as if for
work of immediate destruction.  Seen, as they were, by torchlight and the
blaze of kindled bonfires--for night had fallen long before the rearguard
had entered the city--they looked vague, fantastic, and terrifying.  But
the most awe-inspiring sight of all was kept for the end; it consisted of
the thirty-six pieces of artillery which brought up the rear, each piece
upon a carriage swiftly drawn by horses, and the longest measuring eight
feet, weighing six thousand pounds, and discharging an iron ball as big
as a man's head.

The king lay in the Palace of San Marco, where a lodging had been
prepared for him, and thither on the day after his entrance came Cesare
Borgia, with six Cardinals, from the Castle of Sant' Angelo, whither the
Pope had withdrawn, to wait upon his Christian Majesty.  Charles
immediately revealed the full and exigent nature of his demands.  He
required the Pope's aid and counsel in the conquest of Naples, upon which
he was proceeding; that Cesare Borgia be delivered into his hands as a
hostage to ensure the Pope's friendliness; and that the Castle of Sant'
Angelo be handed over to him to be used as a retreat in case of need or
danger.  Further, he demanded that Prince Djem--the brother of Sultan
Bajazet, who was in the Pope's hands--should be delivered up to him as a
further hostage.

This Djem (Gem, or Zizim, as his name is variously spelled) was the
second son of Mahomet II, whose throne he had disputed with his brother
Bajazet on their father's death.  He had raised an army to enforce his
claim, and had not lacked for partisans; but he was defeated and put to
flight by his brother.  For safety he had delivered himself up to the
Knights of Rhodes, whom he knew to be Bajazet's implacable enemies.  They
made him very welcome, for d'Aubusson, the Grand Master of Rhodes,
realized that the possession of the prince's person was a very fortunate
circumstance for Christianity, since by means of such a hostage the Turk
could be kept in submission.  Accordingly d'Aubusson had sent him to
France, and wrote: "While Djem lives, and is in our hands, Bajazet will
never dare to make war upon Christians, who will thus enjoy great peace. 
Thus is it salutary that Djem should remain in our power."  And in France
Djem had been well received and treated with every consideration due to a
person of his princely rank.

But he appears to have become a subject of contention among the Powers,
several of which urged that he could be of greater service to
Christianity in their hands than in those of France.  Thus, the King of
Hungary had demanded him because, being a neighbour of Bajazet's, he was
constantly in apprehension of Turkish raids.  Ferdinand of Spain had
desired him because the possession of him would assist the Catholic King
in the expulsion of the Moors.  Ferrante of Naples had craved him because
he lived in perpetual terror of a Turkish invasion.

In the end he had been sent to Rome, whither he went willingly under the
advice of the Knights of Rhodes, whose prisoner he really considered
himself.  They had discovered that Bajazet was offering enormous bribes
to Charles for the surrender of him, and they feared lest Charles should
succumb to the temptation.

So Prince Djem had come to Rome in the reign of Pope Innocent VIII, and
there he had since remained, Sultan Bajazet making the Pope an annual
allowance of forty thousand ducats for his brother's safe custody.  He
was a willing prisoner, or rather a willing exile, for, far from being
kept a prisoner, he was treated at Rome with every consideration,
associating freely with those about the Pontifical Court, and being
frequently seen abroad in company with the Pope and the Duke of Gandia.

Now Charles was aware that the Pope, in his dread of a French invasion,
and seeing vain all his efforts to dissuade Charles from making his
descent upon Italy, had appealed for aid to Bajazet.  For so doing he has
been severely censured, and with some justice, for the picture of the
Head of Christianity making appeal to the infidel to assist him against
Christians is not an edifying one.  Still, it receives some measure of
justification when we reflect what was the attitude of these same
Christians towards their Head.

Bajazet himself, thrown into a panic at the thought of Djem falling into
the hands of a king who proposed to make a raid upon him, answered the
Pope begging his Holiness to "have Djem removed from the tribulations of
this world, and his soul transported to another, where he might enjoy a
greater peace."  For this service he offered the Pope 300,000 ducats, to
be paid on delivery of the prince's body; and, if the price was high, so
was the service required, for it would have ensured Bajazet a peace of
mind he could not hope to enjoy while his brother lived.

This letter was intercepted by Giovanni della Rovere, the Prefect of
Sinigaglia, who very promptly handed it to his brother, the Cardinal
Giuliano.  The cardinal, in his turn, laid it before the King of France,
who now demanded of the Pope the surrender of the person of this Djem as
a further hostage.

Alexander began by rejecting the king's proposals severally and
collectively, but Charles pressed him to reconsider his refusal, and so,
being again between the sword and the wall, the Pope was compelled to
submit.  A treaty was drawn up and signed on January 15, the king, on his
side, promising to recognize the Pope and to uphold him in all his

On the following day Charles made solemn act of veneration to the Pontiff
in Consistory, kissing his ring and his foot, and professing obedience to
him as the kings of France, his forbears, had ever done.  Words for

Charles remained twelve days longer in Rome, and set out at last, on
January 28, upon the conquest of Naples.  First he went solemnly to take
his leave of the Pope, and they parted with every outward mark of a
mutual esteem which they most certainly cannot have experienced.  When
Charles knelt for the Pope's blessing, Alexander raised him up and
embraced him; whilst Cesare completed the show of friendliness by
presenting Charles with six beautiful chargers.

They set out immediately afterwards, the French king taking with him his
hostages, neither of which he was destined to retain for long, with
Cesare riding in the place of honour on his right.

The army lay at Marino that night, and on the following at Velletri.  In
the latter city Charles was met by an ambassador of Spain--Antonio da
Fonseca.  Ferdinand and Isabella were moved at last to befriend their
cousins of Naples, whom all else had now abandoned, and at the same time
serve their own interests.  Their ambassador demanded that Charles should
abandon his enterprise and return to France, or else be prepared for war
with Spain.

It is eminently probable that Cesare had knowledge of this ultimatum to
Charles, and that his knowledge influenced his conduct.  However that may
be, he slipped out of Velletri in the dead of that same night disguised
as a groom.  Half a mile out of the town, Francesco del Sacco, an officer
of the Podestá of Velletri, awaited him with a horse, and on this he sped
back to Rome, where he arrived on the night of the 30th.  He went
straight to the house of one Antonio Flores, an auditor of the Tribunal
of the Ruota and a person of his confidence, who through his influence
and protection was destined to rise to the eminence of the archbishopric
of Avignon and Papal Nuncio to the Court of France.

Cesare remained at Flores's house, sending word to the Pope of his
presence, but not attempting to approach the Vatican.  On the following
day he withdrew to the stronghold of Spoleto.

Meanwhile Rome was thrown into a panic by the young cardinal's action and
the dread of reprisals on the part of France.  The quaking municipality
sent representatives to Charles to assure him that Rome had had nothing
to do with this breach of the treaty, and to implore him not to visit it
upon the city.  The king replied by a special embassy to the Pope, and
there apparently dropped the matter, for a few days later Cesare
reappeared at the Vatican.

Charles, meanwhile, despite the threats of Spain, pushed on to accomplish
his easy conquest.

King Alfonso had already fled the kingdom (January 25), abdicating in
favour of his brother Federigo.  His avowed object was to withdraw to
Sicily, retire from the world, and do penance for his sins, for which no
doubt there was ample occasion.  The real spur was probably--as opined by
Commines--cowardice; for, says that Frenchman, "Jamais homme cruel ne fut

Federigo's defence of the realm consigned to him was not conspicuous, for
the French entered Naples almost without striking a blow within twenty
days of their departure from Rome.

Scarcely had Charles laid aside his armour when death robbed him of the
second hostage he had brought from the Vatican.  On February 25, after a
week's illness, Prince Djem died of dysentery at the Castle of Capua,
whither Charles had sent him.

Rumours that he had been poisoned by the Pope arose almost at once; but,
considering that twenty­eight days had elapsed since his parting from
Alexander, it was, with the best intentions in the world, rather
difficult to make that poisoning credible, until the bright notion was
conceived, and made public, that the poison used was a "white powder" of
unknown components, which did its work slowly, and killed the victim some
time after it had been administered.  Thus, by a bold and brazen
invention, an impossible falsehood was made to wear a possible aspect.

And in that you have most probably the origin of the famous secret poison
of the Borgias.  Having been invented to fit the alleged poisoning of
Prince Djem, which it was desired to fasten upon the Pope by hook or by
crook, it was found altogether too valuable an invention not to be used
again.  By means of it, it became possible to lay almost any death in the
world at the door of Alexander.

Before proceeding to inquire further into this particular case, let us
here and now say that, just as to-day there is no inorganic toxin known
to science that will either lie fallow for weeks in the human system,
suddenly to become active and slay, or yet to kill by slow degrees
involving some weeks in the process, so none was known in the Borgian or
any other era.  Science indeed will tell you that the very notion of any
such poison is flagrantly absurd, and that such a toxic action is against
all the laws of nature.

But a scientific disquisition is unnecessary.  For our present needs
arguments of common sense should abundantly suffice.  This poison--this
white powder--was said to be a secret of the Borgias.  If that is so, by
what Borgia was the secret of its existence ever divulged?  Or, if it
never was divulged, how comes it to be known that a poison so secret, and
working at such distances of time, was ever wielded by them?

The very nature of its alleged action was such as utterly to conceal the
hand that had administered it; yet here, on the first recorded occasion
of its alleged use, it was more or less common knowledge if Giovio and
Guicciardini are to be believed!

Sagredo(1) says that Djem died at Terracina three days after having been
consigned to Charles VIII, of poison administered by Alexander, to whom
Bajazet had promised a large sum of money for the deed.  The same is
practically Giovio's statement, save that Giovio causes him to die at a
later date and at Gaeta; Guicciardini and Corio tell a similar story, but
inform us that he died in Naples.

1  In Mem. Storiche dei Monarchi Ottomani.

It is entirely upon the authority of these four writers that the Pope is
charged with having poisoned Djem, and it is noteworthy that in the four
narratives we find different dates and three different places given as
the date and place of the Turk's death, and more noteworthy still that in
not one instance of these four is date or place correctly stated.

Now the place where Djem died, and the date of his death, were public
facts about which there was no mystery; they were to be ascertained--as
they are still--by any painstaking examiner.  His poisoning, on the other
hand, was admittedly a secret matter, the truth of which it was
impossible to ascertain with utter and complete finality.  Yet of this
poisoning they know all the secrets, these four nimble writers who cannot
correctly tell us where or when the man died!

We will turn from the fictions they have left us--which, alas! have but
too often been preferred by subsequent writers to the true facts which
lay just as ready to their hands, but of course were less sensational--
and we will consider instead the evidence of those contemporaries who do,
at least, know the time and place of Djem's decease.

If any living man might have known of a secret poison of the Borgias at
this stage, that man was Burchard the Caeremoniarius, and, had he known
of it, not for a moment would he have been silent on the point.  Yet not
a word of this secret poison shall you find in his diaries, and
concerning the death of Djem he records that "on February 25 died at the
Castle of Capua the said Djem, through meat or drink that disagreed with

Panvinio, who, being a Neapolitan, was not likely to be any too friendly
to the Pope--as, indeed, he proves again and again--tells us positively
that Djem died of dysentry at Capua.(1)

1  Vitis Pontif. Rom.

Sanuto, writing to the Council of Ten, says that Djem took ill at Capua
of a catarrh, which "descended to his stomach"; and that so he died.

And now mark Sanuto's reasoning upon his death, which is the very
reasoning we should ourselves employ finally to dispose of this chatter
of poisoning, did we not find it awaiting quotation, more authoritative
therefore than it could be from us, and utterly irrefutable and
conclusive in its logic.  "This death is very harmful to the King of
France, to all Italy, and chiefly to the Pope, who is thereby deprived of
40,000 ducats yearly, which was paid him by his [Djem's] brother for his
custody.  And the king showed himself greatly grieved by this death, and
it was suspected that the Pope had poisoned him, which, however, was not
to be believed, as it would have been to his own loss."

Just so--to his own infinite loss, not only of the 40,000 ducats yearly,
but of the hold which the custody of Djem gave him upon the Turks.

The reason assigned by those who charged Alexander with this crime was
the bribe of 300,000 ducats offered by Bajezet in the intercepted letter. 
The offer--which, incidentally, had never reached the Pope--was instantly
taken as proof of its acceptance--a singular case of making cause follow
upon effect, a method all too prevalent with the Borgian chroniclers. 
Moreover, they entirely overlooked the circumstance that, for Djem's
death in the hands of France, the Pope could make no claim upon Bajazet.

Finally--though the danger be incurred of becoming tedious upon this
point--they also forgot that, years before, Bajazet had offered such
bribes to Charles for the life of Djem as had caused the Knights of
Rhodes to remove the Turk from French keeping.  Upon that circumstance
they might, had it sorted with their inclinations, have set up a stronger
case of poisoning against Charles than against the Pope, and they would
not have been put to the necessity of inventing a toxin that never had
place in any earthly pharmacopoeia.

It is not, by this, suggested that there is any shadow of a case against
Charles.  Djem died a perfectly natural death, as is established by the
only authorities competent to speak upon the matter, and his death was
against the interests of everybody save his brother Bajazet; and against
nobody's so much as the Pope's.



By the middle of March of that year 1495 the conquest of Naples was a
thoroughly accomplished fact, and the French rested upon their victory,
took their ease, and made merry in the capital of the vanquished kingdom.

But in the north Lodovico Sforza-now Duke of Milan de facto, as we have
seen--set about the second part of the game that was to be played.  He
had a valuable ally in Venice, which looked none too favourably on the
French and was fully disposed to gather its forces against the common
foe.  The Council of Ten sent their ambassador, Zorzi, to the Pope to
propose an alliance.

News reached Charles in Naples of the league that was being formed.  He
laughed at it, and the matter was made the subject of ridicule in some of
the comedies that were being performed for the amusement of his Court. 
Meanwhile, the intrigue against him went forward; on March 26 his
Holiness sent the Golden Rose to the Doge, and on Palm Sunday the league
was solemnly proclaimed in St. Peter's.  Its terms were vague; there was
nothing in it that was directly menacing to Charles; it was simply
declared to have been formed for the common good.  But in the north the
forces were steadily gathering to cut off the retreat of the French, and
suddenly Lodovico Sforza threw aside the mask and made an attack upon the
French navy at Genoa.

At last Charles awoke to his danger and began to care for his safety. 
Rapidly he organized the occupation of Naples, and, leaving Montpensier
as Viceroy and d'Aubigny as Captain-General, he set out for Rome with his
army, intent upon detaching the Pope from the league; for the Pope, being
the immediate neighbour of Naples, would be as dangerous as an enemy as
he was valuable as an ally to Charles.

He entered Rome on June 1.  The Pope, however, was not there to receive
him.  Alexander had left on May 28 for Orvieto, accompanied by Cesare,
the Sacred College, 200 men-at-arms, and 1,000 horse and 3,000 foot,
supplied by Venice.  At Orvieto, on June 3, the Pontiff received an
ambassador from the Emperor, who had joined the league, and on the 4th he
refused audience to the ambassador of France, sent to him from
Ronciglione, where the King had halted.  Charles, insistent, sent again,
determined to see the Pope; but Alexander, quite as determined not to see
the king, pushed on to Perugia with his escort.

There his Holiness abode until the French and Italians had met on the
River Taro and joined battle at Fornovo, of which encounter both sides
claimed the victory.  If Charles's only object was to win through, then
the victory undoubtedly was his, for he certainly succeeded in cutting a
way through the Italians who disputed his passage. But he suffered
heavily, and left behind him most of his precious artillery, his tents
and carriages, and the immense Neapolitan booty he was taking home, with
which he had loaded (says Gregorovius) twenty thousand mules.  All this
fell into the hands of the Italian allies under Gonzaga of Mantua, whilst
from Fornovo Charles's retreat was more in the nature of a flight.  Thus
he won back to France, no whit the better for his expedition, and the
only mark of his passage which he left behind him was an obscene ailment,
which, with the coming of the French into Italy, first manifested itself
in Europe, and which the Italians paid them the questionable compliment
of calling "the French disease"--morbo gallico, or il mal francese.

During the Pope's visit to Perugia an incident occurred which is not
without importance to students of his character, and of the character
left of him by his contemporaries and others.

There lived in Perugia at this time a young nun of the Order of St.
Dominic, who walked in the way of St. Catherine of Siena, Colomba da
Rieti by name.  You will find some marvellous things about her in the
Perugian chronicles of Matarazzo, which, for that matter, abound in
marvellous things--too marvellous mostly to be true.

When he deals with events happening beyond the walls of his native town
Matarazzo, as an historian, is contemptible to a degree second only to
that of those who quote him as an authority.  When he deals with matters
that, so to speak, befell under his very eyes, he is worthy, if not of
credit at least of attention, for his "atmosphere" is valuable.

Of this Sister Colomba Matarazzo tells us that she ate not nor drank,
save sometimes some jujube fruit, and even these but rarely.  "On the day
of her coming to Perugia (which happened in 1488), as she was Crossing
the Bridge of St. Gianni some young men attempted to lay hands upon her,
for she was comely and beautiful; but as they did so, she showed them the
jujube fruit which she carried in a white cloth, whereupon they instantly
stood bereft of strength and wits."

Next he tells us how she would pass from life for an hour or two, and
sometimes for half a day, and her pulse would cease to beat, and she
would, seem all dead.  And then she would quiver and come to herself
again, and prophesy the future, and threaten disaster.  And again: "One
morning two of her teeth were found to have fallen out, which had
happened in fighting with the devil; and, for the many intercessions
which she made, and the scandals which she repaired by her prayers, the
people came to call her saint."

Notwithstanding all this, and the fact that she lived without
nourishment, he tells us that the brothers of St. Francis had little
faith in her.  Nevertheless, the community built her a very fine
monastery, which was richly endowed, and many nuns took the habit of her

Now it happened that whilst at Perugia in his student days, Cesare had
witnessed a miracle performed by this poor ecstatic girl; or rather he
had arrived on the scene--the Church of St. Catherine of Siena--to find
her, with a little naked boy in her lap, the centre of an excited,
frenzied crowd, which was proclaiming loudly that the child had been dead
and that she had resurrected him.  This was a statement which the Prior
of the Dominicans did not seem disposed unreservedly to accept, for, when
approached with a suggestion that the bells should be rung in honour of
the event, he would not admit that he saw any cause to sanction such a

In the few years that were sped since then, however, sister Colomba had
acquired the great reputation of which Matarazzo tells us, so that,
throughout the plain of Tiber, the Dominicans were preaching her fame
from convent to convent.  In December of 1495 Charles VIII heard of her
at Siena, and was stirred by a curiosity which he accounted devotional--
the same curiosity that caused one of his gentlemen to entreat Savonarola
to perform "just a little miracle" for the King's entertainment.  You can
picture the gloomy fanatic's reception of that invitation.

The Pope now took the opportunity of his sojourn in Perugia to pay
Colomba da Rieti a visit, and there can be no doubt that he did so in a
critical spirit.  Accompanied by Cesare and some cardinals and gentlemen
of his following, he went to the Church of St. Dominic and was conducted
to the sister's cell by the Prior--the same who in Cesare's student-days
had refused to have the bells rung.

Upon seeing the magnificent figure of the Pontiff filling the doorway of
her little chamber, Sister Colomba fell at his feet, and, taking hold of
the hem of his gown, she remained prostrate and silent for some moments,
when at last she timidly arose.  Alexander set her some questions
concerning the Divine Mysteries.  These she answered readily at first,
but, as his questions grew, she faltered, became embarrassed, and fell
silent, standing before him white and trembling, no doubt a very piteous
figure.  The Pope, not liking this, turned to the Prior to demand an
explanation, and admonished him sternly: "Caveto, Pater, quia ego Papa

This had the effect of throwing the Prior into confusion, and he set
himself to explain that she was in reality very wonderful, that he
himself had not at first believed in her, but that he had seen so much
that he had been converted.  At this stage Cesare came to his aid,
bearing witness, as he could, that he himself had seen the Prior
discredit her when others were already hailing her as a saint, wherefore,
if he now was convinced, he must have had very good evidence to convince
him.  We can imagine the Prior's gratitude to the young cardinal for that
timely word when he saw himself in danger perhaps of being called to
account for fostering and abetting an imposture.

What was Alexander's opinion of her in the end we do not know; but we do
know that he was not readily credulous.  When, for instance, he heard
that the stigmata were alleged to have appeared upon the body of Lucia di
Narni he did what might be expected of a sceptic of our own times rather
than of a churchman of his superstitious age--he sent his physicians to
examine her.

That is but one instance of his common-sense attitude towards
supernatural manifestations.  His cold, calm judgement caused him to
seek, by all available and practical means, to discriminate between the
true and the spurious in an age in which men, by their credulity, were
but too ready to become the prey of any impostor.  It argues a breadth of
mind altogether beyond the times in which he had his being.  Witches and
warlocks, who elsewhere--and even in much later ages, and in Protestant
as well as Catholic States--were given to the fire, he contemptuously
ignored.  The unfortunate Moors and Jews, who elsewhere in Europe were
being persecuted by the Holy Inquisition and burnt at the stake as an act
of faith for the good of their souls and the greater honour	and glory of
God, found in Alexander a tolerant protector and in Rome a safe shelter.

These circumstances concerning him are not sufficiently known; it is good
to know them for their own sake.  But, apart from that, they have a great
historical value which it is well to consider.  It is not to be imagined
that such breadth of views could be tolerated in a Pope in the dawn of
the sixteenth  century.  The times were not ripe for it; men did not
understand it; and what men do not understand they thirst to explain, and
have a way of explaining in their own fashion and according to their own

A Pope who did such things could not be a good Pope, since such things
must be abhorrent to God--as men conceived God then.

To understand this is to understand much of the bad feeling against
Alexander and his family, for this is the source of much of it.  Because
he did not burn witches and magicians it was presently said that he was
himself a warlock, and that he practised black magic.  It was not,
perhaps, wanton calumny; it was said in good faith, for it was the only
reason	the times could think of that should account for his
restraint.  Because he tolerated Moors and Jews it was presently said by
some that he was a Moor, by others that he was a Jew, and by others still
that he was both.

What wonder, then, if the rancorous Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere
venomously dubbed him Moor and Jew, and the rabid fanatic Savonarola
screamed that he was no Pope at all, that he was not a Christian, nor did
he believe in any God?

Misunderstood in these matters, he was believed to be an infidel, and no
crime was too impossible to be fastened upon the man who was believed to
be that in the Italy of the Cinquecento.

Alexander, however, was very far from being an infidel, very far from not
being a Christian, very far from not believing in God, as he has left
abundant evidence in the Bulls he issued during his pontificate.  It is
certainly wrong to assume--and this is pointed out by l'Espinois--that a
private life which seems to ignore the commandments of the Church must
preclude the possibility of a public life devoted to the service of the
Church.  This is far from being the case.  Such a state of things--such a
dual personality--is by no means inconsistent with churchmen of the
fifteenth, or, for that matter, of the twentieth century.

The whole truth of the matter is contained in a Portuguese rhyme, which
may roughly be translated:

     Soundly Father Thomas preaches.
     Don't do as he does; do as he teaches.

A debauchee may preach virtue with salutary effect, just as a man may
preach hygiene without practising the privations which it entails, or may
save you from dyspepsia by pointing out to you what is indigestible
without himself abstaining from it.

Such was the case of Alexander VI, as we are justified in concluding from
the evidence that remains.

Let us consider the apostolic zeal revealed by his Bull granting America
to Spain.  This was practically conceded--as the very terms of it will
show--on condition that Spain should employ the dominion accorded her
over the New World for the purpose of propagating the Christian faith and
the conversion and baptism of the heathen.  This is strictly enjoined,
and emphasized by the command that Spain shall send out God-fearing men
who are learned in religion and capable of teaching it to the people of
the newly discovered lands.

Thus Alexander invented the missionary.

To King Manuel the Fortunate (of Portugal), who sought his authority for
the conquest of Africa, he similarly enjoined that he should contrive
that the name of the Saviour be adored there, and the Catholic faith
spread and honoured, to the end that the king "might win eternal life and
the blessing of the Holy See."

To the soldiers going upon this expedition his Holiness granted the same
indulgences as to those who fought in the Holy Land, and he aided the
kings of Spain and Portugal in this propagation of Christianity out of
the coffers of the Church.

He sent to America a dozen of the children of St. Francis, as apostles to
preach the Faith, and he invested them with the amplest powers.

He prosecuted with stern rigour the heretics of Bohemia, who were
obscenely insulting Church and Sacraments, and he proceeded similarly
against the "Picards" and "Vaudois."  Against the Lombard demoniacs, who
had grown bold, were banding themselves together and doing great evil to
property, to life, and to religion, Alexander raised his mighty arm.

Then there is his Bull of June 1, 1501, against those who already were
turning to evil purposes the newly discovered printing-press.  In this he
inveighed against the printing of matter prejudicial to healthy doctrine,
to good manners, and, above all, to the Catholic Faith or anything that
should give scandal to the faithful.  He threatened the printers of
impious works with excommunication should they persist, and enlisted
secular weapons to punish them in a temporal as well as a spiritual
manner.  He ordered the preparation of indexes of all works containing
anything hurtful to religion, and pronounced a ban of excommunication
against all who should peruse the books so indexed.

Thus Alexander invented the Index Expurgatorius.

There is abundant evidence that he was a fervid celebrant, and of his
extreme devotion to the Blessed Virgin--in whose honour he revived the
ringing of the Angelus Bell--shall be considered later.

Whatever his private life, it is idle to seek to show that his public
career was other than devoted to the upholding of the dignity and honour
of the Church.



Having driven Charles VIII out of Italy, it still remained for the allies
to remove all traces of his passage from Naples and to restore the rule
of the House of Aragon.  In this they had the aid of Ferdinand and
Isabella, who sent an army under the command of that distinguished
soldier Gonzalo de Cordoba, known in his day as the Great Captain.

He landed in Calabria in the spring of 1496, and war broke out afresh
through that already sorely devastated land.  The Spaniards were joined
by the allied forces of Venice and the Church under the condotta of the
Marquis Gonzaga of Mantua, the leader of the Italians at Fornovo.

Lodovico had detached himself from the league, and again made terms with
France for his own safety's sake.  But his cousin, Giovanni Sforza,
Tyrant of Pesaro--the husband of Lucrezia Borgia--continued in the
pontifical army at the head of a condotta of 600 lances.  Another command
in the same ranks was one of 700 lances under the youthful Giuffredo
Borgia, now Prince of Squillace and the husband of Doña Sancia of Aragon,
a lady of exceedingly loose morals, who had brought to Rome the habits
acquired in the most licentious Court of that licentious age.

The French lost Naples even more easily than they had conquered it, and
by July 7 Ferdinand II was able to reenter his capital and reascend his
throne.  D'Aubigny, the French general, withdrew to France, whilst
Montpensier, the Viceroy, retired to Pozzuoli, where he died in the
following year.

Nothing could better have suited the purposes of Alexander than the state
of things which now prevailed, affording him, as it did, the means to
break the power of the insolent Roman barons, who already had so vexed
and troubled him.  So in the Consistory of June 1 he published a Bull
whereby Gentile Virginio Orsini, Giangiordano Orsini, and his bastard
Paolo Orsini and Bartolomeo d'Alviano, were declared outlawed for having
borne arms with France against the Church, and their possessions were
confiscated to the State.  This decree was to be enforced by the sword,
and, for the purposes of the impending war, the Duke of Gandia was
recalled to Rome.  He arrived early in August, having left at Gandia his
wife Maria Enriquez, a niece of the Royal House of Spain.
It was Cesare Borgia who took the initiative in the pomp with which his
brother was received in Rome, riding out at the head of the entire
Pontifical Court to meet and welcome the young duke.

In addition to being Duke of Gandia, Giovanni Borgia was already Duke of
Sessa and Prince of Teano, which further dignities had been conferred
upon him on the occasion of his brother Giuffredo's marriage to Donna
Sancia.  To these the Pope now added the governorship of Viterbo and of
the Patrimony of St. Peter, dispossessing Cardinal Farnese of the latter
office to bestow it upon this well-beloved son.

In Venice it was being related, a few months later,--in October--that
Gandia had brought a woman from Spain for his father, and that the latter
had taken her to live with him.  The story is given in Sanuto, and of
course has been unearthed and served up by most historians and essayists. 
It cannot positively be said that it is untrue; but it can be said that
it is unconfirmed.  There is, for instance, no word of it in Burchard's
Diarium, and when you consider how ready a chronicler of scandalous
matter was this Master of Ceremonies, you will no doubt conclude that, if
any foundation there had been for that Venetian story, Burchard would
never have been silent on the subject.

The Pope had taken into his pay that distinguished condottiero, Duke
Guidobaldo of Urbino, who later was to feel the relentless might of
Cesare.  To Guidobaldo's command was now entrusted the punitive
expedition against the Orsini, and with him was to go the Duke of Gandia,
ostensibly to share the leadership, in reality that, under so able a
master, he might serve his apprenticeship to the trade of arms.  So on
October 25 Giovanni Borgia was very solemnly created Gonfalonier of the
Church and Captain-General of	the pontifical troops.  On the same day the
three standards were blessed in St. Peter's--one being the Papal Gonfalon
bearing the arms of the Church and the other two the personal banners of
Guidobaldo and Gandia.  The two condottieri attended the ceremony,
arrayed in full armour, and received the white truncheons that were the
emblems of their command.

On the following day the army set out, accompanied by the Cardinal de
Luna as papal legate a latere, and within a month ten Orsini strongholds
had surrendered.

So far all had been easy for the papal forces; but now the Orsini rallied
in the last three fortresses that remained them--Bracciano, Trevignano,
and Anguillara, and their resistance suddenly acquired a stubborn
character, particularly that of Bracciano, which was captained by
Bartolomeo d'Alviano, a clever, resourceful young soldier who was
destined to go far.  Thus the campaign, so easily conducted at the
outset, received a check which caused it to drag on into the winter.  And
now the barons received further reinforcements.  Vitellozzo Vitelli, the
Tyrant of Città di Castello, came to the aid of the Orsini, as did also
the turbulent Baglioni of Perugia, the della Rovere in Rome, and all
those who were inimical to Alexander VI.  On the other hand, however, the
barons Colonna and Savelli ranged themselves on the side of the Pope.

Already Trevignano had fallen, and the attack of the pontifical army was
concentrated upon Bracciano.  Hard pressed, and with all supplies cut
off, Bartolomeo d'Alviano was driven to the very verge of surrender, when
over the hills came Carlo Orsini, with the men of Vitellozzo Vitelli, to
take the papal forces by surprise and put them to utter rout.  Guidobaldo
was made prisoner, whilst the Duke of Gandia, Fabrizio Colonna, and the
papal legate narrowly escaped, and took shelter in Ronciglione, the
Pope's son being slightly wounded in the face.

It was a severe and sudden conclusion to a war that had begun under such
excellent auspices for the Pontificals.  Yet, notwithstanding that
defeat, which had left guns and baggage in the hands of the enemy, the
Pope was the gainer by the campaign, having won eleven strongholds from
the Orsini in exchange for one battle lost.

The barons now prepared to push home their advantage and complete the
victory; but the Pope checkmated them by an appeal to Gonzalo de Cordoba,
who promptly responded and came with Prospero Colonna to the aid of the
Church.  He laid siege to Ostia, which was being held for the Cardinal
della Rovere, and compelled it to a speedy surrender, thereby bringing
the Orsini resistance practically to an end.  For the present the might
of the barons was broken, and they were forced to pay Alexander the sum
of 50,000 ducats to redeem their captured fortresses.

Gonzalo de Cordoba made a triumphal entry into Rome, bringing with him
Monaldo da Guerra, the unfortunate defender of Ostia, in chains.  He was
received with great honour by the Duke of Gandia, accompanied by his
brother-in-law, Giovanni Sforza, and they escorted him to the Vatican,
where the Pope awaited him.

This was but one of the many occasions just then on which Giovanni Sforza
was conspicuous in public in close association with his father-in-law,
the Pope.  Burchard mentions his presence at the blessing of the candles
on the Feast of the Purification, and shows him to us as a candle-bearer
standing on the Pope's right hand.  Again we see him on Palm Sunday in
attendance upon Alexander, he and Gandia standing together on the steps
of the pontifical throne in the Sixtine Chapel during the Blessing of the
Palms.  There and elsewhere Lucrezia's husband is prominently in the
public eye during those months of February and March of 1497, and we
generally see him sharing, with the Duke of Gandia, the honour of close
attendance upon the Pontiff, all of which but serves to render the more
marked his sudden disappearance from that scene.

The matter of his abrupt and precipitate flight from Rome is one
concerning which it is unlikely that the true and complete facts will
ever be revealed.  It was public gossip at this time that his marriage
with	Lucrezia was not a happy one, and that discord marred their life
together.  Lucrezia's reported grievance upon this subject reads a little
vaguely to us now, whatever it may have conveyed at the time.  She
complained that Giovanni "did not fittingly keep her company,"(1) which
may be taken to mean that a good harmony did not prevail between them,
or, almost equally well, that there were the canonical grounds for
complaint against him as a husband which were afterwards formally
preferred and made the grounds for the divorce.  It is also possible that
Alexander's ambition may have urged him to dissolve the marriage to the
end that she might be free to be used again as a pawn in his far-reaching

1  "Che non gli faceva buona compagnia."

All that we do know positively is that, one evening in Holy Week, Sforza
mounted a Turkish horse, and, on the pretext of going as far as the
Church of Sant' Onofrio to take the air, he slipped out of Rome, and so
desperately did he ride that, twenty-four hours later, he was home in
Pesaro, his horse dropping dead as he reached the town.

Certainly some terrible panic must have urged him, and this rather lends
colour to the story told by Almerici in the Memorie di Pesaro.  According
to this, the Lord of Pesaro's chamberlain, Giacomino, was in Lucrezia's
apartments one evening when Cesare was announced, whereupon, by
Lucrezia's orders, Giacomino concealed himself behind a screen.  The
Cardinal of Valencia entered and talked freely with his sister, the
essence of his conversation being that the order had been issued for her
husband's death.

The inference to be drawn from this is that Giovanni had been given to
choose in the matter of a divorce, and that he had refused to be a party
to it, whence it was resolved to remove him in a still more effective

Be that as it may, the chroniclers of Pesaro proceed to relate that,
after Cesare had left her, Lucrezia asked Giacomino if he had heard what
had been said, and, upon being answered in the affirmative, urged him to
go at once and warn Giovanni.  It was as a consequence of this alleged
warning that Giovanni made his precipitate departure.

A little while later, at the beginning of June, Lucrezia left the Vatican
and withdrew to the Convent of San Sisto, in the Appian Way, a step which
immediately gave rise to speculation and to unbridled gossip, all of
which, however, is too vague to be worthy of the least attention. 
Aretino's advices to the Cardinal Ippolito d'Este suggest that she did
not leave the Vatican on good terms with her family, and it is very
possible, if what the Pesaro chroniclers state is true, that her
withdrawal arose out of her having warned Giovanni of his danger and
enabled him to escape.

At about the same time that Lucrezia withdrew to her convent her brother
Gandia was the recipient of further honours at the hands of his fond
father.  The Pope had raised the fief of Benevento to a dukedom, and as a
dukedom conferred it upon his son, to him and to his legitimate heirs for
ever.  To this he added the valuable lordships of Terracina and

Cesare, meanwhile, had by no means been forgotten, and already this young
cardinal was--with perhaps the sole exception of the Cardinal
d'Estouteville--the richest churchman in Christendom.  To his many other
offices and benefices it was being proposed to add that of Chamberlain of
the Holy See, Cardinal Riario, who held the office, being grievously ill
and his recovery despaired of.  Together with that office it was the
Pope's avowed intention to bestow upon Cesare the palace of the late
Cardinal of Mantua, and with it, no doubt, he would receive a proportion
of the dead cardinal's benefices.

Cesare was twenty-two years of age at the time; tall, of an athletic
slenderness, and exceedingly graceful in his movements, he was
acknowledged to be the handsomest man of his age.  His face was long and
pale, his brow lofty, his nose delicately aquiline.  He had long auburn
hair, and his hazel eyes, large, quick in their movements, and singularly
searching in their glance, were alive with the genius of the soul behind
them.  He inherited from his father the stupendous health and vigour for
which Alexander had been remarkable in his youth, and was remarkable
still in his old age.  The chase had ever been Cesare's favourite
pastime, and the wild boar his predilect quarry; and in the pursuit of it
he had made good use of his exceptional physical endowments, cultivating
them until--like his father before him--he was equal to the endurance of
almost any degree of fatigue.

In the Consistory of June 8 he was appointed legate a latere to go to
Naples to crown King Federigo of Aragon--for in the meanwhile another
change had taken place on the Neapolitan throne by the death of young
Ferdinand II, who had been succeeded by his uncle, Federigo, Prince of

Cesare made ready for his departure upon this important mission, upon
which he was to be accompanied by his brother Giovanni, Duke of Gandia. 
They were both to be back in Rome by September, when Gandia was to return
to Spain, taking with him his sister Lucrezia.

Thus had the Pope disposed; but the Borgia family stood on the eve of the
darkest tragedy associated with its name, a tragedy which was to alter
all these plans.



On June 14, 1497, the eve of Cesare and Giovanni Borgia's departure for
Naples, their mother Vannozza gave them a farewell supper in her
beautiful vineyard in Trastevere.  In addition to the two guests of
honour several other kinsmen and friends were present, among whom were
the Cardinal of Monreale and young Giuffredo Borgia.  They remained at
supper until an advanced hour of the night, when Cesare and Giovanni took
their departure, attended only by a few servants and a mysterious man in
a mask, who had come to Giovanni whilst he was at table, and who almost
every day for about a month had been in the habit of visiting him at the

The brothers and these attendants rode together into Rome and as far as
the Vice-Chancellor Ascanio Sforza's palace in the Ponte Quarter.  Here
Giovanni drew rein, and informed Cesare that he would not be returning to
the Vatican just yet, as he was first "going elsewhere to amuse himself." 
With that he took his leave of Cesare, and, with one single exception--in
addition to the man in the mask--dismissed his servants.  The latter
continued their homeward way with the cardinal, whilst the Duke, taking
the man in the mask upon the crupper of his horse and followed his single
attendant, turned and made off in the direction of the Jewish quarter.

In the morning it was found that Giovanni had not yet returned, and his
uneasy servants informed the Pope of his absence and of the circumstances
of it.  The Pope, however, was not at all alarmed.  Explaining his son's
absence in the manner so obviously suggested by Giovanni's parting words
to Cesare on the previous night, he assumed that the gay young Duke was
on a visit to some complacent lady and that presently he would return.

Later in the day, however, news was brought that his horse had been found
loose in the streets, in the neighbourhood of the Cardinal of Parma's
palace, with only one stirrup-leather, the other having clearly been cut
from the saddle, and, at the same time, it was related that the servant
who had accompanied him after he had separated from the rest had been
found at dawn in the Piazza della Giudecca mortally wounded and beyond
speech, expiring soon after his removal to a neighbouring house.

Alarm spread through the Vatican, and the anxious Pope ordered inquiries
to be made in every quarter where it was possible that anything might be
learned.  It was in answer to these inquiries that a boatman of the
Schiavoni--one Giorgio by name--came forward with the story of what he
had seen on the night of Wednesday.  He had passed the night on board his
boat, on guard over the timber with which she was laden.  She was moored
along the bank that runs from the Bridge of Sant' Angelo to the Church of
Santa Maria Nuova.

He related that at about the fifth hour of the night, just before
daybreak, he had seen two men emerge from the narrow street alongside the
Hospital of San Girolamo, and stand on the river's brink at the spot
where it was usual for the scavengers to discharge their refuse carts
into the water.  These men had looked carefully about, as if to make sure
that they were not being observed.  Seeing no one astir, they made a
sign, whereupon a man well mounted on a handsome white horse, his heels
armed with golden spurs, rode out of that same narrow street.  Behind
him, on the crupper of his horse, Giorgio beheld the body of a man, the
head hanging in one direction and the legs in the other.  This body was
supported there by two other men on foot, who walked on either side of
the horseman.

Arrived at the water's edge, they turned the horse's hind-quarters to the
river; then, taking the body between them, two of them swung it well out
into the stream.  After the splash, Giorgio had heard the horseman
inquire whether they had thrown well into the middle, and had heard him
receive the affirmative answer--"Signor, Si."  The horseman then sat
scanning the surface a while, and presently pointed out a dark object
floating, which proved to be their victim's cloak.  The men threw stones
at it, and so sank it, whereupon they turned, and all five departed as
they had come.

Such is the boatman's story, as related in the Diarium of Burchard.  When
the Pope had heard it, he asked the fellow why he had not immediately
gone to give notice of what he had witnessed, to which this Giorgio
replied that, in his time, he had seen over a hundred bodies thrown into
the Tiber without ever anybody troubling to know anything about them.

This story and Gandia's continued absence threw the Pope into a frenzy of
apprehension.  He ordered the bed of the river to be searched foot by
foot.  Some hundreds of boatmen and fishermen got to work, and on that
same afternoon the body of the ill-fated Duke of Gandia was brought up in
one of the nets.  He was not only completely dressed--as was to have been
expected from Giorgio's story--but his gloves and his purse containing
thirty ducats were still at his belt, as was his dagger, the only weapon
he had carried; the jewels upon his person, too, were all intact, which
made it abundantly clear that his assassination was not the work of

His hands were still tied, and there were from ten to fourteen wounds on
his body, in addition to which his throat had been cut.

The corpse was taken in a boat to the Castle of Sant' Angelo, where it
was stripped, washed, and arrayed in the garments of the Captain-General
of the Church.  That same night, on a bier, the body covered with a
mantle of brocade, the face "looking more beautiful than in life," he was
carried by torchlight from Sant' Angelo to Santa Maria del Popolo for
burial, quietly and with little pomp.

The Pope's distress was terrible.  As the procession was crossing the
Bridge of Sant' Angelo, those who stood there heard his awful cries of
anguish, as is related in the dispatches of an eye-witness quoted by
Sanuto.  Alexander shut himself up in his apartments with his passionate
sorrow, refusing to see anybody; and it was only by insistence that the
Cardinal of Segovia and some of the Pope's familiars contrived to gain
admission to his presence; but even then, not for three days could they
induce him to taste food, nor did he sleep.

At last he roused himself, partly in response to the instances of the
Cardinal of Segovia, partly spurred by the desire to avenge the death of
his child, and he ordered Rome to be ransacked for the assassins; but,
although the search was pursued for two months, it proved utterly

That is the oft-told story of the death of the Duke of Gandia.  Those are
all the facts concerning it that are known or that ever will be known. 
The rest is speculation, and this speculation follows the trend of malice
rather than of evidence.

Suspicion fell at first upon Giovanni Sforza, who was supposed to have
avenged himself thus upon the Pope for the treatment he had received. 
There certainly existed that reasonable motive to actuate him, but not a
particle of evidence against him.

Next rumour had it that Cardinal Ascanio Sforza's was the hand that had
done this work, and with this rumour Rome was busy for months.  It was
known that he had quarrelled violently with Gandia, who had been grossly
insulted by a chamberlain of Ascanio's, and who had wiped out the insult
by having the man seized and hanged.

Sanuto quotes a letter from Rome on July 21, which states that "it is
certain that Ascanio murdered the Duke of Gandia."  Cardinal Ascanio's
numerous enemies took care to keep the accusation alive at the Vatican,
and Ascanio, in fear for his life, had left Rome and fled to
Grottaferrata.  When summoned to Rome, he had refused to come save under
safe­conduct.  His fears, however, appear to have been groundless, for
the Pope attached no importance to the accusation against him, convinced
of his innocence, as he informed him.

Thereupon public opinion looked about for some other likely person upon
whom to fasten its indictment, and lighted upon Giuffredo Borgia,
Gandia's youngest brother.  Here, again, a motive was not wanting. 
Already has mention been made of the wanton ways of Giuffredo's
Neapolitan wife, Doña Sancia.  That she was prodigal of her favours there
is no lack of evidence, and it appears that, amongst those she admitted
to them, was the dead duke.  Jealousy, then, it was alleged, was the spur
that had driven Giuffredo to the deed; and that the rumour of this must
have been insistent is clear when we find the Pope publicly exonerating
his youngest son.

Thus matters stood, and thus had public opinion spoken, when in the month
of August the Pope ordered the search for the murderer to cease.  Bracci,
the Florentine ambassador, explains this action of Alexander's.  He
writes that his Holiness knew who were the murderers, and that he was
taking no further steps in the matter in the hope that thus, conceiving
themselves to be secure, they might more completely discover themselves.

Bracci's next letter bears out the supposition that he writes from
inference, and not from knowledge.  He repeats that the investigations
have been suspended, and that to account for this some say what already
he has written, whilst others deny it; but that the truth of the matter
is known to none.

Later in the year we find the popular voice denouncing Bartolomeo
d'Alviano and the Orsini.  Already in August the Ferrarese ambassador,
Manfredi, had written that the death of the Duke of Gandia was being
imputed to Bartolomeo d'Alviano, and in December we see in Sanuto a
letter from Rome which announces that it is positively stated that the
Orsini had caused the death of Giovanni Borgia.

These various rumours were hardly worth mentioning for their own values,
but they are important as showing how public opinion fastened the crime
in turn upon everybody it could think of as at all likely to have had
cause to commit it, and more important still for the purpose of refuting
what has since been written concerning the immediate connection of Cesare
Borgia with the crime in the popular mind.

Not until February of the following year was the name of Cesare ever
mentioned in connection with the deed.  The first rumour of his guilt
synchronized with that of his approaching renunciation of his
ecclesiastical career, and there can be little doubt that the former
sprang from the latter.  The world conceived that it had discovered on
Cesare's part a motive for the murder of his brother.  That motive--of
which so very much has been made--shall presently be examined. 
Meanwhile, to deal with the actual rumour, and its crystallization into
history.  The Ferrarese ambassador heard it in Venice on February 12,
1498.  Capello seized upon it, and repeated it two and a half years
later, stating on September 28, 1500: "etiam amazó il fratello."

And there you have the whole source of all the unbridled accusations
subsequently launched against Cesare, all of which find a prominent place
in Gregorovius's Geschichte der Stadt Rom, whilst the rumours accusing
others, which we have mentioned here, are there slurred over.

One hesitates to attack the arguments and conclusions of the very eminent
author of that mighty History of Rome in the Middle Ages, but conscience
and justice demand that his chapter upon this subject be dealt with as it

The striking talents of Gregorovius are occasionally marred by the
egotism and pedantry sometimes characteristic of the scholars of his
nation.  He is too positive; he seldom opines; he asserts with finality
the things that only God can know; occasionally his knowledge,
transcending the possible, quits the realm of the historian for that of
the romancer, as for instance--to cite one amid a thousand--when he
actually tells us what passes in Cesare Borgia's mind at the coronation
of the King of Naples.  In the matter of authorities, he follows a
dangerous and insidious eclecticism, preferring those who support the
point of view which he has chosen, without a proper regard for their
intrinsic values.

He tells us definitely that, if Alexander had not positive knowledge, he
had at least moral conviction that it was Cesare who had killed the Duke
of Gandia.  In that, again, you see the God-like knowledge which he
usurps; you see him clairvoyant rather than historical.  Starting out
with the positive assertion that Cesare Borgia was the murderer, he sets
himself to prove it by piling up a mass of worthless evidence, whose
worthlessness it is unthinkable he should not have realized.

"According to the general opinion of the day, which in all probability
was correct, Cesare was the murderer of his brother."

Thus Gregorovius in his Lucrezia Borgia.  A deliberate misstatement! 
For, as we have been at pains to show, not until the crime had been
fastened upon everybody whom public opinion could conceive to be a
possible assassin, not until nearly a year after Gandia's death did
rumour for the first time connect Cesare with the deed.  Until then the
ambassadors' letters from Rome in dealing with the murder and reporting
speculation upon possible murderers never make a single allusion to
Cesare as the guilty person.

Later, when once it had been bruited, it found its way into the writings
of every defamer of the Borgias, and from several of these it is taken by
Gregorovius to help him uphold that theory.

Two motives were urged for the crime.  One was Cesare's envy of his
brother, whom he desired to supplant as a secular prince, fretting in the
cassock imposed upon himself which restrained his unbounded ambition. 
The other--and no epoch but this one under consideration, in its reaction
from the age of chivalry, could have dared to level it without a careful
examination of its sources--was Cesare's jealousy, springing from the
incestuous love for their sister Lucrezia, which he is alleged to have
disputed with his brother.  Thus, as l'Espinois has pointed out, to
convict Cesare Borgia of a crime which cannot absolutely be proved
against him, all that is necessary is that he should be charged with
another crime still more horrible of which even less proof exists.

This latter motive, it is true, is rejected by Gregorovius.  "Our sense
of honesty," he writes, "repels us from attaching faith to the belief
spread in that most corrupt age."  Yet the authorities urging one motive
are commonly those urging the other, and Gregorovius quotes those that
suit him, without considering that, if he is convinced they lie in one
connection, he has not the right to assume them truthful in another.

The contemporary, or quasi-contemporary writers upon whose "authority" it
is usual to show that Cesare Borgia was guilty of both those revolting
crimes are: Sanazzaro, Capello, Macchiavelli, Matarazzo, Sanuto, Pietro
Martire d'Anghiera, Guicciardini, and Panvinio.

A formidable array!  But consider them, one by one, at close quarters,
and take a critical look at what they actually wrote:

SANAZZARO was a Neapolitan poet and epigrammatist, who could not--his
times being what they were--be expected to overlook the fact that in
these slanderous rumours of incest was excellent matter for
epigrammatical verse.  Therefore, he crystallized them into lines which,
whilst doing credit to his wit, reveal his brutal cruelty.  No one will
seriously suppose that such a man would be concerned with the veracity of
the matter of his verses--even leaving out of the question his enmity
towards the House of Borgia, which will transpire later.  For him a ben
trovato was as good matter as a truth, or better.  He measured its value
by its piquancy, by its adaptability to epigrammatic rhymes.

Conceive the heartlessness of the man who, at the moment of Alexander's
awful grief at the murder of his son--a grief which so moved even his
enemies that the bitter Savonarola, and the scarcely less bitter Cardinal
della Rovere, wrote to condole with him--could pen that terrible epigram:

     Piscatorem hominum ne te non, Sexte, putemus,
     Piscaris notum retibus ecce tuum.

Consider the ribaldry of that, and ask yourselves whether this is a man
who would immolate the chance of a witticism upon the altar of Truth.

It is significant that Sanazzaro, for what he may be worth, confines
himself to the gossip of incest.  Nowhere does he mention that Cesare was
the murderer, and we think that his silence upon the matter, if it shows
anything, shows that Cesare's guilt was not so very much the "general
opinion of the day," as Gregorovius asks us to believe.

CAPPELLO was not in Rome at the time of the murder, nor until three years
later, when he merely repeated the rumour that had first sprung up some
eight months after the crime.

The precise value of his famous "relation" (in which this matter is
recorded, and to which we shall return in its proper place) and the
spirit that actuated him is revealed in another accusation of murder
which he levels at Cesare, an accusation which, of course, has also been
widely disseminated upon no better authority than his own.  It is Capello
who tells us that Cesare stabbed the chamberlain Perrotto in the Pope's
very arms; he adds the details that the man had fled thither for shelter
from Cesare's fury, and that the blood of him, when he was stabbed,
spurted up into the very face of the Pope.  Where he got the story is not
readily surmised--unless it be assumed that he evolved it out of his
feelings for the Borgias.  The only contemporary accounts of the death of
this Perrotto--or Pedro Caldes, as was his real name--state that he fell
by accident into the Tiber and was drowned.

Burchard, who could not have failed to know if the stabbing story had
been true, and would not have failed to report it, chronicles the fact
that Perrotto was fished out of Tiber, having fallen in six days earlier
--"non libenter."  This statement, coming from the pen of the Master of
Ceremonies at the Vatican, requires no further corroboration.  Yet
corroboration there actually is in a letter from Rome of February 20,
1498, quoted by Marino Sanuto in his Diarii.  This states that Perrotto
had been missing for some days, no one knowing what had become of him,
and that now "he has been found drowned in the Tiber."

We mention this, in passing, with the twofold object of slaying another
calumny, and revealing the true value of Capello, who happens to be the
chief "witness for the prosecution" put forward by Gregorovius.  "Is it
not of great significance," inquires the German historian, "that the fact
should have been related so positively by an ambassador who obtained his
knowledge from the best sources?"

The question is frivolous, for the whole trouble in this matter is that
there were no sources at all, in the proper sense of the word--good or
bad.  There was simply gossip, which had been busy with a dozen names

MACCHIAVELLI includes a note in his Extracts from Letters to the Ten, in
which he mentions the death of Gandia, adding that "at first nothing was
known, and then men said it was done by the Cardinal of Valencia."

There is nothing very conclusive in that.  Besides, incidentally it may
be mentioned, that it is not clear when or how these extracts were
compiled by Macchiavelli (in his capacity of Secretary to the Signory of
Florence) from the dispatches of her ambassadors.  But it has been shown
--though we are hardly concerned with that at the moment--that these
extracts are confused by comments of his own, either for his own future
use or for that of another.

MATARAZZO is the Perugian chronicler of whom we have already expressed
the only tenable opinion.  The task he set himself was to record the
contemporary events of his native town--the stronghold of the blood-
dripping Baglioni.  He enlivened it by every scrap of scandalous gossip
that reached him, however alien to his avowed task.  The authenticity of
this scandalmongering chronicle has been questioned; but, even assuming
it to be authentic, it is so wildly inaccurate when dealing with matters
happening beyond the walls of Perugia as to be utterly worthless.

Matarazzo relates the story of the incestuous relations prevailing in the
Borgia family, and with an unsparing wealth of detail not to be found
elsewhere; but on the subject of the murder he has a tale to tell
entirely different from any other that has been left us.  For, whilst he
urges the incest as the motive of the crime, the murderer, he tells us,
was Giovanni Sforza, the outraged husband; and he gives us the fullest
details of that murder, time and place and exactly how committed, and all
the other matters which have never been brought to light.

It is all a worthless, garbled piece of fiction, most obviously; as such
it has ever been treated; but it is as plausible as it is untrue, and, at
least, as authoritative as any available evidence assigning the guilt to

SANUTO we accept as a more or less careful and painstaking chronicler,
whose writings are valuable; and Sanuto on the matter of the murder
confines himself to quoting the letter of February 1498, in which the
accusation against Cesare is first mentioned, after having given other
earlier letters which accuse first Ascanio and then Orsini far more
positively than does the latter letter accuse Cesare.

On the matter of the incest there is no word in Sanuto; but there is
mention of Doña Sancia's indiscretions, and the suggestion that, through
jealousy on her account, it was rumoured that the murder had been
committed--another proof of how vague and ill-defined the rumours were.

PIETRO MARTIRE D'ANGHIERA writes from Burgos, in Spain, that he is
convinced of the fratricide.  It is interesting to know of that
conviction of his; but difficult to conceive how it is to be accepted as

If more needs to be said of him, let it be mentioned that the letter in
which he expresses that conviction is dated April 1497--two months before
the murder took place!  So that even Gregorovius is forced to doubt the
authenticity of that document.

GUICCIARDINI is not a contemporary chronicler of events as they happened,
but an historian writing some thirty years later.  He merely repeats what
Capello and others have said before him.  It is for him to quote
authorities for what he writes, and not to be set up as an authority.  He
is not reliable, and he is a notorious defamer of the Papacy, sparing
nothing that will serve his ends.  He dilates with gusto upon the
accusation of incest.

Lastly, PANVINTO is in the same category as Guicciardini.  He was not
born until some thirty years after these events, and his History of the
Popes was not written until some sixty years after the murder of the Duke
of Gandia.  This history bristles with inaccuracies; he never troubles to
verify his facts, and as an authority he is entirely negligible.

In the valuable Diarium of Burchard there is unfortunately a lacuna at
this juncture, from the day after the murder (of which he gives the full
particulars to which we have gone for our narrative of that event) until
the month of August following.  And now we may see Gregorovius actually
using silence as evidence.  He seizes upon that lacuna, and goes so far
as to set up the tentative explanation that Burchard "perhaps purposely
interrupted his Diary that he might avoid mentioning the fratricide."

If such were the case, it would be a strange departure from Burchard's
invariable rule, which is one of cold, relentless, uncritical chronicling
of events, no matter what their nature.  Besides, any significance with
which that lacuna might be invested is discounted by the fact that such
gaps are of fairly common occurrence in the course of Burchard's record. 
Finally it remains to be shown that the lacuna in question exists in the
original diaries, which have yet to be discovered.

So much for the valuable authorities, out of which--and by means of a
selection which is not quite clearly defined--Gregorovius claims to have
proved that the murderer of the Duke of Gandia was his brother Cesare
Borgia, Cardinal of Valencia.(1)

1  It is rather odd that, in the course of casting about for a possible
murderer of Gandia, public opinion should never have fastened upon
Cardinal Alessandro Farnese.  He had lately been stripped of the
Patrimony of St. Peter that the governorship of this might be bestowed
upon Gandia; his resentment had been provoked by that action of the
Pope's, and the relations between himself and the Borgias were strained
in consequence.  Possibly there was clear proof that he could have had no
connection with the crime.

Now to examine more closely the actual motives given by those authorities
and by later, critical writers, for attributing the guilt to Cesare.

In September of the year 1497, the Pope had dissolved the marriage of his
daughter Lucrezia and Giovanni Sforza, and the grounds for the
dissolution were that the husband was impotens et frigidus natura--
admitted by himself.(2)

2  "El S. de Pesaro ha scripto qua de sua mano non haverla mai
cognosciuta et esser impotente, alias la sententia non se potea dare.  El
prefato S. dice pero haver scripto cosi per obedire el Duca de Milano et
Aschanio" (Collenuccio's letter from Rome to the Duke of Ferrara, Dec.
25, 1497).

If you know anything of the Italy of to-day, you will be able to conceive
for yourself how the Italy of the fifteenth century must have held her
sides and pealed her laughter at the contemptible spectacle of an
unfortunate who afforded such reason to be bundled out of a nuptial bed. 
The echo of that mighty burst of laughter must have rung from Calabria to
the Alps, and well may it have filled the handsome weakling who was the
object of its cruel ridicule with a talion fury.  The weapons he took up
wherewith to defend himself were a little obvious.  He answered the
odious reflections upon his virility by a wholesale charge of incest
against the Borgia family; he screamed that what had been said of him was
a lie invented by the Borgias to serve their own unutterable ends.(1) 
Such was the accusation with which the squirming Lord of Pesaro
retaliated, and, however obvious, yet it was not an accusation that the
world of his day would lightly cast aside, for all that the perspicacious
may have rated it at its proper value.

1 "Et mancho se e curato de fare prova de qua con Done per poterne
chiarire el Rev. Legato che era qua, sebbene sua Excellentia tastandolo
sopra cio gli ne abbia facto offerta."  And further: "Anzi haverla
conosciuta infinite volte, ma chel Papa non geiha tolta per altro se non
per usare con lei" (Costabili's letter from Milan to the Duke of Ferrara,
June 23, 1497).

What is of great importance to students of the history of the Borgias is
that this was the first occasion on which the accusation of incest was
raised.  Of course it persisted; such a charge could not do otherwise. 
But now that we see in what soil it had its roots we shall know what
importance to attach to it.

Not only did it persist, but it developed, as was but natural.  Cesare
and the dead Gandia were included in it, and presently it suggested a
motive--not dreamed of until then--why Cesare might have been his
brother's murderer.

Then, early in 1498, came the rumour that Cesare was intending to abandon
the purple, and later Writers, from Capello down to our own times, have
chosen to see in Cesare's supposed contemplation of that step a motive so
strong for the crime as to prove it in the most absolutely conclusive
manner.  In no case could it be such proof, even if it were admitted as a
motive.  But is it really so to be admitted?  Did such a motive exist at
all?  Does it really follow--as has been taken for granted--that Cesare
must have remained an ecclesiastic had Gandia lived?  We cannot see that
it does.  Indeed, such evidence as there is, when properly considered,
points in the opposite direction, even if no account is taken of the fact
that this was not the first occasion on which it was proposed that Cesare
should abandon the ecclesiastical career, as is shown by the Ferrarese
ambassador's dispatches of March 1493.

It is contended that Gandia was a stumbling-block to Cesare, and that
Gandia held the secular possessions which Cesare coveted; but if that
were really the case why, when eventually (some fourteen months after
Gandia's death) Cesare doffed the purple to replace it by a soldier's
harness, did he not assume the secular possessions that had been his

His dead brother's lands and titles went to his dead brother's son,
whilst Cesare's career was totally different, as his aims were totally
different, from any that had been Gandia's, or that might have been
Gandia's had the latter lived.  True, Cesare became Captain-General of
the Church in his dead brother's place; but for that his brother's death
was not necessary.  Gandia had neither the will nor the intellect to
undertake the things that awaited Cesare.  He was a soft-natured,
pleasure-loving youth, whose way of life was already mapped out for him. 
His place was at Gandia, in Spain, and, whilst he might have continued
lord of all the possessions that were his, it would have been Cesare's to
become Duke of Valentinois, and to have made himself master of Romagna,
precisely as he did.

In conclusion, Gandia's death no more advanced, than his life could have
impeded, the career which Cesare afterwards made his own, and to say that
Cesare murdered him to supplant him is to set up a theory which the
subsequent facts of Cesare's life will nowise justify.

It is idle of Gregorovius to say that the logic of the crime is
inexorable--in its assigning the guilt to Cesare--fatuous of him to
suppose that, as he claims, he has definitely proved Cesare to be his
brother's murderer.

There is much against Cesare Borgia, but it never has been proved, and
never will be proved, that he was a fratricide.  Indeed the few really
known facts of the murder all point to a very different conclusion--a
conclusion more or less obvious, which has been discarded, presumably for
no better reason than because it was obvious.

Where was all this need to go so far afield in quest of a probable
murderer imbued with political motives?  Where the need to accuse in turn
every enemy that Gandia could possibly possess before finally fastening
upon his own brother?

Certain evidence is afforded by the known facts of the case, scant as
they are.  It may not amount to much, but at least it is sufficient to
warrant a plausible conclusion, and there is no justification for
discarding it in favour of something for which not a particle of evidence
is forthcoming.

There is, first of all, the man in the mask to be accounted for.  That he
is connected with the crime is eminently probable, if not absolutely

It is to be remembered that for a month--according to Burchard--he had
been in the habit of visiting Gandia almost daily.  He comes to
Vannozza's villa on the night of the murder.  Is it too much to suppose
that he brought a message from some one from whom he was in the habit of
bringing messages?

He was seen last on the crupper of Gandia's horse as the latter rode away
towards the Jewish quarter.(1)  Gandia himself announced that he was
bound on pleasure--going to amuse himself.  Even without the knowledge
which we possess of his licentious habits, no doubt could arise as to the
nature of the amusement upon which he was thus bound at dead of night;
and there are the conclusions formed in the morning by his father, when
it was found that Gandia had not returned.

1  The Ghetto was not yet in existence.  It was not built until 1556,
under Paul IV.

Is it so very difficult to conceive that Gandia, in the course of the
assignation to which he went, should have fallen into the hands of an
irate father, husband, or brother?  Is it not really the obvious
inference to draw from the few facts that we possess?  That it was the
inference drawn by the Pope and clung to even some time after the crime
and while rumours of a different sort were rife, is shown by the
perquisition made in the house of Antonio Pico della Mirandola, who had a
daughter whom it was conceived might have been the object of the young
duke's nocturnal visit, and whose house was near the place where Gandia
was flung into the Tiber.

We could hazard speculations that would account for the man in the mask,
but it is not our business to speculate save where the indications are
fairly clear.

Let us consider the significance of Gandia's tied hands and the wounds
upon his body in addition to the mortal gash across his throat.  To what
does this condition point?  Surely not to a murder of expediency so much
as to a fierce, lustful butchery of vengeance.  Surely it suggests that
Gandia may have been tortured before his throat was cut.  Why else were
his wrists pinioned?  Had he been swiftly done to death there would have
been no need for that.  Had hired assassins done the work they would not
have stayed to pinion him, nor do we think they would have troubled to
fling him into the river; they would have slain and left him where he

The whole aspect of the case suggests the presence of the master, of the
personal enemy himself.  We can conceive Gandia's wrists being tied, to
the end that this personal enemy might do his will upon the wretched
young man, dealing him one by one the ten or fourteen wounds in the body
before making an end of him by cutting his throat.  We cannot explain the
pinioned wrists in any other way.  Then the man on the handsome white
horse, the man whom the four others addressed as men address their lord. 
Remember his gold spurs--a trifle, perhaps; but hired assassins do not
wear gold spurs, even though their bestriding handsome white horses may
be explainable.

Surely that was the master, the personal enemy himself--and it was not
Cesare, for Cesare at the time was at the Vatican.

There we must leave the mystery of the murder of the Duke of Gandia; but
we leave it convinced that, such scant evidence as there is, points to an
affair of sordid gallantry, and nowise implicates his brother Cesare.



At the Consistory of June 19, 1497 the Sacred College beheld a broken-
hearted old man who declared that he had done with the world, and that
henceforth life could offer him nothing that should endear it to him.

"A greater sorrow than this could not be ours, for we loved him
exceedingly, and now we can hold neither the Papacy nor any other thing
as of concern.  Had we seven Papacies, we would give them all to restore
the duke to life."  So ran his bitter lament.

He denounced his course of life as not having been all that it should
have been, and appeared to see in the murder of his son a punishment for
the evil of his ways.  Much has been made of this, and quite
unnecessarily.  It has been taken eagerly as an admission of his
unparalleled guilt.  An admission of guilt it undoubtedly was; but what
man is not guilty? and how many men--ay, and saints even--in the hour of
tribulation have cried out that they were being made to feel the wrath of
God for the sins that no man is without?

If humanity contains a type that would not have seen in such a cause for
sorrow a visitation of God, it is the type of inhuman monster to which we
are asked to believe that Alexander VI belonged.  A sinner unquestionably
he was, and a great one; but a human sinner, and not an incarnate devil,
else there could have been no such outcry from him in such an hour as

He announced that henceforth the spiritual needs of the Church should be
his only care.  He inveighed against the corruption of the ecclesiastical
estate, confessing himself aware of how far it had strayed from the
ancient discipline and from the laws that had been framed to bridle
licence and cupidity, which were now rampant and unchecked; and he
proclaimed his intention to reform the Curia and the Church of Rome.  To
this end he appointed a commission consisting of the Cardinal-Bishops
Oliviero Caraffa and Giorgio Costa, the Cardinal-Priests Antonietto
Pallavicino and Gianantonio Sangiorgio, and the Cardinal-Deacons
Francesco Piccolomini and Raffaele Riario.

There was even a suggestion that he was proposing to abdicate, but that
he was prevailed upon to do nothing until his grief should have abated
and his judgement be restored to its habitual calm.  This suggestion,
however, rests upon no sound authority.

Letters of condolence reached him on every hand.  Even his arch-enemy,
Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, put aside his rancour in the face of the
Pope's overwhelming grief--and also because it happened to consort with
his own interests, as will presently transpire.  He wrote to Alexander
from France that he was truly pained to the very soul of him in his
concern for the Pope's Holiness--a letter which, no doubt, laid the
foundations to the reconciliation that was toward between them.

Still more remarkable was it that the thaumaturgical Savonarola should
have paused in the atrabilious invective with which he was inflaming
Florence against the Pope, should have paused to send him a letter of
condolence in which he prayed that the Lord of all mercy might comfort
his Holiness in his tribulation.

That letter is a singular document; singularly human, yielding a singular
degree of insight into the nature of the man who penned it.  A whole
chapter of intelligent speculation upon the character of Savonarola,
based upon a study of externals, could not reveal as much of the
mentality of that fanatical demagogue as the consideration of just this

The sympathy by which we cannot doubt it to have been primarily inspired
is here overspread by the man's rampant fanaticism, there diluted by the
prophecies from which he cannot even now refrain; and, throughout, the
manner is that of the pulpit-thumping orator.  The first half of his
letter is a prelude in the form of a sermon upon Faith, all very trite
and obvious; and the notion of this excommunicated friar holding forth to
the Pope's Holiness in polemical platitudes delivered with all the
authority of inspired discoveries of his own is one more proof that at
the root of fanaticism in all ages and upon all questions, lies an utter
lack of a sense of fitness and proportion.  Having said that "the just
man liveth in the Lord by faith," and that "the Lord in His mercy passeth
over all our sins," he proclaims that he announces things of which he is
assured, and for which he is ready to suffer all persecutions, and begs
his Holiness to turn a favourable eye upon the work of faith in which he
is labouring, and to give heed no more to the impious, promising the Holy
Father that thus shall the Lord bestow upon him the essence of joy
instead of the spirit of grief.  Having begun, as we have seen, with an
assurance that "the Lord in His mercy passeth over all our sins," he
concludes by prophesying, with questionable logic, that "the thunders of
His wrath will ere long be heard."  Nor does he omit to mention--with an
apparent arrogance that again betrays that same want of a sense of
proportion--that all his predictions are true.

His letter, however, and that of Cardinal della Rovere, among so many
others, show us how touched was the world by the Pope's loss and
overwhelming grief, how shocked at the manner in which this had been
brought about.

The commission which Alexander had appointed for the work of reform had
meanwhile got to work, and the Cardinal of Naples edited the articles of
a constitution which was undoubtedly the object of prolonged study and
consideration, as is revealed by the numerous erasures and emendations
which it bears.  Unfortunately--for reasons which are not apparent--it
was never published by Alexander.  Possibly by the time that it was
concluded the aggrandizement of the temporal power was claiming his
entire attention to the neglect of the spiritual needs of the Holy See. 
It is also possible--as has been abundantly suggested--that the stern
mood of penitence had softened with his sorrow, and was now overpast.

Nevertheless, it may have been some lingering remnant of this fervour of
reform that dictated the severe punishment which fell that year upon the
flagitious Bishop of Cosenza.  A fine trade was being driven in Rome by
the sale of forged briefs of indulgence.  Raynaldus cites a Bull on that
score addressed by Alexander, in the first year of his pontificate, to
the bishops of Spain, enjoining them to visit with punishment all who in
that kingdom should be discovered to be pursuing such a traffic.  On
September 4, 1497, Burchard tells us, three servants of the Pontifical
Secretary, the Archbishop of Cosenza (Bartolomeo Florido) were arrested
in consequence of the discovery of twenty forged briefs issued by them. 
In their examination they incriminated their master the archbishop, who
was consequently put upon his trial and found guilty.  Alexander deposed,
degraded, and imprisoned him in Sant' Angelo in a dark room, where he was
supplied with oil for his lamp and bread and water for his nourishment
until he died.  His underlings were burnt in the Campo di Fiori in the
following month.

The Duke of Gandia left a widow and two children--Giovanni, a boy of
three years of age, and Isabella, a girl of two.  In the interests of her
son, the widowed duchess applied to the Governor of Valencia in the
following September for the boy's investiture in the rights of his
deceased father.  This was readily granted upon authority from Rome, and
so the boy Giovanni was recognized as third Duke of Gandia, Prince of
Sessa and Teano, and Lord of Cerignola and Montefoscolo, and the
administration of his estates during his minority was entrusted to his
uncle, Cesare Borgia.

The Lordship of Benevento--the last grant made to Giovanni Borgia--was
not mentioned; nor was it then nor ever subsequently claimed by the
widow.  It is the one possession of Gandia's that went to Cesare, who was
confirmed in it by the King of Naples.

The Gandia branch of the Borgia family remained in Spain, prospered and
grew in importance, and, incidentally, produced St. Francis de Borgia. 
This Duke of Gandia was Master of the Household to Charles V, and thus a
man of great worldly consequence; but it happened that he was so moved by
the sight of the disfigured body of his master's beautiful queen that he
renounced the world and entered the Society of Jesus, eventually becoming
its General.  He died in 1562, and in the fulness of time was canonized.

Cesare's departure for Naples as legate a latere to anoint and crown
Federigo of Aragon was naturally delayed by the tragedy that had assailed
his house, and not until July 22 did he take his leave of the Pope and
set out with an escort of two hundred horse.

Naples was still in a state of ferment, split into two parties, one of
which favoured France and the other Aragon, so that disturbances were
continual.  Alexander expressed the hope that Cesare might appear in that
distracted kingdom in the guise of an "angel of peace," and that by his
coronation of King Federigo he should set a term to the strife that was

The city of Naples itself was now being ravaged by fever, and in
consequence of this it was determined that Cesare should repair instead
to Capua, where Federigo would await him.  Arrived there, however, Cesare
fell ill, and the coronation ceremony again suffered a postponement until
August 10.  Cesare remained a fortnight in the kingdom, and on August 22
set out to return to Rome, and his departure appears to have been a
matter of relief to Federigo, for so impoverished did the King of Naples
find himself that the entertainment of the legate and his numerous escort
had proved a heavy tax upon his flabby purse.

On the morning of September 6 all the cardinals in Rome received a
summons to attend at the Monastery of Santa Maria Nuova to welcome the
returned Cardinal of Valencia.  In addition to the Sacred College all the
ambassadors of the Powers were present, and, after the celebration of the
Mass, the entire assembly proceeded to the Vatican, where the Pope was
waiting to receive his son.  When the young cardinal presented himself at
the foot of the papal throne Alexander opened his arms to him, embraced,
and kissed him, speaking no word.

This rests upon the evidence of two eye-witnesses,(1) and the
circumstance has been urged and propounded into the one conclusive piece
of evidence that Cesare had murdered his brother, and that the Pope knew
it.  In this you have some more of what Gregorovius terms "inexorable
logic."  He kissed him, but he spake no word to him; therefore, they
reason, Cesare murdered Gandia.  Can absurdity be more absurd, fatuity
more fatuous?  Lucus a non lucendo!  To square the circle should surely
present no difficulty to these subtle logicians.

1  Non dixit verbum Pape Valentinus, nec Papa sibi, sed eo deosculato,
descendit de solio" (Burchard's Diarium, and "Solo lo bació," in letter
from Rome in Sanuto's Diarii)

It was, as we have seen, in February of 1498 that it was first rumoured
that Cesare intended to put off the purple; and that the rumour had ample
foundation was plain from the circumstance that the Pope was already
laying plans whose fulfilment must be dependent upon that step, and
seeking to arrange a marriage for Cesare with Carlotta of Aragon, King
Federigo of Naples's daughter, stipulating that her dowry should be such
that Cesare, in taking her to wife, should become Prince of Altamura and

But Federigo showed himself unwilling, possibly in consideration of the
heavy dowry demanded and of the heavy draft already made by the Borgias--
through Giuffredo Borgia, Prince of Squillace--upon this Naples which the
French invasion had so impoverished.  He gave out that he would not have
his daughter wedded to a priest who was the son of a priest and that he
would not give his daughter unless the Pope could contrive that a
cardinal might marry and yet retain his hat.

It all sounded as if he were actuated by nice scruples and high
principles; but the opinion is unfortunately not encouraged when we find
him, nevertheless, giving his consent to the marriage of his nephew
Alfonso to Lucrezia Borgia upon the pronouncement of her divorce from
Giovanni Sforza.  The marriage, let us say in passing, was celebrated at
the Vatican on June 20, 1498, Lucrezia receiving a dowry of 40,000
ducats.  But the astute Alexander saw to it that his family should
acquire more than it gave, and contrived that Alfonso should receive the
Neapolitan cities of Biselli and Quadrata, being raised to the title of
Prince of Biselli.

Nevertheless, there was a vast difference between giving in marriage a
daughter who must take a weighty dowry out of the kingdom and receiving a
daughter who would bring a handsome dowry with her.  And the facts
suggest that such was the full measure of Federigo's scruples.

Meanwhile, to dissemble his reluctance to let Cesare have his daughter to
wife, Federigo urged that he must first take the feeling of Ferdinand and
Isabella in this matter.

While affairs stood thus, Charles VIII died suddenly at Amboise in April
of that year 1498.  Some work was being carried out there by artists whom
he had brought from Naples for the purpose, and, in going to visit this,
the king happened to enter a dark gallery, and struck his forehead so
violently against the edge of a door that he expired the same day--at the
age of twenty-eight.  He was a poor, malformed fellow, as we have seen,
and "of little understanding," Commines tells us, "but so good that it
would have been impossible to have found a kinder creature."

With him the Valois dynasty came to an end.  He was succeeded by his
cousin, the Duke of Orleans, who, upon his coronation at Rheims, assumed
the title of King of France and the Two Sicilies and Duke of Milan--a
matter which considerably perturbed Federigo of Aragon and Lodovico
Sforza.  Each of these rulers saw in that assumption of his own title by
Louis XII a declaration of enmity, the prelude to a declaration of open
war; wherefore, deeming it idle to send their ambassadors to represent
them at the Court of France, they refrained from doing so.

Louis XII's claim upon the Duchy of Milan was based upon his being the
grandson of Valentina Visconti, and, considering himself a Visconti, he
naturally looked upon the Sforza dominion as no better than a usurpation
which too long had been left undisturbed.  To disturb it now was the
first aim of his kingship.  And to this end, as well as in another
matter, the friendship of the Pope was very desirable to Louis.

The other matter concerned his matrimonial affairs.  No sooner did he
find himself King of France than he applied to Rome for the dissolution
of his marriage with Jeanne de Valois, the daughter of Louis XI.  The
grounds he urged were threefold: Firstly, between himself and Jeanne
there existed a relationship of the fourth degree and a spiritual
affinity, resulting from the fact that her father, Louis XI, had held him
at the baptismal font--which before the Council of Trent did constitute
an impediment to marriage.  Secondly, he had not been a willing party to
the union, but had entered into it as a consequence of intimidation from
the terrible Louis XI, who had threatened his life and possessions if not
obeyed in this.  Thirdly, Jeanne laboured under physical difficulties
which rendered her incapable of maternity.

Of such a nature was the appeal he made to Alexander, and Alexander
responded by appointing a commission presided over by the Cardinal of
Luxembourg, and composed of that same cardinal and the Bishops of Albi
and Ceuta, assisted by five other bishops as assessors, to investigate
the king's grievance.  There appears to be no good reason for assuming
that the inquiry was not conducted fairly and honourably or that the
finding of the bishops and ultimate annulment of the marriage was not in
accordance with their consciences.  We are encouraged to assume that all
this was indeed so, when we consider that Jeanne de Valois submitted
without protest to the divorce, and that neither then nor subsequently at
any time did she prefer any complaint, accepting the judgement, it is
presumable, as a just and fitting measure.

She applied to the Pope for permission to found a religious order, whose
special aim should be the adoration and the emulation of the perfections
of the Blessed Virgin, a permission which Alexander very readily accorded
her.  He was, himself, imbued with a very special devotion for the Mother
of the Saviour.  We see the spur of this special devotion of his in the
votive offering of a silver effigy to her famous altar of the Santissima
Nunziata in Florence, which he had promised in the event of Rome being
freed from Charles VIII.  Again, after the accident of the collapse of a
roof in the Vatican, in which he narrowly escaped death, it is to Santa
Maria Nuova that we see him going in procession to hold a solemn
thanksgiving service to Our Lady.  In a dozen different ways did that
devotion find expression during his pontificate; and be it remembered
that Catholics owe it to Alexander VI that the Angelus-bell is rung
thrice daily in honour of the Blessed Virgin.

To us this devotion to the Mother of Chastity on the part of a churchman
openly unchaste in flagrant subversion of his vows is a strange and
incongruous spectacle.  But the incongruity of it is illumining.  It
reveals Alexander's simple attitude towards the sins of the flesh, and
shows how, in common with most churchmen of his day, he found no
conscientious difficulty in combining fervid devotion with perfervid
licence.  Whatever it may seem by ours, by his lights--by the light of
the examples about him from his youth, by the light of the precedents
afforded him by his predecessors in St. Peter's Chair--his conduct was a
normal enough affair, which can have afforded him little with which to
reproach himself.

In the matter of the annulment of the marriage of Louis XII it is to be
conceded that Alexander made the most of the opportunity it afforded him. 
He perceived that the moment was propitious for enlisting the services of
the King of France to the achievement of his own ends, more particularly
to further the matter of the marriage of Cesare Borgia with Carlotta of
Aragon, who was being reared at the Court of France.  Accordingly
Alexander desired the Bishop of Ceuta to lay his wishes in the matter
before the Christian King, and, to the end that Cesare might find a
fitting secular estate awaiting him when eventually he emerged from the
clergy, the Pope further suggested to Louis, through the bishop's agency,
that Cesare should receive the investiture of the counties of Valentinois
and Dyois in Dauphiny.
On the face of it this wears the look of inviting bribery.  In reality it
scarcely amounted to so much, although the opportunism that prompted the
request is undeniable.  Yet it is worthy of consideration that in what
concerned the counties of Valentinois and Dyois, the Pope's suggestion
constituted a wise political step.  These territories had been in dispute
between France and the Holy See for a matter of some two hundred years,
during which the Popes had been claiming dominion over them.  The claims
had been admitted by Louis XI, who had relinquished the counties to the
Church; but shortly after his death the Parliament of Dauphiny had
restored them to the crown of France.  Charles VIII and Innocent VIII had
wrangled over them, and an arbitration was finally projected, but never

Alexander now perceived a way to solve the difficulty by a compromise
which should enrich his son and give the latter a title to replace that
of cardinal which he was to relinquish.  So his proposal to Louis XII was
that the Church should abandon its claim upon the territories, whilst the
king, raising Valentinois to the dignity of a duchy, should so confer it
upon Cesare Borgia.

Although the proposal was politically sound, it constituted at the same
time an act of flagrant nepotism.  But let us bear in mind that Alexander
did not lack a precedent for this particular act.  When Louis XI had
surrendered Valentinois to Sixtus IV, this Pope had bestowed it upon his
nephew Girolamo, thereby vitiating any claim that the Holy See might
subsequently have upon the territory.  We judge it--under the
circumstances that Louis XI had surrendered it to the Church--to be a far
more flagrant piece of nepotism than was Alexander's now.

Louis XII, nothing behind the Pope in opportunism, saw in the concession
asked of him the chance of acquiring Alexander's good-will.  He
consented, accompanying his consent by a request for a cardinal's hat for
Georges d'Amboise, Bishop of Rouen, who had been his devoted friend in
less prosperous times, and the sharer of his misfortunes under the
previous reign, and was now his chief counsellor and minister.  In
addition he besought--dependent, of course, upon the granting of the
solicited divorce--a dispensation to marry Anne of Brittany, the
beautiful widow of Charles VIII.  This was Louis's way of raising the
price, as it were, of the concession and services asked of him; yet, that
there might be no semblance of bargaining, his consent to Cesare's being
created Duke of Valentinois was simultaneous with his request for further

With the Royal Patents conferring that duchy upon the Pope's son, Louis
de Villeneuve reached Rome on August 7, 1498.  On the same day the young
cardinal came before the Sacred College, assembled in Consistory, to
crave permission to doff the purple.

After the act of adoration of the Pope's Holiness, he humbly submitted to
his brother cardinals that his inclinations had ever been in opposition
to his embracing the ecclesiastical dignity, and that, if he had entered
upon it at all, this had been solely at the instances of his Holiness,
just as he had persevered in it to gratify him; but that, his
inclinations and desires for the secular estate persisting, he implored
the Holy Father, of his clemency, to permit him to put off his habit and
ecclesiastical rank, to restore his bat and benefices to the Church, and
to grant him dispensation to return to the world and be free to contract
marriage.  And he prayed the very reverend cardinals to use their good
offices on his behalf, adding to his own their intercessions to the
Pope's Holiness to accord him the grace he sought.

The cardinals relegated the decision of the matter to the Pope.  Cardinal
Ximenes alone--as the representative of Spain--stood out against the
granting of the solicited dispensation, and threw obstacles in the way of
it.  In this, no doubt, he obeyed his instructions from Ferdinand and
Isabella, who saw to the bottom of the intrigue with France that was
toward, and of the alliance that impended between Louis XII and the Holy
See--an alliance not at all to the interests of Spain.

The Pope made a speedy rout of the cardinal's objections with the most
apostolic and irresistible of all weapons.  He pointed out that it was
not for him to hinder the Cardinal of Valencia's renunciation of the
purple, since that renunciation was clearly become necessary for the
salvation of his soul--"Pro salutae animae suae"--to which, of course,
Ximenes had no answer.

But, with the object of conciliating Spain, this ever-politic Pope
indicated that, if Cesare was about to become a prince of France, his
many ecclesiastical benefices, yielding some 35,000 gold florins yearly,
being mostly in Spain, would be bestowed upon Spanish churchmen, and he
further begged Ximenes to remember that he already had a "nephew" at the
Court of Spain in the person of the heir of Gandia, whom he particularly
commended to the favour of Ferdinand and Isabella.

Thus was Cesare Borgia's petition granted, and his return to the world
accomplished.  And, by a strange chance of homonymy, his title remained
unchanged despite his change of estate.  The Cardinal of Valencia, in
Spain, became the Duke of Valence--or Valentinois--in France and in Italy
Valentino remained Valentino.



"Cum numine Caesaris omen."

(motto on Cesare Borgia's sword.)



King Louis XII dispatched the Sieur de Sarenon by sea, with a fleet of
three ships and five galleys, to the end that he should conduct the new
duke to France, which fleet was delayed so that it did not drop its
anchors at Ostia until the end of September.

Meanwhile, Cesare's preparations for departure had been going forward,
and were the occasion of a colossal expenditure on the part of his sire. 
For the Pope desired that his son, in going to France to assume his
estate, and for the further purposes of marrying a wife, of conveying to
Louis the dispensation permitting his marriage with Anne of Brittany, and
of bearing the red hat to Amboise, should display the extraordinary
magnificence for which the princes of cultured and luxurious Italy were
at the time renowned.

His suite consisted of fully a hundred attendants, what with esquires,
pages, lacqueys and grooms, whilst twelve chariots and fifty sumpter-
mules were laden with his baggage.  The horses of his followers were all
sumptuously caparisoned with bridles and stirrups of solid silver; and,
for the rest, the splendour of the liveries, the weapons and the jewels,
and the richness of the gifts he bore with him were the amazement even of
that age of dazzling displays.

In Cesare's train went Ramiro de Lorqua, the Master of his Household;
Agabito Gherardi, his secretary; and his Spanish physician, Gaspare
Torella--the only medical man of his age who had succeeded in discovering
a treatment for the pudendagra which the French had left in Italy, and
who had dedicated to Cesare his learned treatise upon that disease.

As a body-guard, or escort of honour, Cesare took with him thirty
gentlemen, mostly Romans, among whom were Giangiordano Orsini, Pietro
Santa Croce, Mario di Mariano, Domenico Sanguigna, Giulio Alberini,
Bartolomeo Capranica, and Gianbattista Mancini--all young, and all
members of those patrician families which Alexander VI had skilfully
attached to his own interest.

The latest of these was the Orsini family, with which an alliance was
established by the marriage celebrated at the Vatican on September 28 of
that same year between Fabio Orsini and Girolama Borgia, a niece of the

Cesare's departure took place on October 1, in the early morning, when he
rode out with his princely retinue, and followed the Tiber along
Trastevere, without crossing the city.  He was mounted on a handsome
charger, caparisoned in red silk and gold brocade--the colours of France,
in which he had also dressed his lacqueys.  He wore a doublet of white
damask laced with gold, and carried a mantle of black velvet swinging
from his shoulders.  Of black velvet, too, was the cap on his auburn
head, its sable colour an effective background for the ruddy effulgence
of the great rubies--"as large as beans"--with which it was adorned.

Of the gentlemen who followed him, the Romans were dressed in the French
mode, like himself, whilst the Spaniards adhered to the fashions of their
native Spain.

He was escorted as far as the end of the Banchi by four cardinals, and
from a window of the Vatican the Pope watched the imposing cavalcade and
followed it with his eyes until it was lost to view, weeping, we are
told, for very joy at the contemplation of the splendour and magnificence
which it had been his to bestow upon his beloved son--"the very heart of
him," as he wrote to the King of France in that letter of which Cesare
was the bearer.

On October 12 the Duke of Valentinois landed at Marseilles, where he was
received by the Bishop of Dijon, whom the king had sent to meet him, and
who now accompanied the illustrious visitor to Avignon.  There Cesare was
awaited by the Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere.  This prelate was now
anxious to make his peace with Alexander--and presently we shall look
into the motives that probably inspired him, a matter which has so far,
we fancy, escaped criticism for reasons that we shall also strive to make
apparent.  To the beginnings of a reconciliation with the Pontiff
afforded by his touching letter of condolence on the death of the Duke of
Gandia, he now added a very cordial reception and entertainment of
Cesare; and throughout his sojourn in France the latter received at the
hands of della Rovere the very friendliest treatment, the cardinal
missing no opportunity of working in the duke's interests and for the
advancement of his ends.

The Pope wrote to the cardinal commending Cesare to his good graces, and
the cardinal replied with protestations which he certainly proceeded to
make good.

Della Rovere was to escort Cesare to the king, who was with his Court
then at Chinon, awaiting the completion of the work that was being
carried out at his Castle of Blois, which presently became his chief
residence.  But Cesare appears to have tarried in Avignon, for he was
still there at the end of October, nor did he reach Chinon until the
middle of December.  The pomp of his entrance was a thing stupendous.  We
find a detailed relation of it in Brantôme, translated into prose form
some old verses which, he tells us, that he found in the family treasury. 
He complains of their coarseness, and those who are acquainted with the
delightful old Frenchman's own frankness of expression may well raise
their brows at that criticism of his.  Whatever the coarse liberties
taken with the subject--of which we are not allowed more than an
occasional glimpse--and despite the fact that the relation was in verse,
which ordinarily makes for the indulgence of the rhymer's fancy--the
description appears to be fairly accurate, for it corresponds more or
less with the particulars given in Sanuto.

At the head of the cavalcade went twenty-four sumpter-mules, laden with
coffers and other baggage under draperies embroidered with Cesare's arms
--prominent among which would be the red bull, the emblem of his house,
and the three-pointed flame, his own particular device.  Behind these
came another twenty-four mules, caparisoned in the king's colours of
scarlet and gold, to be followed in their turn by sixteen beautiful
chargers led by hand, similarly caparisoned, and their bridles and
stirrups of solid silver.  Next came eighteen pages on horseback, sixteen
of whom were in scarlet and yellow, whilst the remaining two were in
cloth of gold.  These were followed by a posse of lacqueys in the same
liveries and two mules laden with coffers draped with cloth of gold,
which contained the gifts of which Cesare was the bearer.  Behind these
rode the duke's thirty gentlemen, in cloth of gold and silver, and
amongst them came the duke himself.

Cesare was mounted on a superb war-horse that was all empanoplied in a
cuirass of gold leaves of exquisite workmanship, its head surmounted by a
golden artichoke, its tail confined in a net of gold abundantly studded
with pearls.  The duke was in black velvet, through the slashings of
which appeared the gold brocade of the undergarment.  Suspended from a
chain said by Brantôme's poet to be worth thirty thousand ducats, a
medallion of diamonds blazed upon his breast, and in his black velvet cap
glowed those same wonderful rubies that we saw on the occasion of his
departure from Rome.  His boots were of black velvet, laced with gold
thread that was studded with gems.

The rear of the cavalcade was brought up by more mules and the chariots
bearing his plate and tents and all the other equipage with which a
prince was wont to travel.

It is said by some that his horse was shod with solid gold, and there is
also a story--pretty, but probably untrue--that some of his mules were
shod in the same metal, and that, either because the shoes were loosely
attached of intent, or because the metal, being soft, parted readily from
the hoofs, these golden shoes were freely cast and left as largesse for
those who might care to take them.

The Bishop of Rouen--that same Georges d'Amboise for whom he was bringing
the red hat--the Seneschal of Toulouse and several gentlemen of the Court
went to meet him on the bridge, and escorted him up through the town to
the castle, where the king awaited him.  Louis XII gave him a warm and
cordial welcome, showing him then and thereafter the friendliest
consideration.  Not so, however, the lady he was come to woo.  It was
said in Venice that she was in love with a young Breton gentleman in the
following of Queen Anne.  Whether this was true, and Carlotta acted in
the matter in obedience to her own feelings, or whether she was merely
pursuing the instructions she had received from Naples, she obstinately
and absolutely refused to entertain or admit the suit of Cesare.

Della Rovere, on January i8, wrote to the Pope from Nantes, whither the
Court had moved, a letter in which he sang the praises of the young Duke
of Valentinois.

"By his modesty his readiness, his prudence, and his other virtues he has
known how to earn the affections of every one."  Unfortunately, there was
one important exception, as the cardinal was forced to add: "The damsel,
either out of her own contrariness, or because so induced by others,
which is easier to believe, constantly refuses to hear of the wedding."

Della Rovere was quite justified in finding it easier to believe that
Carlotta was acting upon instructions from others, for, when hard pressed
to consent to the alliance, she demanded that the Neapolitan ambassador
should himself say that her father desired her to do so--a statement
which, it seems, the ambassador could not bring himself to make.

Baffled by the persistence of that refusal, Cesare all but returned a
bachelor to Italy.  So far, indeed, was his departure a settled matter
that in February of 1489, at the Castle of Loches, he received the king's
messages for the Pope.  Yet Louis hesitated to let him go without having
bound his Holiness to his own interests by stronger bonds.

In the task of tracing the annals of the Borgias, the honest seeker after
truth is compelled to proceed axe in hand that he may hack himself a way
through the tangle of irresponsible or malicious statements that have
grown up about this subject, driving their roots deep into the soil of
history.  Not a single chance does malignity, free or chartered, appear
to have missed for the invention of flagitious falsehoods concerning this
family, or for the no less flagitious misinterpretation of known facts.

Amid a mass of written nonsense dealing with Cesare's sojourn in France
is the oft-repeated, totally unproven statement that he withheld from
Louis the dispensation enabling the latter to marry Anne of Brittany,
until such time as he should have obtained from Louis all that he desired
of him--in short, that he sold him the dispensation for the highest price
he could extract.  The only motive served by this statement is once more
to show Alexander and his son in the perpetration of simoniacal
practices, and the statement springs, beyond doubt, from a passage in
Macchiavelli's Extracts from Dispatches to the Ten.  Elsewhere has been
mentioned the confusion prevailing in those extracts, and their
unreliability as historical evidences.  That circumstance can be now
established.  The passage in question runs as follows:

"This dispensation was given to Valentinois when he went to France
without any one being aware of its existence, with orders to sell it
dearly to the king, and not until satisfied of the wife and his other
desires.  And, whilst these things were toward, the king learnt from the
Bishop of Ceuta that the dispensation already existed, and so, without
having received or even seen it the marriage was celebrated, and for
revealing this the Bishop of Ceuta was put to death by order of

Now, to begin with, Macchiavelli admits that what passed between Pope and
duke was secret.  How, then, does he pretend to possess these details of
it?  But, leaving that out of the question, his statement--so abundantly
repeated by later writers--is traversed by every one of the actual facts
of the case.

That there can have been no secret at all about the dispensation is made
plain by the fact that Manfredi, the Ferrarese ambassador, writes of it
to Duke Ercole on October 2--the day after Cesare's departure from Rome. 
And as for the death of Fernando d'Almeida Bishop of Ceuta, this did not
take place then, nor until two years later (on January 7, 1499) at the
siege of Forli, whither he had gone in Cesare's train--as is related in
Bernardi's Chronicles and Bonoli's history of that town.

To return to the matter of Cesare's imminent departure unwed from France,
Louis XII was not the only monarch to whom this was a source of anxiety. 
Keener far was the anxiety experienced on that score by the King of
Naples, who feared that its immediate consequence would be to drive the
Ho1y Father into alliance with Venice, which was paying its court to him
at the time and with that end in view.  Eager to conciliate Alexander in
this hour of peril, Federigo approached him with alternative proposals,
and offered to invest Cesare in the principalities of Salerno and
Sanseverino, which had been taken from the rebel barons.  To this the
Pope might have consented, but that, in the moment of considering it,
letters reached him from Cesare which made him pause.

Louis XII had also discovered an alternative to the marriage of Cesare
with Carlotta, and one that should more surely draw the Pope into the
alliance with Venice and himself.

Among the ladies of the Court of Queen Anne--Louis had now been wedded a
month--there were, besides Carlotta, two other ladies either of whom
might make Cesare a suitable duchess.  One of these was a niece of the
king's, the daughter of the Comte de Foix; the other was Charlotte
d'Albret, a daughter of Alain d'Albret, Duc de Guyenne, and sister to the
King of Navarre.  Between these two Cesare was now given to choose by
Louis, and his choice fell upon Charlotte.

She was seventeen years of age and said to be the most beautiful maid in
France, and she had been reared at the honourable and pious Court of
Jeanne de Valois, whence she had passed into that of Anne of Brittany,
which latter, says Hilarion de Coste,(1) was "a school of virtue, an
academy of honour."

1  Éloges et vies des Reynes, Princesses, etc.

Negotiations for her hand were opened with Alain, who, it is said, was at
first unwilling, but in the end won over to consent.  Navarre had need of
the friendship of the King of France, that it might withstand the
predatory humours of Castille; and so, for his son's sake, Alain could
not long oppose the wishes of Louis.  Considering closely the pecuniary
difficulties under which this Alain d'Albret was labouring and his
notorious avarice, one is tempted to conclude that such difficulties as
he may have made were dictated by his reduced circumstances, his
impossibility, or unwillingness, to supply his daughter with a dowry
fitting her rank, and an unworthy desire to drive in the matter the best
bargain possible.  And this is abundantly confirmed by the obvious care
and hard-headed cunning with which the Sieur d'Albret investigated
Cesare's circumstances and sources of revenue to verify their values to
be what was alleged.

Eventually he consented to endow her with 30,000 livres Tournois (90,000
francs) to be paid as follows: 6,000 livres on the celebration of the
marriage, and the balance by annual instalments of 1,500 livres until
cleared off.  This sum, as a matter of fact, represented her portion of
the inheritance from her deceased mother, Françoise de Bretagne, and it
was tendered subject to her renouncing all rights and succession in any
property of her father's or her said deceased mother's.

Thus is it set forth in the contract drawn up by Alain at Castel-Jaloux
on March 23, 1499, which contract empowers his son Gabriel and one
Regnault de St. Chamans to treat and conclude the marriage urged by the
king between the Duke of Valentinois and Alain's daughter, Charlotte
d'Albret.  But that was by no means all.  Among other conditions imposed
by Alain, he stipulated that the Pope should endow his daughter with
100,000 livres Tournois, and that for his son, Amanieu d'Albret, there
should be a cardinal's hat--for the fulfilment of both of which
conditions Cesare took it upon himself to engage his father.

On April 15 the treaty between France and Venice was signed at Blois.  It
was a defensive and offensive alliance directed against all, with the
sole exception of the reigning Pontiff, who should have the faculty to
enter into it if he so elected.  This was the first decisive step against
the House of Sforza, and so secretly were the negotiations conducted that
Lodovico Sforza's first intimation of them resulted from the capture in
Milanese territory of a courier from the Pope with letters to Cesare in
France.  From these he learnt, to his dismay, not only of the existence
of the league, but that the Pope had joined it.  The immediate
consequence of this positive assurance that Alexander had gone over to
Sforza's enemies was Ascanio Sforza's hurried departure from Rome on July

In the meantime Cesare's marriage had followed almost immediately upon
the conclusion of the treaty.  The nuptials were celebrated on May 12,
and on the 19th he received at the hands of the King of France the
knightly Order of St. Michael, which was then the highest honour that
France could confer.  When the news of this reached the Pope he
celebrated the event in Rome with public festivities and illuminations.

Of Cesare's courtship we have no information.  The fact that the marriage
was purely one of political expediency would tend to make us conceive it
as invested with that sordid lovelessness which must so often attend the
marriages of princes.  But there exists a little data from which we may
draw certain permissible inferences.  This damsel of seventeen was said
to be the loveliest in France, and there is more than a suggestion in Le
Feron's De Gestis Regnum Gallorum, that Cesare was by no means
indifferent to her charms.  He tells us that the Duke of Valentinois
entered into the marriage very heartily, not only for the sake of its
expediency, but for "the beauty of the lady, which was equalled by her
virtues and the sweetness of her nature."

Cesare, we have it on more than one authority, was the handsomest man of
his day.  The gallantry of his bearing merited the approval of so
fastidious a critic in such matters as Baldassare Castiglione, who
mentions it in his Il Cortigiano.  Of his personal charm there is also no
lack of commendation from those who had his acquaintance at this time. 
Added to this, his Italian splendour and flamboyance may well have
dazzled a maid who had been reared amid the grey and something stern
tones of the Court of Jeanne de Valois.

And so it may well be that they loved, and that they were blessed in
their love for the little space allotted them in each other's company. 
The sequel justifies in a measure the assumption.  Just one little summer
out of the span of their lives--brief though those lives were--did they
spend together, and it is good to find some little evidence that, during
that brief season at least, they inhabited life's rose-garden.

In September--just four short months after the wedding-bells had pealed
above them--the trumpets of war blared out their call to arms.  Louis's
preparations for the invasion of Milan were complete and he poured his
troops through Piedmont under the command of Giangiacomo Trivulzio.

Cesare was to accompany Louis into Italy.  He appointed his seventeen-
year-old duchess governor and administrator of his lands and lordships in
France and Dauphiny under a deed dated September 8, and he made her
heiress to all his moveable possessions in the event of his death. 
Surely this bears some witness, not only to the prevailing of a good
understanding between them, but to his esteem of her and the confidence
he reposed in her mental qualities.  The rest her later mourning of him

Thus did Cesare take leave of the young wife whom he was never to see
again.  Their child--born in the following spring--he was never to see at
all.  The pity of it!  Ambition-driven, to fulfil the destiny expected of
him, he turned his back upon that pleasant land of Dauphiny where the one
calm little season of his manhood had been spent, where happiness and
peace might have been his lifelong portion had he remained.  He set his
face towards Italy and the storm and stress before him, and in the train
of King Louis he set out upon the turbulent meteoric course that was to
sear so deep and indelible a brand across the scroll of history.



In the hour of his need Lodovico Sforza found himself without friends or
credit, and he had to pay the price of the sly, faithless egotistical
policy he had so long pursued with profit.

His far-reaching schemes were flung into confusion because a French king
had knocked his brow against a door, and had been succeeded by one who
conceived that he had a legal right to the throne of Milan, and the
intent and might to enforce it, be the right legal or not.  It was in
vain now that Lodovico turned to the powers of Italy for assistance, in
vain that his cunning set fresh intrigues afoot.  His neighbours had
found him out long since; he had played fast and loose with them too
often, and there was none would trust him now.

Thus he found himself isolated, and in no case to withstand the French
avalanche which rolled down upon his duchy.  The fall of Milan was a
matter of days; of resistance there was practically none.  Town after
town threw up its gates to the invaders, and Lodovico, seeing himself
abandoned on all sides, sought in flight the safety of his own person.

Cesare took no part in the war, which, after all, was no war--no more
than an armed progress.  He was at Lyons with the King, and he did not
move into Italy until Louis went to take possession of his new duchy.

Amid the acclamations of the ever-fickle mob, hailing him as its
deliverer, Louis XII rode triumphantly into Milan on October 6, attended
by a little host of princes, including the Prince of Savoy, the Dukes of
Montferrat and Ferrara, and the Marquis of Mantua.  But the place of
honour went to Cesare Borgia, who rode at the king's side, a brilliant
and arresting figure.  This was the occasion on which Baldassare
Castiglione--who was in the Marquis of Mantua's suite--was moved to such
praise of the appearance and gallant bearing of the duke, and of the
splendid equipment of his suite, which outshone those of all that little
host of attendant princes.

From this time onward Cesare signs himself "Cesare Borgia of France," and
quarters on his shield the golden lilies of France with the red bull of
the House of Borgia.

The conditions on which Alexander VI joined the league of France and
Venice became apparent at about this time.  They were to be gathered from
the embassy of his nephew, the Cardinal Giovanni Borgia, to Venice in the
middle of September.  There the latter announced to the Council of Ten
that the Pope's Holiness aimed at the recovery to the Church of those
Romagna tyrannies which originally were fiefs of the Holy See and held by
her vicars, who, however, had long since repudiated the Pontifical
authority, refused the payment of their tributes, and in some instances
had even gone so far as to bear arms against the Church.

With one or two exceptions the violent and evil misgovernment of these
turbulent princelings was a scandal to all Italy.  They ruled by rapine
and murder, and rendered Romagna little better than a nest of brigands. 
Their state of secession from the Holy See arose largely out of the
nepotism practised by the last Popes--a nepotism writers are too prone to
overlook when charging Alexander with the same abuse.  Such Popes as
Sixtus IV and Innocent VIII had broken up the States of the Church that
they might endow their children and their nephews.  The nepotism of such
as these never had any result but to impoverish the Holy See; whilst, on
the other hand, the nepotism of Alexander--this Pope who is held up to
obloquy as the archetype of the nepotist--had a tendency rather to enrich
it.  It was not to the States of the Church, not by easy ways of
plundering the territories of the Holy See, that he turned to found
dominions and dynasties for his children.  He went beyond and outside of
them, employing princely alliances as the means to his ends.  Gandia was
a duke in Spain; Giuffredo a prince in Naples, and Cesare a duke in
France.  For none of these could it be said that territories had been
filched from Rome, whilst the alliances made for them were such as tended
to strengthen the power of the Pope, and, therefore, of the Church.

The reconsolidation of the States of the Church, the recovery of her full
temporal power, which his predecessors had so grievously dissipated, had
ever been Alexander's aim; Louis XII afforded him, at last, his
opportunity, since with French aid the thing now might be attempted.

His son Cesare was the Hercules to whom was to be given the labour of
cleaning out the Augean stable of the Romagna.

That Alexander may have been single-minded in his purpose has never been
supposed.  It might, indeed, be to suppose too much; and the general
assumption that, from the outset, his chief aim was to found a powerful
State for his son may be accepted.  But let us at least remember that
such had been the aims of several Popes before him.  Sixtus IV and
Innocent VIII had similarly aimed at founding dynasties in Romagna for
their families, but, lacking the talents and political acuteness of
Alexander and a son of the mettle and capacity of Cesare Borgia, the
feeble trail of their ambition is apt to escape attention.  It is also to
be remembered that, whatever Alexander's ulterior motive, the immediate
results of the campaign with which he inspired his son were to reunite to
the Church the States which had fallen away from her, and to re-establish
her temporal sway in the full plenitude of its dominion.  However much he
may have been imbued with the desire to exalt and aggrandize his children
politically, he did nothing that did not at the same time make for the
greater power and glory of the Church.

His formidable Bull published in October set forth how, after trial, it
had been found that the Lords or Vicars of Rimini, Pesaro, Imola, Forli,
Camerino and Faenza, with other feudatories of the Holy See (including
the duchy of Urbino) had never paid the yearly tribute due to the Church,
wherefore he, by virtue of his apostolic authority, deprived them of all
their rights, and did declare them so deprived.

It has been said again and again that this Bull amounting to a
declaration of war, was no more than a pretext to indulge his rapacity;
but surely it bears the impress of a real grievance, and, however
blameable the results that followed out of it, for the measure itself
there were just and ample grounds.

The effect of that Bull, issued at a moment when Cesare stood at arms
with the might of France at his back, ready to enforce it, was naturally
to throw into a state of wild dismay these Romagna tyrants whose
acquaintance we shall make at closer quarters presently in the course of
following Cesare's campaign.  Cesare Borgia may have been something of a
wolf; but you are not to suppose that the Romagna was a fold of lambs.

Giovanni Sforza--Cesare's sometime brother-in­law, and Lord of Pesaro--
flies in hot haste to Venice for protection.  There are no lengths to
which he will not go to thwart the Borgias in their purpose, to save his
tyranny from falling into the power of this family which he hates most
rabidly, and of which he says that, having robbed him of his honour, it
would now deprive him of his possessions.  He even offers to make a gift
of his dominions to the Republic.

There was much traders' blood in Venice, and, trader-like, she was avid
of possessions.  You can surmise how she must have watered at the mouth
to see so fine a morsel cast thus into her lap, and yet to know that the
consumption of it might beget a woeful indigestion.  Venice shook her
head regretfully.  She could not afford to quarrel with her ally, King
Louis, and so she made answer--a thought contemptuously, it seems--that
Giovanni should have made his offer while he was free to do so.

The Florentines exerted themselves to save Forli from the fate that
threatened it.  They urged a league of Bologna, Ferrara, Forli, Piombino,
and Siena for their common safety--a proposal which came to nothing,
probably because Ferrara and Siena, not being threatened by the Bull, saw
no reason why, for the sake of others, they should call down upon
themselves the wrath of the Borgias and their mighty allies.

Venice desired to save Faenza, whose tyrant, Manfredi, was also attainted
for non-payment of his tributes, and to this end the Republic sent an
embassy to Rome with the moneys due.  But the Holy Father refused the
gold, declaring that it was too late for payment.

Forli's attempt to avert the danger was of a different sort, and not
exerted until this danger--in the shape of Cesare himself--stood in arms
beneath her walls.  Two men, both named Tommaso--though it does not
transpire that they were related--one a chamberlain of the Palace of
Forli, the other a musician, were so devoted to the Countess Sforza-
Riario, the grim termagant who ruled the fiefs of her murdered husband,
Girolamo Riario, as to have undertaken an enterprise from which they
cannot have hoped to emerge with their lives.  It imported no less than
the murder of the Pope.  They were arrested on November 21, and in the
possession of one of them was found a hollow cane containing a letter "so
impregnated with poison that even to unfold it would be dangerous."  This
letter was destined for the Holy Father.

The story reads like a gross exaggeration emanating from men who, on the
subject of poisoning, display the credulity of the fifteenth century, so
ignorant in these matters and so prone to the fantastic.  And our minds
receive a shock upon learning that, when put to the question, these
messengers actually made a confession--upon which the story rests--
admitting that they had been sent by the countess to slay the Pope, in
the hope that thus Forli might be saved to the Riarii.  At first we
conclude that those wretched men, examined to the accompaniment of
torture, confessed whatever was required of them, as so frequently
happened in such cases.  Such, indeed, is the very explanation advanced
by more than one writer, coupled with the suggestion, in some instances,
that the whole affair was trumped up by the Pope to serve his own ends.

They will believe the wildest and silliest of poisoning stories (such as
those of Djem and Cardinal Giovanni Borgia) which reveal the Borgias as
the poisoners; but, let another be accused and the Borgias be the
intended victims, and at once they grow rational, and point out to you
the wildness of the statement, the impossibility of its being true.  Yet
it is a singular fact that a thorough investigation of this case of the
Countess Sforza-Riario's poisoned letter reveals it to be neither wild
nor impossible but simply diabolical.  The explanation of the matter is
to be found in Andrea Bernardi's Chronicles of Forli.  He tells us
exactly how the thing was contrived, with a precision of detail which we
could wish to see emulated by other contemporaries of his who so lightly
throw out accusations of poisoning.  He informs us that a deadly and
infectious disease was rampant in Forli in that year 1499, and that,
before dispatching her letter to the Pope, the Countess caused it to be
placed upon the body of one who was sick of this infection--thus hoping
to convey it to his Holiness.(1)

1  "Dite litre lei le aveva fate tocare et tenere adose ad uno nostro
infetado."--Andrea Bernardi (Cronache di Forli).

Alexander held a thanksgiving service for his escape at Santa Maria della
Pace, and Cardinal Raffaele Riario fled precipitately from Rome, justly
fearful of being involved in the papal anger that must fall upon his

By that time, however, Cesare had already taken the field.  The support
of Louis, conqueror of Milan, had been obtained, and in this Cardinal
Giuliano della Rovere had once more been helpful to the Borgias.

His reconciliation with the Pope, long since deserved by the services he
had rendered the House of Borgia in forwarding Cesare's aims, as we have
seen, was completed now by an alliance which bound the two families
together.  His nephew, Francesco della Rovere, had married Alexander's
niece, Angela Borgia.

There is a letter from Giuliano to the Pope, dated October 12, 1499, in
which he expresses his deep gratitude in the matter of this marriage,
which naturally redounded to the advantage of his house, and pledges
himself to exert all the influence which he commands with Louis XII for
the purpose of furthering the Duke of Valentinois' wishes.  So well does
he keep this promise that we see him utterly abandoning his cousins the
Riarii, who were likely to be crushed under the hoofs of the now charging
bull, and devoting himself strenuously to equip Cesare for that same
charge.  So far does he go in this matter that he is one of the sureties
--the other being the Cardinal Giovanni Borgia--for the loan of 45,000
ducats raised by Cesare in Milan towards the cost of his campaign.

This is the moment in which to pause and consider this man, who, because
he was a bitter enemy of Alexander's, and who, because earlier he had
covered the Pope with obloquy and insult and is to do so again later, is
hailed as a fine, upright, lofty, independent, noble soul.

Not so fine, upright, or noble but that he can put aside his rancour when
he finds that there is more profit in fawning than in snarling; not so
independent but that he can become a sycophant who writes panegyrics of
Cesare and letters breathing devotion to the Pope, once he has realized
that thus his interests will be better served.  This is the man,
remember, who dubbed Alexander a Jew and a Moor; this the man who
agitated at the Courts of France and Spain for Alexander's deposition
from the Pontificate on the score of the simony of his election; this the
man whose vituperations of the Holy Father are so often quoted, since--
coming from lips so honest--they must, from the very moment that he
utters them, be merited.  If only the historian would turn the medal
about a little, and allow us a glimpse of the reverse as well as of the
obverse, what a world of trouble and misconceptions should we not be

Della Rovere had discovered vain his work of defamation, vain his
attempts to induce the Kings of France and Spain to summon a General
Council and depose the man whose seat he coveted, so he had sought to
make his peace with the Holy See.  The death of Charles VIII, and the
succession of a king who had need of the Pope's friendship and who found
a friend in Alexander, rendered it all the more necessary that della
Rovere should set himself to reconquer, by every means in his power, the
favour of Alexander.

And so you see this honourable, upright man sacrificing his very family
to gain that personal end.  Where now is that stubbornly honest
conscience of his which made him denounce Alexander as no Christian and
no Pope?  Stifled by self-interest.  It is as well that this should be
understood, for this way lies the understanding of many things.

The funds for the campaign being found, Cesare received from Louis three
hundred lances captained by Yves d'Allègre and four thousand foot,
composed of Swiss and Gascons, led by the Bailie of Dijon.  Further
troops were being assembled for him at Cesena--the one fief of Romagna
that remained faithful to the Church--by Achille Tiberti and Ercole
Bentivogli, and to these were to be added the Pontifical troops that
would be sent to him; so that Cesare found himself ultimately at the head
of a considerable army, some ten thousand strong, well-equipped and
supported by good artillery.

Louis XII left Milan on November 7--one month after his triumphal
entrance--and set out to return to France, leaving Trivulzio to represent
him as ruler of the Milanese.  Two days later Cesare's army took the
road, and he himself went with his horse by way of Piacenza, whilst the
foot, under the Bailie of Dijon, having obtained leave of passage through
the territories of Ferrara and Cremona, followed the Po down to Argenta.

Thus did Cesare Borgia--personally attended by a caesarian guard, wearing
his livery--set out upon the conquest of the Romagna.  Perhaps at no
period of his career is he more remarkable than at this moment.  To all
trades men serve apprenticeships, and to none is the apprenticeship more
gradual and arduous than to the trade of arms.  Yet Cesare Borgia served
none.  Like Minerva, springing full-grown and armed into existence, so
Cesare sprang to generalship in the hour that saw him made a soldier. 
This was the first army in which he had ever marched, yet he marched at
the head of it.  In his twenty-four years of life he had never so much as
witnessed a battle pitched; yet here was he riding to direct battles and
to wrest victories.  Boundless audacity and swiftest intelligence welded
into an amazing whole!



Between his departure from Milan and his arrival before Imola, where his
campaign was to be inaugurated, Cesare paid a flying visit to Rome and
his father, whom he had not seen for a full year.  He remained three days
at the Vatican, mostly closeted with the Pope's Holiness.  At the end of
that time he went north again to rejoin his army, which by now had been
swelled by the forces that had joined it from Cesena, some Pontifical
troops, and a condotta under Vitellozzo Vitelli.

The latter, who was Lord of Castello, had gone to Milan to seek justice
at the hands of Louis XII against the Florentines, who had beheaded his
brother Paolo--deservedly, for treason in the conduct of the war against
Pisa.  This Vitellozzo was a valuable and experienced captain.  He took
service with Cesare, spurred by the hope of ultimately finding a way to
avenge himself upon the Florentines, and in Cesare's train he now
advanced upon Imola and Forli.

The warlike Countess Caterina Sforza-Riario had earlier been granted by
her children full administration of their patrimony during their
minority.  To the defence of this she now addressed herself with all the
resolution of her stern nature.  Her life had been unfortunate, and of
horrors she had touched a surfeit.  Her father, Galeazzo Sforza, was
murdered in Milan Cathedral by a little band of patriots; her brother
Giangaleazzo had died, of want or poison, in the Castle of Pavia, the
victim of her ambitious uncle, Lodovico; her husband, Girolamo Riario,
she had seen butchered and flung naked from a window of the very castle
which she now defended; Giacomo Feo, whom she had secretly married in
second nuptials, was done to death in Forli, under her very eyes, by a
party of insurrectionaries.  Him she had terribly avenged.  Getting her
men-at-arms together, she had ridden at their head into the quarter
inhabited by the murderers, and there ordered--as Macchiavelli tells us--
the massacre of every human being that dwelt in it, women and children
included, whilst she remained at hand to see it done.  Thereafter she
took a third husband, in Giovanni di Pierfrancesco de'Medici, who died in
1498.  By him this lusty woman had a son whose name was to ring through
Italy as that of one of the most illustrious captains of his day--
Giovanni delle Bande Nere.

Such was the woman whom Sanuto has called "great-souled, but a most cruel
virago," who now shut herself into her castle to defy the Borgia.

She had begun by answering the Pope's Bull of attainder with the
statement that, far from owing the Holy See the tribute which it claimed,
the Holy See was actually in her debt, her husband, Count Girolamo
Riario, having been a creditor of the Church for the provisions made by
him in his office of Captain-General of the Pontifical forces.  This
subterfuge, however, had not weighed with Alexander, whereupon, having
also been frustrated in her attempt upon the life of the Pope's Holiness,
she had proceeded to measures of martial resistance.  Her children and
her treasures she had dispatched to Florence that they might be out of
danger, retaining of the former only her son Ottaviano, a young man of
some twenty years; but, for all that she kept him near her, it is plain
that she did not account him worthy of being entrusted with the defence
of his tyranny, for it was she, herself, the daughter of the bellicose
race of Sforza, who set about the organizing of this.

Disposing of forces that were entirely inadequate to take the field
against the invader, she entrenched herself in her fortress of Forli,
provisioning it to withstand a protracted siege and proceeding to fortify
it by throwing up outworks and causing all the gates but one to be built

Whilst herself engaged upon military measures she sent her son Ottaviano
to Imola to exhort the Council to loyalty and the defence of the city. 
But his mission met with no success.  Labouring against him was a mighty
factor which in other future cases was to facilitate Cesare's subjection
of the Romagna.  The Riarii--in common with so many other of the Romagna
tyrants--had so abused their rule, so ground the people with taxation, so
offended them by violence, and provoked such deep and bitter enmity that
in this hour of their need they found themselves deservedly abandoned by
their subjects.  The latter were become eager to try a change of rulers,
in the hope of finding thus an improved condition of things; a worse,
they were convinced, would be impossible.

So detested were the Riarii and so abhorred the memory they left behind
them in Imola that for years afterwards the name of Cesare Borgia was
blessed there as that of a minister of divine justice ("tanquam minister
divina justitiae") who had lifted from them the harsh yoke by which they
had been oppressed.

And so it came to pass that, before ever Cesare had come in sight of
Imola, he was met by several of its gentlemen who came to offer him the
town, and he received a letter from the pedagogue Flaminio with
assurances that, if it should be at all possible to them, the inhabitants
would throw open the gates to him on his approach.  And Flaminio
proceeded to implore the duke that should he, nevertheless, be
constrained to have recourse to arms to win admittance, he should not
blame the citizens nor do violence to the city by putting it to pillage,
assuring him that he would never have a more faithful, loving city than
Imola once this should be in his power.

The duke immediately sent forward Achille Tiberti with a squadron of
horse to demand the surrender of the town.  And the captain of the
garrison of Imola replied that he was ready to capitulate, since that was
the will of the people.  Three days later--on November 27--Cesare rode in
as conqueror.

The example of the town, however, was not followed by the citadel.  Under
the command of Dionigio di Naldo the latter held out, and, as the duke's
army made its entrance into Imola, the castellan signified his resentment
by turning his cannon upon the town itself, with such resolute purpose
that many houses were set on fire and demolished.  This Naldo was one of
the best reputed captains of foot of his day, and he had seen much
service under the Sforza; but his experience could avail him little here.

On the 28th Cesare opened the attack, training his guns upon the citadel;
but it was not until a week later that, having found a weak spot in the
walls on the side commanding the town, he opened a breach through which
his men were able to force a passage, and so possess themselves of a
half-moon.  Seeing the enemy practically within his outworks, and being
himself severely wounded in the head, Naldo accounted it time to parley. 
He begged a three-days' armistice, pledging himself to surrender at the
end of that time should he not receive reinforcements in the meanwhile;
and to this arrangement the duke consented.

The good faith of Naldo has been questioned, and it has been suggested
that his asking for three days' grace was no better than a cloak to cover
his treacherous sale of the fortress to the besieger.  It seems, however,
to be no more than one of those lightly-uttered, irresponsible utterances
with which the chronicles of the time abound, for Naldo had left his wife
and children at Forli in the hands of the Countess, as hostages for his
good faith, and this renders improbable the unsupported story of his

On December 7, no reinforcements having reached him, Naldo made formal
surrender of the citadel, safe-conduct having been granted to his

A week later there arrived at Imola Cesare's cousin, the Cardinal
Giovanni Borgia, whom the Pope had constituted legate in Bologna and the
Romagna in place of the Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, and whom he had sent to
support Cesare's operations with ecclesiastical authority.  Cardinal
Giovanni, as the Pope's representative, received in the Church of San
Domenico the oath of fealty of the city to the Holy See.  This was
pledged by four representative members of the Council of Thirty; and by
that act the conquest and subjection of the town became a fully
accomplished fact.

The lesser strongholds of the territory threw up their gates one by one
before the advancing enemy, until only Forli remained to be taken. 
Cesare pushed forward to reduce it.

On his way he passed through Faenza, whose tyrant, Manfredi, deeming
himself secure in the protection of Venice and in view of the
circumstance that the republic had sent to Rome the arrears of tribute
due from his fief, and anxious to conciliate the Pope, received and
entertained Cesare very cordially.

At Forli the case of Imola was practically repeated.  Notwithstanding
that the inhabitants were under the immediate eye of the formidable
countess, and although she sent her brother, Alessandro Sforza, to exhort
the people and the Council to stand by her, the latter, weary as the rest
of the oppressive tyranny of her family, dispatched their representatives
to Cesare to offer him the town.

The Countess's valour was of the sort that waxes as the straits become
more desperate.  Since the town abandoned and betrayed her, she would
depend upon her citadel, and by a stubborn resistance make Cesare pay as
dearly as possible for the place.  To the danger which she seems almost
eager to incur for her own part, this strong-minded, comely matron will
not subject the son she has kept beside her until now; and so she packs
Ottaviano off to Florence and safety.  That done, she gives her mutinous
subjects a taste of her anger by attempting to seize half a dozen of the
principal citizens of Forli.  As it happened, not only did this intent
miscarry, but it went near being the means of involving her in battle
even before the duke's arrival; for the people, getting wind of the
affair, took up arms to defend their threatened fellow-citizens.

She consoled herself, however, by seizing the persons of Nicolo Tornielli
and Lodovico Ercolani, whom the Council had sent to inform her that their
representatives had gone to Cesare with the offer of the town.  Further,
to vent her rage and signify her humour, she turned her cannon upon the
Communal Palace and shattered the tower of it.

Meanwhile Cesare advanced.  It was again Tiberti who now rode forward
with his horse to demand the surrender of Forli.  This was accorded as
readily as had been that of Imola, whereupon Cesare came up to take
possession in person; but, despite the cordial invitation of the
councillors, he refused to enter the gates until he had signed the
articles of capitulation.

On December 19, under a deluge of rain, Cesare, in full armour, the
banner of the Church borne ahead of him, rode into Forli with his troops. 
He was housed in the palace of Count Luffo Nomaglie (one of the gentlemen
whom Caterina had hoped to capture), and his men were quartered through
the town.  These foreign soldiers of his seem to have got a little out of
hand here at Forli, and they committed a good many abuses, to the dismay
and discomfort of the Citizens.

Sanuto comments upon this with satisfaction, accounting the city well
served for having yielded herself up like a strumpet.  It is a comment
more picturesque than just, for obviously Forli did not surrender through
pusillanimity, but to the end that it might be delivered from the
detestable rule of the Riarii.

The city occupied, it now remained to reduce the fortress and bring its
warrior-mistress to terms.  Cesare set about this at once, nor allowed
the Christmas festivities to interfere with his labours, but kept his men
at work to bring the siege-guns into position.  On Christmas Day the
countess belatedly attempted a feeble ruse in the hope of intimidating
them.  She flew from her battlements a banner, bearing the device of the
lion of St. Mark, thinking to trick Cesare into the belief that she had
obtained the protection of Venice, or, perhaps, signifying thus that she
threw herself into the arms of the republic, making surrender of her
fiefs to the Venetians to the end that she might spite a force which she
could not long withstand--as Giovanni Sforza had sought to do.

But Cesare, nowise disturbed by that banner, pursued his preparations,
which included the mounting of seven cannons and ten falconets in the
square before the Church of St. John the Baptist.  When all was ready for
the bombardment, he made an effort to cause her to realize the
hopelessness of her resistance and the vain sacrifice of life it must
entail.  He may have been moved to this by the valour she displayed, or
it may have been that he obeyed the instincts of generalship which made
him ever miserly in the matter of the lives of his soldiers.  Be that as
it may, with intent to bring her to a reasonable view of the situation,
he rode twice to the very edge of the ditch to parley with her; but all
that came of his endeavours was that on the occasion of his second appeal
to her, he had a narrow escape of falling a victim to her treachery, and
so losing his life.

She came down from the ramparts, and, ordering the lowering of the
bridge, invited him to meet her upon it that there they might confer more
at their ease, having, meanwhile, instructed her castellan to raise the
bridge again the moment the duke should set foot upon it.  The castellan
took her instructions too literally, for even as the duke did set one
foot upon it there was a grind and clank of machinery, and the great
structure swung up and clattered into place.  The duke remained outside,
saved by a too great eagerness on the part of those who worked the
winches, for had they waited but a second longer they must have trapped

Cesare returned angry to Forli, and set a price upon Caterina's head--
20,000 ducats if taken alive, 10,000 if dead; and on the morrow he opened
fire.  For a fortnight this was continued without visible result, and
daily the countess was to be seen upon the walls with her castellan,
directing the defences.  But on January 12, Cesare's cannon having been
concentrated upon one point, a breach was opened at last.  Instantly the
waiting citizens, who had been recruited for the purpose, made forward
with their faggots, heaping them up in the moat until a passage was
practicable.  Over this went Cesare's soldiers to force an entrance.

A stubborn fight ensued within the ravelin, where the duke's men were
held in check by the defenders, and not until some four hundred corpses
choked that narrow space did the besieged give ground before them.

Like most of the Italian fortresses of the period, the castle of Forli
consisted of a citadel within a citadel.  In the heart of the main
fabric--but cut off from it again by its own moat--arose the great tower
known as the Maschio.  This was ever the last retreat of the besieged
when the fortress itself had been carried by assault, and, in the case of
the Maschio of the Citadel of Forli, so stout was its construction that
it was held to be practically invulnerable.

Had the countess's soldiers made their retreat in good order to this
tower, where all the munitions and provisions were stored, Cesare would
have found the siege but in the beginning; but in the confusion of that
grim hour, besieged and besiegers, Borgian and Riarian, swept forward
interlocked, a writhing, hacking, bleeding mob of men-at-arms.  Thus they
flung themselves in a body across the bridge that spanned the inner moat,
and so into the Maschio, whilst the stream of Cesare's soldiers that
poured uninterruptedly across in the immediate wake of that battling mass
rendered it impossible for the defenders to take up the bridge.

Within the tower the carnage went on, and the duke's men hacked their way
through what remained of the Forlivese until they had made themselves
masters of that inner stronghold whither Caterina had sought her last

A Burgundian serving under the Bailie of Dijon was the first to come upon
her in the room to which she had fled with a few attendants and a handful
of men, amongst whom were Alessandro Sforza, Paolo Riario, and Scipione
Riario--this last an illegitimate son of her first husband's, whom she
had adopted.  The Burgundian declared her his prisoner, and held her for
the price that had been set upon her head until the arrival of Cesare,
who entered the citadel with his officers a little while after the final
assault had been delivered.

Cesare received and treated her with the greatest courtesy, and, seeing
her for the moment destitute, he presented her with a purse containing
two hundred ducats for her immediate needs.  Under his escort she left
the castle, and was conducted, with her few remaining servants, to the
Nomaglie Palace to remain in the Duke's care, his prisoner.  Her brother
and the other members of her family found with her were similarly made

After her departure the citadel was given over to pillage, and all hell
must have raged in it if we may judge from an incident related by
Bernardi in his chronicles.  A young clerk, named Evangelista da
Monsignane, being seized by a Burgundian soldier who asked him if he had
any money, produced and surrendered a purse containing thirteen ducats,
and so got out of the mercenaries' clutches, but only to fall into the
hands of others, one of whom again declared him a prisoner.  The poor
youth, terrified at the violence about him, and eager to be gone from
that shambles, cried out that, if they would let him go, he would pay
them a ransom of a hundred ducats.

Thereupon "Surrender to me!" cried one of the soldiers, and, as the clerk
was about to do so, another, equally greedy for the ransom, thrust
himself forward.  "No.  Surrender to me, rather," demanded this one.

The first insisted that the youth was his prisoner, whereupon the second
brandished his sword, threatening to kill Evangelista.  The clerk, in a
panic, flung himself into the arms of a monk who was with him, crying out
for mercy, and there in the monk's arms he was brutally slain, "to put an
end," said his murderer, "to the dispute."

Forlimpopoli surrendered a few days later to Yves d'Allègre, whom Cesare
had sent thither, whilst in Forli, as soon as he had reduced the citadel,
and before even attempting to repair the damage done, the duke set about
establishing order and providing for the dispensation of justice,
exerting to that end the rare administrative ability which not even his
bitterest detractors have denied him.

He sent a castellan to Forlimpopoli and fetched from Imola a Podestà for
Forli.(1)  He confirmed the Council of Forty that ruled Forli--being ten
for each quarter of the city--and generally made sound and wise provision
for the town's well-being, which we shall presently see bearing fruit.

1  It was customary throughout Italy that the Podestà, or chief
magistrate, should never be a native of the town--rarely of the State--in
which he held his office.  Thus, having no local interests or
relationships, he was the likelier to dispense justice with desirable

Next the repairing of the fortress claimed his attention, and he disposed
for this, entrusting the execution of his instructions to Ramiro de
Lorqua, whom he left behind as governor.  In the place where the breach
was opened by his cannon he ordered the placing of a marble panel bearing
his arms; and there it is to be seen to this day: Dexter, the sable bars
of the House of Lenzol; Sinister, the Borgia bull in chief, and the
lilies of France; and, superimposed, an inescutcheon bearing the
Pontifical arms.

All measures being taken so far as Forli was concerned, Cesare turned his
attention to Pesaro, and prepared to invade it.  Before leaving, however,
he awaited the return of his absent cousin, the Cardinal Giovanni Borgia,
who, as papal legate, was to receive the oath of fealty of the town; but,
instead of the cardinal whom he was expecting, came a messenger with news
of his death of fever at Fossombrone.

Giovanni Borgia had left Forli on December 28 to go to Cesena, with
intent, it was said, to recruit to his cousin's army those men of Rimini,
who, exiled and in rebellion against their tyrant Malatesta, had sought
shelter in that Pontifical fief.  Thence he had moved on to Urbino,
where--in the ducal palace--he awaited news of the fall of Forli, and
where, whilst waiting, he fell ill.  Nevertheless, when the tidings of
Cesare's victory reached him, he insisted upon getting to horse, to
repair to Forli; but, discovering himself too ill to keep the saddle, he
was forced to abandon the journey at Fossombrone, whilst the outcome of
the attempt was an aggravation of the fever resulting in the cardinal's

Cesare appears to have been deeply grieved by the loss of Giovanni, and
there is every cause to suppose that a sincere attachment prevailed
between the cousins.  Yet Cesare has been charged with his death, and
accused of having poisoned him, and, amidst the host of silly, baseless
accusations levelled against Cesare, you shall find none more silly or
baseless than this.  In other instances of unproven crimes with which he
has been charged there may be some vestiges of matter that may do duty
for evidence or be construed into motives; here there is none that will
serve one purpose or the other, and the appalling and rabid
unscrupulousness, the relentless malice of Borgian chroniclers is in
nothing so completely apparent as in this accusation.

Sanuto mentions the advices received, and the rumours which say that
Cesare murdered him through jealousy, knowing him beloved by the Pope,
seeing him a legate, and fearing that he might come to be given the
governorship of some Romagna fief.

When Gandia died and Cesare was accused of having murdered him, the
motive advanced was that Cesare, a papal legate, resented a brother who
was a duke.  Now, Cesare, being a duke, resents a cousin's being a papal
legate.  You will observe that, if this method of discovering motives is
pursued a little further, there is no man who died in Cesare's life-time
whom Cesare could not be shown to have had motives for murdering.

Sillier even than Sanuto's is the motive with which Giovio attempts to
bolster up the accusation which he reports: "He [Cesare] poisoned him
because he [Giovanni] favoured the Duke of Gandia."

That, apparently, was the best that Giovio could think of.  It is hardly
intelligible--which is perhaps inevitable, for it is not easy to be
intelligible when you don't quite know, yourself, what you mean, which
must have been Giovio's case.

The whole charge is so utterly foolish, stupid, and malicious that it
would scarcely be worth mentioning, were it not that so many modern
writers have included this among the Borgia crimes.  As a matter of fact
--and as a comparison of the above-cited dates will show--eighteen days
had elapsed between Giovanni Borgia's leaving Cesare at Forli and his
succumbing at Urbino--which in itself disposes of the matter.  It may be
mentioned that this is a circumstance which those foolish or deliberately
malicious calumniators either did not trouble to ascertain or else
thought it wiser to slur over.  Although, had they been pressed, there
was always the death of Djem to be cited and the fiction of the slow-
working poison specially invented to meet and explain his case.

The preparations for the invasion of Pesaro were complete, and it was
determined that on January 22 the army should march out of Forli; but on
the night of the 21st a disturbance occurred.  The Swiss under the Bailie
of Dijon became mutinous--they appear throughout to have been an ill-
conditioned lot--and they clamoured now for higher pay if they were to go
on to Pesaro, urging that already they had served the Duke of Valentinois
as far as they had pledged themselves to the King of France.

Towards the third hour of the night the Bailie himself, with these
mutineers at his heels, presented himself at the Nomaglie Palace to
demand that the Countess Sforza-Riario should be delivered into his
hands.  His claim was that she was his prisoner, since she had been
arrested by a soldier of his own, and that her surrender was to France,
to which he added--a thought inconsequently, it seems--that the French
law forbade that women should be made prisoners.  Valentinois, taken
utterly by surprise, and without the force at hand to resist the Bailie
and his Swiss, was compelled to submit and to allow the latter to carry
the countess off to his own lodging; but he dispatched a messenger to
Forlimpopoli with orders for the immediate return of Allègre and his
horse, and in the morning, after Mass, he had the army drawn up in the
market-place; and so, backed by his Spanish, French, and Italian troops,
he faced the threatening Swiss.

The citizens were in a panic, expecting to see battle blaze out at any
moment, and apprehensive of the consequences that might ensue for the

The Swiss had grown more mutinous than ever overnight, and they now
refused to march until they were paid.  It was Cesare's to quell and
restore them to obedience.  He informed them that they should be paid
when they reached Cesena, and that, if they were retained thereafter in
his employ, their pay should be on the improved scale which they
demanded.  Beyond that he made no concessions.  The remainder of his
harangue was matter to cow them into submission, for he threatened to
order the ringing of the alarm-bells, and to have them cut to pieces by
the people of Forli whom their gross and predatory habits had already
deeply offended.

Order was at last restored, and the Bailie of Dijon was compelled to
surrender back the countess to Cesare.  But their departure was postponed
until the morrow.  On that day, January 23, after receiving the oath of
fealty from the Anziani in the Church of San Mercuriale, the duke marched
his army out of Forli and took the road to Pesaro.

Caterina Sforza Riario went with him.  Dressed in black and mounted upon
a white horse, the handsome amazon rode between Cesare Borgia and Yves

At Cesena the duke made a halt, and there he left the countess in the
charge of d'Allègre whilst he himself rode forward to overtake the main
body of his army, which was already as far south as Cattolica.  As for
Giovanni Sforza, despite the fact that the Duke of Urbino had sent some
foot to support him, he was far more likely to run than to fight, and in
fact he had already taken the precaution of placing his money and
valuables in safety and was disposing, himself, to follow them.  But it
happened that there was not yet the need.  Fate--in the shape of his
cousin Lodovico of Milan--postponed the occasion.

On the 26th Cesare lay at Montefiori, and there he was reached by
couriers sent at all speed from Milan by Trivulzio.  Lodovico Sforza had
raised an army of Swiss and German mercenaries to reconquer his
dominions, and the Milanese were opening their arms to receive him back,
having already discovered that, in exchanging his rule for that of the
French, they had but exchanged King Log for King Stork.  Trivulzio begged
for the instant return of the French troops serving under Cesare, and
Cesare, naturally compelled to accede, was forced to postpone the
continuance of his campaign, a matter which must have been not a little
vexatious at such a moment.

He returned to Cesena, where, on the 27th, he dismissed Yves d'Allègre
and his men, who made all haste back to Milan, so that Cesare was left
with a force of not more than a thousand foot and five hundred horse. 
These, no doubt, would have sufficed him for the conquest of Pesaro, but
Giovanni Sforza, encouraged by his cousin's return, and hopeful now of
assistance, would certainly entrench himself and submit to a siege which
must of necessity be long-drawn, since the departure of the French had
deprived Cesare of his artillery.

Therefore the duke disposed matters for his return to Rome instead, and,
leaving Ercole Bentivogli with five hundred horse and Gonsalvo de
Mirafuente with three hundred foot to garrison Forli, he left Cesena with
the remainder of his forces, including Vitelli's horse, on January 30. 
With him went Caterina Sforza-Riario, and of course there were not
wanting those who alleged that, during the few days at Cesena he had
carried his conquest of her further than the matter of her
territories(1)--a rumour whose parent was, no doubt, the ribald jest made
in Milan by Trivulzio when he heard of her capture.

1  "Teneva detta Madona (la qual é belissima dona, fiola del Ducha
Galeazo di Milan) di zorno e di note in la sna camera, con la quale--
judicio omnium--si deva piacer" (Sanuto's Diarii).

He conducted her to Rome--in golden chains, "like another Palmyra," it is
said--and there she was given the beautiful Belvedere for her prison
until she attempted an escape in the following June; whereupon, for
greater safety, she was transferred to the Castle of Sant' Angelo.  There
she remained until May of 1501, when, by the intervention of the King of
France, she was set at liberty and permitted to withdraw to Florence to
rejoin her children.  In the city of the lilies she abode, devoting
herself to good works until she ended her turbulent, unhappy life in

The circumstance that she was not made to pay with her life for her
attempt to poison the Pope is surely something in favour of the Borgias,
and it goes some way towards refuting the endless statements of their
fierce and vindictive cruelty.  Of course, it has been urged that they
spared her from fear of France; but, if that is admitted, what then
becomes of the theory of that secret poison which might so well have been
employed in such a case as this?



Although Cesare Borgia's conquest of Imola and Forli cannot seriously be
accounted extraordinary	military achievements--save by consideration of
the act that this was the first campaign he had conducted--yet in Rome
the excitement caused by his victory was enormous.  Possibly this is to
be assigned to the compelling quality of the man's personality, which was
beginning to manifest and assert itself and to issue from the shadow into
which it had been cast hitherto by that of his stupendous father.

The enthusiasm mounted higher and higher whilst preparations were being
made for his reception, and reached its climax on February 26, when, with
overpowering pomp, he made an entrance into Rome that was a veritable

Sanuto tells us that, as news came of his approach, the Pope, in his
joyous impatience and excitement, became unable to discharge the business
of his office, and no longer would give audience to any one.  Alexander
had ever shown himself the fondest of fathers to his children, and now he
overflowed with pride in this son who already gave such excellent signs
of his capacity as a condottiero, and justified his having put off the
cassock to strap a soldier's harness to his lithe and comely body.

Cardinals Farnese and Borgia, with an imposing suite, rode out some way
beyond the gates of Santa Maria del Popolo to meet the duke.  At the gate
itself a magnificent reception had been prepared him, and the entire
Pontifical Court, prelates, priests, ambassadors of the Powers, and
officials of the city and curia down to the apostolic abbreviators and
secretaries, waited to receive him.

It was towards evening--between the twenty-second and the twenty-third
hours--when he made his entrance.  In the van went the baggage-carts, and
behind these marched a thousand foot in full campaign apparel, headed by
two heralds in the duke's livery and one in the livery of the King of
France.  Next came Vitellozzo's horse followed by fifty mounted
gentlemen-at-arms--the duke's Caesarean guard--immediately preceding
Cesare himself.

The handsome young duke--"bello e biondo"--was splendidly mounted, but
very plainly dressed in black velvet with a simple gold chain for only
ornament, and he had about him a hundred guards on foot, also in black
velvet, halbert on shoulder, and a posse of trumpeters in a livery that
displayed his arms.  In immediate attendance upon him came several
cardinals on their mules, and behind these followed the ambassadors of
the Powers, Cesare's brother Giuffredo Borgia, and Alfonso of Aragon,
Duke of Biselli and Prince of Salerno--Lucrezia's husband and the father
of her boy Roderigo, born some three months earlier.  Conspicuous, too,
in Cesare's train would be the imposing figure of the formidable Countess
Sforza-Riario, in black upon her white horse, riding in her golden
shackles between her two attendant women.

As the procession reached the Bridge of Sant' Angelo a salute was
thundered forth by the guns from the castle, where floated the banners of
Cesare and of the Church.  The press of people from the Porta del Popolo
all the way to the Vatican was enormous.  It was the year of the Papal
Jubilee, and the city was thronged, with pilgrims from all quarters of
Europe who had flocked to Rome to obtain the plenary indulgence offered
by the Pope.  So great was the concourse on this occasion that the
procession had the greatest difficulty in moving forward, and the
progress through the streets, packed with shouting multitudes, was of
necessity slow.  At last, however, the Bridge of Sant' Angelo being
crossed, the procession	pushed on to the Vatican along the new road
inaugurated for the Jubilee by Alexander in the previous December.

From the loggia above the portals of the Vatican the Pope watched his
son's imposing approach, and when the latter dismounted at the steps his
Holiness, with his five attendant cardinals, descended to the Chamber of
the Papagallo--the papal audience­chamber, contiguous to the Borgia
apartments--to receive the duke.  Thither sped Cesare with his multitude
of attendants, and at sight of him now the Pope's eyes were filled with
tears of joy.  The duke advanced gravely to the foot of the throne, where
he fell upon his knees, and was overheard by Burchard to express to his
father, in their native Spanish, all that he owed to the Pope's Holiness,
to which Alexander replied in the same tongue.  Then Cesare stooped and
kissed the Pope's feet and then his hand, whereupon Alexander, conquered
no doubt by the paternal instincts of affection that were so strong in
him, raised his son and took him fondly in his arms.

The festivities in honour of Cesare's return were renewed in Rome upon
the morrow, and to this the	circumstance that the season was that of
carnival undoubtedly contributed and lent the displays a threatrical
character which might otherwise have been absent.  In these the duke's
victories were made the subject of illustration.  There was a procession
of great chariots in Piazza Navona, with groups symbolizing the triumphs
of the ancient Caesar, in the arrangement of which, no doubt, the
assistance had been enlisted of that posse of valiant artists who were
then flocking to Rome and the pontifical Court.

Yriarte, mixing his facts throughout with a liberal leaven of fiction,
tells us that "this is the precise moment in which Cesare Borgia, fixing
his eyes upon the Roman Caesar, takes him definitely for his model and
adopts the device 'Aut Caesar, aut nihil.'"

Cesare Borgia never adopted that device, and never displayed it.  In
connection with him it is only to be found upon the sword of honour made
for him when, while still a cardinal, he went to crown the King of
Naples.  It is not at all unlikely that the inscription of the device
upon that sword--which throughout is engraved with illustrations of the
career of Julius Caesar--may have been the conceit of the sword-maker as
a rather obvious play upon Cesare's name.(1)  Undoubtedly, were the
device of Cesare's own adoption we should find it elsewhere, and nowhere
else is it to be found.

1  The scabbard of this sword is to be seen in the South Kensington
Museum; the sword itself is in the possession of the Caetani family.

Shortly after Cesare's return to Rome, Imola and Forli sent their
ambassadors to the Vatican to beseech his Holiness to sign the articles
which those cities had drawn up and by virtue of which they created
Cesare their lord in the place of the deposed Riarii.

It is quite true that Alexander had announced that, in promoting the
Romagna campaign, he had for object to restore to the Church the States
which had rebelliously seceded from her.  Yet there is not sufficient
reason to suppose that he was flagrantly breaking his word in acceding to
the request of which those ambassadors were the bearers and in creating
his son Count of Imola and Forli.  Admitted that this was to Cesare's
benefit and advancement, it is still to be remembered that those fiefs
must be governed for the Church by a Vicar, as had ever been the case.

That being so, who could have been preferred to Cesare for the dignity,
seeing that not only was the expulsion of the tyrants his work, but that
the inhabitants themselves desired him for their lord?  For the rest,
granted his exceptional qualifications, it is to be remembered that the
Pope was his father, and--setting aside the guilt and scandal of that
paternity--it is hardly reasonable to expect a father to prefer some
other to his son for a stewardship for which none is so well equipped as
that same son.  That Imola and Forli were not free gifts to Cesare,
detached, for the purpose of so making them, from the Holy See, is clear
from the title of Vicar with which Cesare assumed control of them, as set
forth in the Bull of investiture.

In addition to his receiving the rank of Vicar and Count of Imola and
Forli, it was in this same month of March at last--and after Cesare may
be said to have earned it--that he received the Gonfalon of the Church. 
With the unanimous concurrence of the Sacred College, the Pope officially
appointed him Captain-General of the Pontifical forces--the coveting of
which position was urged, it will be remembered, as one of his motives
for his alleged murder of the Duke of Gandia three years earlier.

On March 29 Cesare comes to St. Peter's to receive his new dignity and
the further honour of the Golden Rose which the Pope is to bestow upon
him--the symbol of the Church Militant and the Church Triumphant.

Having blessed the Rose, the Pope is borne solemnly into St. Peter's,
preceded by the College of Cardinals.  Arrived before the High Altar, he
puts off his tiara--the conical, richly jewelled cap, woven from the
plumage of white peacocks--and bareheaded kneels to pray; whereafter he
confesses himself to the Cardinal of Benevento, who was the celebrant on
this occasion.  That done, he ascends and takes his seat upon the
Pontifical Throne, whither come the cardinals to adore him, while the
organ peals forth and the choir gives voice.  Last of all comes Cesare,
dressed in cloth of gold with ermine border, to kneel upon the topmost
step of the throne, whereupon the Pope, removing his tiara and delivering
it to the attendant Cardinal of San Clemente, pronounces the beautiful
prayer of the investiture.  That ended, the Pope receives from the hands
of the Cardinal of San Clemente the splendid mantle of gonfalonier, and
sets it about the duke's shoulders with the prescribed words: "May the
Lord array thee in the garment of salvation and surround thee with the
cloak of happiness."  Next he takes from the hands of the Master of the
Ceremonies--that same Burchard whose diary supplies us with these
details--the gonfalonier's cap of scarlet and ermine richly decked with
pearls and surmounted by a dove--the emblem of the Holy Spirit--likewise
wrought in pearls.  This he places upon Cesare's auburn head; whereafter,
once more putting off his tiara, he utters the prescribed prayer over the
kneeling duke.

That done, and the Holy Father resuming his seat and his tiara, Cesare
stoops to kiss the Pope's feet, then rising, goes in his gonfalonier
apparel, the cap upon his head, to take his place among the cardinals. 
The organ crashes forth again; the choir intones the "Introito ad altare
Deum"; the celebrant ascends the altar, and, having offered incense,
descends again and the Mass begins.

The Mass being over, and the celebrant having doffed his sacred vestments
and rejoined his brother cardinals, the Cardinal of San Clemente repairs
once more to the Papal Throne, preceded by two chamberlains who carry two
folded banners, one bearing the Pope's personal arms, the other the arms
of Holy Church.  Behind the cardinal follows an acolyte with the censer
and incense-boat and another with the holy water and the aspersorio, and
behind these again two prelates with a Missal and a candle.  The Pope
rises, blesses the folded banners and incenses them, having received the
censer from the hands of a priest who has prepared it.  Then, as he
resumes his seat, Cesare steps forward once more, and, kneeling, places
both hands upon the Missal and pronounces in a loud, clear voice the
words of the oath of fealty to St. Peter and the Pope, swearing ever to
protect the latter and his successors from harm to life, limb, or
possessions.  Thereafter the Pope takes the blessed banners and gives the
charge of them to Cesare, delivering into his hands the white truncheon
symbolic of his office, whilst the Master of Ceremonies hands the actual
banners to the two deputies, who in full armour have followed to receive
them, and who attach them to the lances provided for the purpose.

The investiture is followed by the bestowal of the Golden Rose,
whereafter Cesare, having again kissed the Pope's feet and the Ring of
the Fisherman on his finger, has the cap of office replaced upon his head
by Burchard himself, and so the ceremonial ends.

The Bishop of Isernia was going to Cesena to assume the governorship of
that Pontifical fief, and, profiting by this, Cesare appointed him his
lieutenant-general in Romagna, with authority over all his other officers
there and full judicial powers.  Further, he desired him to act as his
deputy and receive the oath of fealty of the duke's new subjects.

Meanwhile, Cesare abode in Rome, no doubt impatient of the interruption
which his campaign had suffered, and which it seemed must continue yet
awhile.  Lodovico Sforza had succeeded in driving the French out of his
dominions as easily as he, himself, had been driven out by them a few
months earlier.  But Louis XII sent down a fresh army under La
Trémouille, and Lodovico, basely betrayed by his Swiss mercenaries at
Novara in April, was taken prisoner.

That was the definite end of the Sforza rule in Milan.  For ten years the
crafty, scheming Lodovico was left to languish a prisoner in the Castle
of Loches, at the end of which time he miserably died.

Immediately upon the return of the French to Milan, the Pope asked for
troops that Cesare might resume his enterprise not only against Pesaro,
Faenza, and Rimini, but also against Bologna, where Giovanni Bentivogli
had failed to support--as in duty bound--the King of France against
Lodovico Sforza.  But Bentivogli repurchased the forfeited French
protection at the price of 40,000 ducats, and so escaped the impending
danger; whilst Venice, it happened, was growing concerned to see no
profit accruing to herself out of this league with France and Rome; and
that was a matter which her trader spirit could not brook.  Therefore,
Venice intervened in the matter of Rimini and Faenza, which she protected
in somewhat the same spirit as the dog protected the straw in the manger. 
Next, when, having conquered the Milanese, Louis XII turned his thoughts
to the conquest of Naples, and called upon Venice to march with him as
became a good ally, the Republic made it quite clear that she was not
disposed to move unless there was to be some profit to herself.  She
pointed out that Mantua and Ferrara were in the same case as Bologna, for
having failed to lend assistance to the French in the hour of need, and
proposed to Louis XII the conquest and division of those territories.

Thus matters stood, and Cesare had perforce to await the conclusion of
the Pisan War in which the French were engaged, confident, however, that,
once that was at an end, Louis, in his anxiety to maintain friendly
relations with the Pope, would be able to induce Venice to withdraw her
protection from Rimini and Faenza.  So much accomplished for him, he was
now in a position to do the rest without the aid of French troops if
necessary.  The Jubilee--protracted for a further year, so vast and
continuous was the concourse of the faithful, 200,000 of whom knelt in
the square before St. Peter's on Easter Day to receive the Pope's
blessing--was pouring vast sums of money into the pontifical coffers, and
for money men were to be had in plenty by a young condottiero whose fame
had been spreading ever since his return from the Romagna.  He was now
the hope of the soldiers of fortune who abounded in Italy, attracted
thither from all quarters by the continual opportunities for employment
which that tumultuous land afforded.

It is in speaking of him at about this time, and again praising his
personal beauty and fine appearance, that Capello says of him that, if he
lives, he will be one of Italy's greatest captains.

Such glimpses as in the pages of contemporary records we are allowed of
Cesare during that crowded time of the Papal Jubilee are slight and
fleeting.  On April 13 we see him on horseback accompanying the Pope
through Rome in the cavalcade that visited the four Basilicas to win the
indulgence offered, and, as usual, he is attended by his hundred armed
grooms in black.

On another occasion we behold him very differently engaged--giving an
exhibition of his superb physical gifts, his strength, his courage, and
his matchless address.  On June 24, at a bull-fight held in Rome--Spanish
tauromachia having been introduced from Naples, where it flourished under
the Aragon dominion--he went down into the arena, and on horseback, armed
only with a light lance, he killed five wild bulls.  But the master-
stroke he reserved for the end.  Dismounting, and taking a double­handed
sword to the sixth bull that was loosed against hin, he beheaded the
great beast at one single stroke, "a feat which all Rome considered

Thus sped the time of waiting, and meanwhile he gathered about him a
Court not only of captains of fortune, but of men of art and letters,
whom he patronized with a liberality--indeed, a prodigality--so great
that it presently became proverbial, and, incidentally, by its
proportions provoked his father's disapproval.  In the brilliant group of
men of letters who enjoyed his patronage were such writers as Justolo,
Sperulo, and that unfortunate poet Serafino Cimino da Aquila, known to
fame and posterity as the great Aquilano.  And it would be, no doubt,
during these months that Pier di Lorenzo painted that portrait of Cesare
which Vasari afterwards saw in Florence, but which, unfortunately, is not
now known to exist.  Bramante, too, was of his Court at this time, as was
Michelangelo Buonarroti, whose superb group of "Mercy," painted for
Cardinal de Villiers, had just amazed all Rome.  With Pinturicchio, and
Leonardi da Vinci--whom we shall see later beside Cesare--Michelangelo
was ever held in the highest esteem by the duke.

The story of that young sculptor's leap into fame may not be so widely
known but that its repetition may be tolerated here, particularly since,
remotely at least, it touches Cesare Borgia.

When, in 1496, young Buonarroti, at the age of twenty-three, came from
Florence to Rome to seek his fortune at the opulent Pontifical Court, he
brought a letter of recommendation to Cardinal Sforza-Riario.  This was
the time of the great excavations about Rome; treasures of ancient art
were daily being rescued from the soil, and Cardinal Sforza-Riario was a
great dilletante and collector of the antique.  With pride of possession,
he conducted the young sculptor through his gallery, and, displaying his
statuary to him, inquired could he do anything that might compare with
it.  If the cardinal meant to use the young Florentine cavalierly, his
punishment was immediate and poetic, for amid the antiques Michelangelo
beheld a sleeping Cupid which he instantly claimed as his own work. 
Riario was angry; no doubt suspicious, too, of fraud.  This Cupid was--as
its appearance showed--a genuine antique, which the cardinal had
purchased from a Milanese dealer for two hundred ducats.  Michelangelo,
in a passion, named the dealer--one Baldassare--to whom he had sent the
statue after treating it, with the questionable morality of the
cinquecentist, so as to give it the appearance of having lain in the
ground, to the end that Baldassare might dispose of it as an antique.

His present fury arose from his learning the price paid by the cardinal
to Baldassare, from whom Michelangelo had received only thirty ducats. 
In his wrath he demanded--very arbitrarily it seems--the return of his
statue.  But to this the cardinal would not consent until Baldassare had
been arrested and made to disgorge the money paid him.  Then, at last,
Sforza-Riario complied with Michelangelo's demands and delivered him his
Cupid--a piece of work whose possession had probably ceased to give any
pleasure to that collector of the antique.

But the story was bruited abroad, and cultured Rome was agog to see the
statue which had duped so astute a judge as Sforza-Riario.  The fame of
the young sculptor spread like a ripple over water, and it was Cesare
Borgia--at that time still Cardinal of Valencia who bought the Cupid. 
Years later he sent it to Isabella d'Este, assuring her that it had not
its equal among contemporary works of art.



We come now to the consideration of an event which, despite the light
that so many, and with such assurance, have shed upon it, remains wrapped
in uncertainty, and presents a mystery second only to that of the murder
of the Duke of Gandia.

It was, you will remember, in July of 1498 that Lucrezia took a second
husband in Alfonso of Aragon, the natural son of Alfonso II of Naples and
nephew of Federigo, the reigning king.  He was a handsome boy of
seventeen at the time of his marriage--one year younger than Lucrezia--
and, in honour of the event and in compliance with the Pope's insistence,
he was created by his uncle Duke of Biselli and Prince of Salerno.  On
every hand the marriage was said to be a love-match, and of it had been
born, in November of 1499, the boy Roderigo.

On July 15, 1500, at about the third hour of the night, Alfonso was
assaulted and grievously wounded--mortally, it was said at first--on the
steps of St. Peter's.

Burchard's account of the affair is that the young prince was assailed by
several assassins, who wounded him in the head, right arm, and knee. 
Leaving him, no doubt, for dead, they fled down the steps, at the foot of
which some forty horsemen awaited them, who escorted them out of the city
by the Pertusa Gate.  The prince was residing in the palace of the
Cardinal of Santa Maria in Portico, but so desperate was his condition
that those who found him upon the steps of the Basilica bore him into the
Vatican, where he was taken to a chamber of the Borgia Tower, whilst the
Cardinal of Capua at once gave him absolution in articulo mortis.

The deed made a great stir in Rome, and was, of course, the subject of
immediate gossip, and three days later Cesare issued an edict forbidding,
under pain of death, any man from going armed between Sant' Angelo and
the Vatican.

News of the event was carried immediately to Naples, and King Federigo
sent his own physician, Galieno, to treat and tend his nephew.  In the
care of that doctor and a hunchback assistant, Alfonso lay ill of his
wounds until August 17, when suddenly be died, to the great astonishment
of Rome, which for some time had believed him out of danger.  In
recording his actual death, Burchard is at once explicit and reticent to
an extraordinary degree.  "Not dying," he writes, "from the wound he had
taken, he was yesterday strangled in his bed at the nineteenth hour."

Between the chronicling of his having been wounded on the steps of St.
Peter's and that of his death, thirty-three days later, there is no entry
in Burchard's diary relating to the prince, nor anything that can in any
way help the inquirer to a conclusion; whilst, on the subject of the
strangling, not another word does the Master of Ceremonies add to what
has above been quoted.  That he should so coldly--almost cynically--state
that Alfonso was strangled, without so much as suggesting by whom, is
singular in one who, however grimly laconic, is seldom reticent--
notwithstanding that he may have been so accounted by those who despaired
of finding in his diary the confirmation of such points of view as they
happen to have chosen and of such matters as it pleased them to believe
and propagate.

That same evening Alfonso's body was borne, without pomp, to St. Peter's,
and placed in the Chapel of Santa Maria delle Febbre.  It was accompanied
by Francesco Borgia, Archbishop of Cosenza.

The doctor who had been in attendance upon the deceased and the hunchback
were seized, taken to Sant' Angelo and examined, but shortly thereafter
set at liberty.

So far we are upon what we may consider safe ground.  Beyond that we
cannot go, save by treading the uncertain ways of speculation, and by
following the accounts of the various rumours circulated at the time. 
Formal and absolutely positive evidence of the author of Alfonso's murder
there is none.

The Venetian ambassador, the ineffable, gossip­mongering Paolo Capello,
whom we have seen possessed of the fullest details concerning the Duke of
Gandia's death--although he did not come to Rome until two and a half
years after the crime--is again as circumstantial in this instance.  You
see in this Capello the forerunner of the modern journalist of the baser
sort, the creature who prowls in quest of scraps of gossip and items of
scandal, and who, having found them, does not concern himself greatly in
the matter of their absolute truth so that they provide him with
sensational "copy."  It is this same Capello, bear in mind, who gives us
the story of Cesare's murdering in the Pope's very arms that Pedro Caldes
who is elsewhere shown to have fallen into Tiber and been drowned, down
to the lurid details of the blood's spurting into the Pope's face.

His famous Relazione to the Senate in September of 1500 is little better
than an epitome of all the scandal current in Rome during his sojourn
there as ambassador, and his resurrection of the old affair of the murder
of Gandia goes some way towards showing the spirit by which he was
actuated and his love of sensational matter.  It has pleased most writers
who have dealt with the matter of the murder of Alfonso of Aragon to
follow Capello's statements; consequently these must be examined.

He writes from Rome--as recorded by Sanuto--that on July 16 Alfonso of
Biselli was assaulted on the steps of St. Peter's, and received four
wounds, "one in the head, one in the arm, one in the shoulder, and one in
the back."  That was all that was known to Capello at the time he wrote
that letter, and you will observe already the discrepancy between his
statement, penned upon hearsay, and Burchard's account--which,
considering the latter's position at the Vatican, must always be
preferred.  According to Burchard the wounds were three, and they were in
the head, right arm, and knee.

On the 19th Capello writes again, and, having stated that Lucrezia--who
was really prostrate with grief at her husband's death--was stricken with
fever, adds that "it is not known who has wounded the Duke of Biselli,
but it is said that it was the same who killed and threw into Tiber the
Duke of Gandia.  My Lord of Valentinois has issued an edict that no one
shall henceforth bear arms between Sant' Angelo and the Vatican."

On the face of it, that edict of Valentinois' seems to argue vexation at
what had happened, and the desire to provide against its repetition--a
provision hardly likely to be made by the man who had organized the
assault, unless he sought, by this edict, to throw dust into the eyes of
the world; and one cannot associate after the event and the fear of
criticism with such a nature as Cesare's or with such a character as is
given him by those who are satisfied that it was he who murdered Biselli.

The rumour that Alfonso had been assailed by the murderer of Gandia is a
reasonable enough rumour, so long as the latter remains unnamed, for it
would simply point to some enemy of the House of Borgia who, having slain
one of its members, now attempts to slay another.  Whether Capello
actually meant Cesare when he penned those words on July 19, is not as
obvious as may be assumed, for it is to be borne in mind that, at this
date, Capello had not yet compiled the "relation" in which he deals with
Gandia's murder.

On July 23 he wrote that the duke was very ill, indeed, from the wound in
his head, and on the 28th that he was in danger owing to the same wound
although the fever had abated.

On August 18 he announces Alfonso's death in the following terms: "The
Duke of Biselli, Madonna Lucrezia's husband, died to-day because he was
planning the death of the Duke [of Valentinois] by means of an arbalest-
bolt when he walked in the garden; and the duke has had him cut to pieces
in his room by his archers."

This "cutting-to-pieces" form of death is one very dear to the
imagination of Capello, and bears some witness to his sensation-mongering

Coming to matters more public, and upon which his evidence is more
acceptable, he writes on the 20th that some servants of the prince's have
been arrested, and that, upon being put to the question, they confessed
to the prince's intent to kill the Duke of Valentinois, adding that a
servant of the duke's was implicated.  On the 23rd Capello
circumstantially confirms this matter of Alfonso's attempt upon Cesare's
life, and states that this has been confessed by the master of Alfonso's
household, "the brother of his mother, Madonna Drusa."

That is the sum of Capello's reports to the Senate, as recorded by
Sanuto.  The rest, the full, lurid, richly-coloured, sensational story,
is contained in his "relation" of September 20.  He prefaces the
narrative by informing the Senate that the Pope is on very bad terms with
Naples, and proceeds to relate the case of Alfonso of Aragon as follows:

"He was wounded at the third hour of night near the palace of the Duke of
Valentinois, his brother­in-law, and the prince ran to the Pope, saying
that he had been wounded and that he knew by whom; and his wife Lucrezia,
the Pope's daughter, who was in the room, fell into anguish.  He was ill
for thirty-three days, and his wife and sister, who is the wife of the
Prince of Squillace, another son of the Pope's, were with him and cooked
for him in a saucepan for fear of his being poisoned, as the Duke of
Valentinois so hated him.  And the Pope had him guarded by sixteen men
for fear that the duke should kill him.  And when the Pope went to visit
him Valentinois did not accompany him, save on one occasion, when he said
that what had not been done at breakfast might be done at supper....  On
August 17 he [Valentinois] entered the room where the prince was already
risen from his bed, and, driving out the wife and sister, called in his
man, named Michieli, and had the prince strangled; and that night he was

Now the following points must arise to shake the student's confidence in
this narrative, and in Capello as an authority upon any of the other
matters that he relates:

  (i)  "He was wounded near the palace of the Duke of Valentinois."  This
looks exceedingly like an attempt to pile up evidence against Cesare, and
shows a disposition to resort to the invention of it.  Whatever may not
have been known about Alfonso's death, it was known by everybody that he
was wounded on the steps of St. Peter's, and Capello himself, in his
dispatches, had said so at the time.  A suspicion that Capello's whole
relation is to serve the purpose of heaping odium upon Cesare at once
arises and receives confirmation when we consider that, as we have
already said, it is in this same relation that the fiction about Pedro
Caldes finds place and that the guilt of the murder of the Duke of Gandia
is definitely fixed upon Cesare.

  (ii)  "He ran to the Pope ['Corse dal Papa'] saying that he had been
wounded, and that he knew by whom."  A man with a wound in his head which
endangered his life for over a week would hardly be conscious on
receiving it, nor is it to be supposed that, had he been conscious, his
assailants would have departed.  It cannot be doubted that they left him
for dead.  He was carried into the palace, and we know, from Burchard,
that the Cardinal of Capua gave him absolution in articulo mortis, which
abundantly shows his condition.  It is unthinkable that he should have
been able to "run to the Pope," doubtful that he should have been able to
speak; and, if he did, who was it reported his words to the Venetian
ambassador?  Capello wisely refrains from saying.

  (iii)  Lucrezia and Sancia attempt to protect him from poison by
cooking his food in his room.  This is quite incredible.  Even admitting
the readiness to do so on the part of these princesses, where was the
need, considering the presence of the doctor--admitted by Capello--sent
from Naples and his hunchback assistant?

  (iv)  "The Pope had him guarded by sixteen men for fear the duke should
kill him."  Yet when, according to Capello, the duke comes on his
murderous errand, attended only by Michieli (who has been generally
assumed by writers to have been Don Michele da Corella, one of Cesare's
captains), where were these sixteen guards?  Capello mentions the
dismissal only of Lucrezia and Sancia.

  (v)  "Valentinois...said that what had not been done at breakfast might
be done at supper."  It will be observed that Capello never once
considers it necessary to give his authorities for anything that he
states.  It becomes, perhaps, more particularly noteworthy than usual in
the case of this reported speech of Cesare's.  He omits to say to whom
Cesare addressed those sinister words, and who reported them to him.  The
statement is hardly one to be accepted without that very necessary
mention of authorities, nor can we conceive Capello omitting them had he
possessed them.

It will be seen that it is scarcely necessary to go outside of Capello's
own relation for the purpose of traversing the statements contained in
it, so far as the death of Alfonso of Aragon is concerned.

It is, however, still to be considered that, if Alfonso knew who had
attempted his life--as Capello states that he told the Pope--and knew
that he was in hourly danger of death from Valentinois, it may surely be
taken for granted that he would have imparted the information to the
Neapolitan doctor sent him by his uncle, who must have had his

We know that, after the prince's death, the physician and his hunchback
assistant were arrested, but subsequently released.  They returned to
Naples, and in Naples, if not elsewhere, the truth must have been known--
definite and authentic facts from the lips of eye-witnesses, not mere
matters of rumour, as was the case in Rome.  It is to Neapolitan
writings, then, that we must turn for the truth of this affair; and yet
from Naples all that we find is a rumour--the echo of the Roman rumour--
"They say," writes the Venetian ambassador at the Court of King Federigo,
"that he was killed by the Pope's son."

A more mischievous document than Capello's Relazione can seldom have
found its way into the pages of history; it is the prime source of
several of the unsubstantiated accusations against Cesare Borgia upon
which subsequent writers have drawn--accepting without criticism--and
from which they have formed their conclusions as to the duke's character. 
Even in our own times we find the learned Gregorovius following Capello's
relation step by step, and dealing out this matter of the murder of the
Duke of Biselli in his own paraphrases, as so much substantiated,
unquestionable fact.  We find in his Lucrezia Borgia the following
statement: "The affair was no longer a mystery.  Cesare himself publicly
declared that he had killed the duke because his life had been attempted
by the latter."

To say that Cesare "publicly declared that he had killed the duke" is to
say a very daring thing, and is dangerously to improve upon Capello.  If
it is true that Cesare made this public declaration how does it happen
that no one but Capello heard him? for in all other documents there is no
more than offered us a rumour of how Alfonso died.  Surely it is to be
supposed that, had Cesare made any such declaration, the letters from the
ambassadors would have rung with it.  Yet they will offer you nothing but
statements of what is being rumoured!

Nor does Gregorovius confine himself to that in his sedulous following of
Capello's Relation.  He serves up out of Capello the lying story of the
murder of Pedro Caldes.  "What," he says of Cesare, to support his view
that Cesare murdered Alfonso of Aragon, "could be beyond this terrible
man who had poignarded the Spaniard Pedro Caldes...under the Pope's very
cloak, so that his blood spurted up into the Pope's face?"  This in his
History of Rome.  In his Lucrezia Borgia he almost improves upon it when
he says that "The Venetian ambassador, Paolo Capello, reports how Cesare
Borgia stabbed the chamberlain Perotto, etc., but Burchard makes no
mention of the fact."  Of the fact of the stabbing, Burchard certainly
makes no mention; but he does mention that the man was accidentally
drowned, as has been considered.  It is again--and more flagrantly than
ever--a case of proving Cesare guilty of a crime of which there is no
conclusive evidence by charging him with another, which--in this
instance--there is actually evidence that he did not commit.

But this is by the way.

Burchard's entries in his diary relating to the assault upon Alfonso of
Aragon can no more escape the criticism of the thoughtful than can
Capello's relation.  His forty horsemen, for instance, need explaining. 
Apart from the fact that this employment of forty horsemen would be an
altogether amazing and incredible way to set about the murder of a single
man, it is to be considered that such a troop, drawn up in the square
before St. Peter's, must of necessity have attracted some attention.  It
was the first hour of the night, remember--according to Burchard--that is
to say, at dusk.  Presumably, too,	those horsemen were waiting when the
prince arrived.  How then, did he--and why was he allowed--to pass them,
only to be assailed in ascending the steps?  Burchard, presumably, did
not himself see these horsemen; certainly he cannot have seen them
escorting the murderers to the Pertusa Gate.  Therefore he must have had
the matter reported to him.  Naturally enough, had the horsemen existed,
they must have been seen.  How, then, does it happen	that Capello did
not hear of them? nor the Florentine ambassador, who says that the
murderers were four, nor any one else apparently?

To turn for a moment to the Florentine ambassador's letters upon the
subject, we find in this other Capello--Francesco Capello was his name--
accounts which differ alike from Paolo Capello's and from Burchard'
	stories.  But he is careful to say that he is simply repeating the
rumours that are abroad, and cites several different versions that are
current, adding that the truth of the affair is not known to anybody. 
His conclusions, however, particularly those given in cipher, point to
Cesare Borgia as the perpetrator of the deed, and hint at some such
motive of retaliation for an attempt upon his own life as that which is
given by the ambassador of Venice.

There is much mystery in the matter, despite Gregorovius's assertion to
the contrary--mystery which mere assertion will not dissipate.  This
conclusion, however, it is fair to draw: if, on Capello's evidence, we
are to accept it that Cesare Borgia is responsible for the death of
Alfonso of Aragon, then, on the same evidence, we must accept the motive
as well as the deed.  We must accept as equally exact his thrice-repeated
statement in letters to the Senate that the prince had planned Cesare's
death by posting crossbow-men to shoot him.(1)

1  It is extremely significant that Capello's Relazione contains no
mention of Alfonso's plot against Cesare's life, a matter which, as we
have seen, had figured so repeatedly in that ambassador's dispatches from
Rome at the time of the event.  This omission is yet another proof of the
malicious spirit by which the "relation" was inspired.  The suppression
of anything that might justify a deed attributed to Cesare reveals how
much defamation and detraction were the aims of this Venetian.

Either we must accept all, or we must reject all, that Capello tells us. 
If we reject all, then we are left utterly without information as to how
Alfonso of Aragon died.  If we accept all, then we find that it was as a
measure of retaliation that Cesare compassed the death of his brother-in-
law, which made it not a murder, but a private execution--justifiable
under the circumstances of the provocation received and as the adjustment
of these affairs was understood in the Cinquecento.



In the autumn of 1500, fretting to take the field again, Cesare was
occupied in raising and equipping an army--an occupation which received
an added stimulus when, towards the end of August, Louis de Villeneuve,
the French ambassador, arrived in Rome with the articles of agreement
setting forth the terms upon which Louis XII was prepared further to
assist Cesare in the resumption of his campaign.  In these it was
stipulated that, in return for such assistance, Cesare should engage
himself, on his side, to aid the King of France in the conquest of Naples
when the time for that expedition should be ripe.  Further, Loius XII was
induced to make representations to Venice to the end that the Republic
should remove her protection from the Manfredi of Faenza and the
Malatesta of Rimini.

Venice being at the time in trouble with the Turk, and more anxious than
ever to conciliate France and the Pope, was compelled to swallow her
reluctance and submit with the best grace she could assume.  Accordingly
she dispatched her ambassadors to Rome to convey her obedience to the
Pope's Holiness, and formally to communicate the news that she withdrew
her protection from the proscribed fiefs.

Later in the year--in the month of October--the Senate was to confer upon
Cesare Borgia the highest honour in her gift, the honour of which the
Venetians were jealous above all else--the honour of Venetian
citizenship, inscribing his name in the Golden Book, bestowing upon him a
palace in Venice and conferring the other marks of distinction usual to
the occasion.  One is tempted to ask, Was it in consequence of Paolo
Capello's lurid Relation that the proud Republic considered him qualified
for such an honour?

To return, however, to the matter of the Republic's removal of her shield
from Rimini and Faenza, Alexander received the news of this with open joy
and celebrated it with festivities in the Vatican, whilst from being
angry with Venice and from declaring that the Republic need never again
look to him for favour, he now veered round completely and assured the
Venetian envoys, in a burst of gratitude, that he esteemed no Power in
the world so highly.  Cesare joined in his father's expressions of
gratitude and appreciation, and promised that Alexander should be
succeeded in St. Peter's Chair by such a Pope as should be pleasing to
Venice, and that, if the cardinals but remained united, the Pontificate
should go to none but a Venetian.

Thus did Cesare, sincerely or otherwise, attempt to lessen the Republic's
chagrin to see him ride lance-on-thigh as conqueror into the dominions
which she so long had coveted.

France once more placed Yves d'Allègre at Cesare's disposal, and with him
went six hundred lances and six hundred Swiss foot.  These swelled the
forces which already Cesare had assembled into an army some ten thousand
strong.  The artillery was under the command of Vitellozzo Vitelli,
whilst Bartolomeo da Capranica was appointed camp-master.  Cesare's
banner was joined by a condotta under Paolo Orsini--besides whom there
were several Roman gentlemen in the duke's following, including most of
those who had formed his guard of honour on the occasion of his visit to
France, and who had since then continued to follow his fortunes.  Achille
Tiberti came to Rome with a condotta which he had levied in the Romagna
of young men who had been moved by Cesare's spreading fame to place their
swords at his disposal.  A member of the exiled Malvezzi family of
Bologna headed a little troop of fellow-exiles which came to take service
with the duke, whilst at Perugia a strong body of foot awaited him under
Gianpaolo Baglioni.

In addition to these condotte, numerous were the adventurers who came to
offer Cesare their swords; indeed he must have possessed much of that
personal magnetism which is the prime equipment of every born leader, for
he stirred men to the point of wild enthusiasm in those days, and
inspired other than warriors to bear arms for him.  We see men of
letters, such as Justolo, Calmeta, Sperulo, and others throwing down
their quills to snatch up swords and follow him.  Painters, and
sculptors, too, are to be seen abandoning the ideals of art to pursue the
ugly realities of war in this young condottiero's train.  Among these
artists, bulks the great Pietro Torrigiani.  The astounding pen of his
brother-sculptor, Benvenuto Cellini, has left us a sharp portrait of this
man, in which he speaks of his personal beauty and tells us that he had
more the air of a great soldier than a sculptor (which must have been, we
fancy, Cellini's own case).  Torrigiani lives in history chiefly for two
pieces of work widely dissimilar in character--the erection of the tomb
of Henry VII of England, and the breaking of the nose of Michelangelo
Buonarroti in the course of a quarrel which he had with him in Florence
when they were fellow-students under Masaccio.  Of nothing that he ever
did in life was he so proud--as we may gather from Cellini--as of having
disfigured Michelangelo, and in that sentiment the naïve spirit of his
age again peeps forth.

We shall also see Leonardo da Vinci joining the duke's army as engineer--
but that not until some months later.

Meanwhile his forces grew daily in Rome, and his time was consumed in
organizing, equipping, and drilling these, to bring about that perfect
unity for which his army was to be conspicuous in spite of the variety of
French, Italian, Spanish, and Swiss elements of which it was composed. 
So effectively were his troops armed and so excellent was the discipline
prevailing among them, that their like had probably never before been
seen in the peninsula, and they were to excite--as much else of Cesare's
work--the wonder and admiration of that great critic Macchiavelli.

So much, however, was not to be achieved without money, and still more
would be needed for the campaign ahead.  For this the Church provided. 
Never had the coffers of the Holy See been fuller than at this moment. 
Additional funds accrued from what is almost universally spoken of as
"the sale of twelve cardinals' hats."

In that year--in September--twelve new cardinals were appointed, and upon
each of those was levied, as a tax, a tithe of the first year's revenues
of the benefices upon which they entered.  The only justifiable exception
that can be taken to this lies in the number of cardinals elected at one
time, which lends colour to the assumption that the sole aim of that
election was to raise additional funds for Cesare's campaign.  Probably
it was also Alexander's aim further to strengthen his power with the
Sacred College, so that he could depend upon a majority to ensure his
will in all matters.  But we are at the moment concerned with the matter
of the levied tax.

It has been dubbed "an atrocious act of simony;" but the reasoning that
so construes it is none so clear.  The cardinals' hats carried with them
vast benefices.  These benefices were the property of the Church; they
were in the gift and bestowal of the Pope, and in the bestowing of them
the Pope levied a proportionate tax.  Setting aside the argument that
this tax was not an invention of Alexander's, does such a proceeding
really amount to a "sale" of benefices?  A sale presupposes bargaining, a
making of terms between two parties, an adjusting of a price to be paid. 
There is evidence of no such marketing of these benefices; indeed one
cardinal, vowed to poverty, received his hat without the imposition of a
tax, another was Cesare's brother-in-law, Amanieu d'Albret, who had been
promised the hat a year ago.  It is further to be borne in mind that,
four months earlier, the Pope had levied a similar decima, or tax, upon
the entire College of Cardinals and every official in the service of the
Holy See, for the purposes of the expedition against the Muslim, who was
in arms against Christianity.  Naturally that tax was not popular with
luxurious, self-seeking, cinquecento prelates, who in the main cared
entirely for their own prosperity and not at all for that of
Christianity, and you may realize how, by levying it, Alexander laid
himself open to harsh criticism.

The only impugnable matter in the deed lies, as has been said, in the
number of cardinals so created at a batch.  But the ends to be served may
be held to justify, if not altogether, at least in some measure, the
means adopted.  The Romagna war for which the funds were needed was
primarily for the advancement of the Church, to expunge those faithless
vicars who, appointed by the Holy See and holding their fiefs in trust
for her, refused payment of just tribute and otherwise so acted as to
alienate from the Church the States which she claimed for her own.  Their
restoration to the Church--however much it might be a means of founding a
Borgia dynasty in the Romagna--made for the greater power and glory of
the Holy See.  Let us remember this, and that such was the end which that
tax, levied upon those newly elected cardinals, went to serve.  The
aggrandizement of the House of Borgia was certainly one of the results to
be expected from the Romagna campaign, but we are not justified in
accounting it the sole aim and end of that campaign.

Alexander had this advantage over either Sixtus IV or Innocent VIII--not
to go beyond those Popes whom he had served as Vice-Chancellor, for
instances of flagrant nepotism--that he at least served two purposes at
once, and that, in aggrandizing his own family, he strengthened the
temporal power of the Church, whereas those others had done nothing but
undermine it that they might enrich their progeny.

And whilst on this subject of the "sale" of cardinals' hats, it may not
be amiss to say a word concerning the "sale" of indulgences with which
Alexander has been so freely charged.  Here again there has been too loud
an outcry against Alexander--an outcry whose indignant stridency leads
one to suppose that the sale of indulgences was a simony invented by him,
or else practised by him to an extent shamefully unprecedented.  Such is
very far from being the case.  The arch-type of indulgence-seller--as of
all other simoniacal practices--is Innocent VIII.  In his reign we have
seen the murderer commonly given to choose between the hangman and the
purchase of a pardon, and we have seen the moneys so obtained providing
his bastard, the Cardinal Francesco Cibo, with the means for the
luxuriously licentious life whose gross disorders prematurely killed him.

To no such flagitious lengths as these can it be shown that Alexander
carried the "sale" of the indulgences he dispensed.  He had no lack of
precedent for the practice, and, so far as the actual practice itself is
concerned, it would be difficult to show that it was unjustifiable or
simoniacal so long as confined within certain well-defined bounds, and so
long as the sums levied by it were properly employed to the benefit of
Christianity.  It is a practice comparable to the mulcting of a civil
offender against magisterial laws.  Because our magistrates levy fines,
it does not occur to modern critics to say that they sell pardons and
immunity from gaol.  It is universally recognized as a wise and
commendable measure, serving the two­fold purpose of punishing the
offender and benefiting the temporal State against which he has offended. 
Need it be less commendable in the case of spiritual offences against a
spiritual State?  It is more useful than the imposition of the pattering
of a dozen prayers at bedtime, and since, no doubt, it falls more heavily
upon the offender, it possibly makes to an even greater extent for his
spiritual improvement.

Thus considered, this "sale" of indulgences loses a deal of the
heinousness with which it has been invested.  The funds so realized go
into the coffers of the Church, which is fit and proper.  What afterwards
becomes of them at the hands of Alexander opens up another matter
altogether, one in which we cannot close our eyes to the fact that he was
as undutiful as many another who wore the Ring of the Fisherman before
him.  Yet this is to be said for him: that, if he plunged his hands
freely into the treasury of the Holy See, at least he had the ability to
contrive that this treasury should be well supplied; and the circumstance
that, when he died, he left the church far wealthier and more powerful
than she had been for centuries, with her dominions which his precursors
had wantonly alienated reconsolidated into that powerful State that was
to endure for three hundred years, is an argument to the credit of his
pontificate not lightly to be set aside.

Imola and Forli had, themselves, applied to the Pontiff to appoint Cesare
Borgia their ruler in the place of the deposed Riarii.  To these was now
added Cesena.  In July disturbances occurred there between Guelphs and
Ghibellines.  Swords were drawn and blood flowed in the streets, until
the governor was constrained to summon Ercole Bentivogli and his horse
from Forli to quell the rioting.  The direct outcome of this was that--
the Ghibellines predominating in council--Cesena sent an embassy to Rome
to beg his Holiness to give the lordship of the fief to the Duke of
Valentinois.  To this the Pope acceded, and on August 2 Cesare was duly
appointed Lord Vicar of Cesena.  He celebrated his investiture by
remitting a portion of the taxes, abolishing altogether the duty on
flour, and by bringing about a peace between the two prevailing factions.

By the end of September Cesare's preparations for the resumption of the
campaign were completed, and early in October (his army fortified in
spirit by the Pope's blessing) he set out, and made his first halt at
Nepi.  Lucrezia was there, with her Court and her child Roderigo, having
withdrawn to this her castle to mourn her dead husband Alfonso; and there
she abode until recalled to Rome by her father some two months later.

Thence Cesare pushed on, as swiftly as the foul weather would allow him,
by way of Viterbo, Assisi, and Nocera to cross the Apennines at Gualdo. 
Here he paused to demand the release of certain prisoners in the hill
fortress of Fossate, and to be answered by a refusal.  Angered by this
resistance of his wishes and determined to discourage others from
following the example of Fossate, he was swift and terrible in his
rejoinder.  He seized the Citadel, and did by force what had been refused
to his request.  Setting at liberty the prisoners in durance there, he
gave the territory over to devastation by fire and pillage.

That done he resumed his march, but the weather retarded him more and
more.  The heavy and continuous rains had reduced the roads to such a
condition that his artillery fell behind, and he was compelled to call a
halt once more, at Deruta, and wait there four days for his guns to
overtake him.

In Rimini the great House of Malatesta was represented by Pandolfo--
Roberto Malatesta's bastard and successor--a degenerate so detested by
his subjects that he was known by the name of Pandolfaccio (a
contumelious augmentative, expressing the evil repute in which he was

Among his many malpractices and the many abuses to which he resorted for
the purposes of extorting money from his long-suffering subjects was that
of compelling the richer men of Rimini to purchase from him the estates
which he confiscated from the fuorusciti--those who had sought in exile
safety from the anger provoked by their just resentment of his oppressive
misrule.  He was in the same case as other Romagna tyrants, and now that
Venice had lifted from him her protecting aegis, he had no illusions as
to the fate in store for him.  So when once more the tramp of Cesare
Borgia's advancing legions rang through the Romagna, Pandolfaccio
disposed himself, not for battle, but for surrender on the best terms
that he might succeed in making.

He was married to Violante, the daughter of Giovanni Bentivogli of
Bologna, and in the first week of October he sent her, with their
children, to seek shelter at her father's Court.  Himself, he withdrew
into his citadel--the famous fortress of his terrible grandfather
Sigismondo.  The move suggested almost that he was preparing to resist
the Duke of Valentinois, and it may have prompted the message sent him by
the Council to inquire what might be his intention.

Honour was a thing unknown to this Pandolfaccio--even so much honour as
may be required for a dignified retreat.  Since all was lost it but
remained--by his lights--to make the best bargain that he could and get
the highest possible price in gold for what he was abandoning.  So he
replied that the Council must do whatever it considered to its best
advantage, whilst to anticipate its members in any offer of surrender,
and thus seek the favour and deserve good terms at the hands of this man
who came to hurl him from the throne of his family, he dispatched a
confidential servant to Cesare to offer him town and citadel.

In the meantime--as Pandolfo fully expected--the Council also sent
proposals of surrender to Cesare, as well as to his lieutenant-general of
Romagna, Bishop Olivieri, at Cesena.  The communications had the effect
of bringing Olivieri immediately to Rimini, and there, on October 10, the
articles of capitulation were signed by the bishop, as the duke's
representative, and by Pandolfo Malatesta.  It was agreed in these that
Malatesta should have safe-conduct for himself and his familiars, 3,000
ducats and the value--to be estimated--of the artillery which he left in
the citadel.  Further, for the price of 5,500 ducats he abandoned also
the strongholds of Sarsina and Medola and the castles of the Montagna.

His tyranny thus disposed of, Pandolfaccio took ship to Ravenna, where
the price of his dishonour was to be paid him, and in security for which
he took with him Gianbattista Baldassare, the son of the ducal

On the day of his departure, to celebrate the bloodless conquest of
Rimini, solemn High Mass was sung in the Cathedral, and Bishop Olivieri
received the city's oath of allegiance to the Holy See, whither very
shortly afterwards Rimini sent her ambassadors to express to the Pope her
gratitude for her release from the thraldom of Pandolfaccio.

Like Rimini, Pesaro too fell without the striking of a blow, for all that
it was by no means as readily relinquished on the part of its ruler. 
Giovanni Sforza had been exerting himself desperately for the past two
months to obtain help that should enable him to hold his tyranny against
the Borgia might.  But all in vain.  His entreaties to the emperor had
met with no response, whilst his appeal to Francesco Gonzaga of Mantua--
whose sister, it will be remembered, had been his first wife--had
resulted in the Marquis's sending him a hundred men under an Albanian,
named Giacopo.

What Giovanni was to do with a hundred men it is difficult to conceive,
nor are the motives of Gonzaga's action clear.  We know that at this time
he was eagerly seeking Cesare's friendship, sorely uneasy as to the fate
that might lie in store for his own dominions, once the Duke of
Valentinois should have disposed of the feudatories of the Church.  Early
in that year 1500 he had asked Cesare to stand godfather for his child,
and Cesare had readily consented, whereby a certain bond of relationship
and good feeling had been established between them, which everything
shows Gonzaga most anxious to preserve unsevered.  The only reasonable
conclusion in the matter of that condotta of a hundred men is that
Gonzaga desired to show friendliness to the Lord of Pesaro, yet was
careful not to do so to any extent that might be hurtful to Valentinois.

As for Giovanni Sforza of whom so many able pens have written so
feelingly as the constant, unfortunate victim of Borgia ambition, there
is no need to enter into analyses for the purpose of judging him here. 
His own subjects did so in his own day.  When a prince is beloved by all
classes of his people, it must follow that he is a good prince and a wise
ruler; when his subjects are divided into two factions, one to oppose and
the other to support him, he may be good or bad, or good and bad; but
when a prince can find none to stand by him in the hour of peril, it is
to be concluded that he has deserved little at the hands of those whom he
has ruled.  The latter is the case of Giovanni Sforza--this prince whom,
Yriarte tells us, "rendered sweet the lives of his subjects."  The
nobility and the proletariate of Pesaro abhorred him; the trader classes
stood neutral, anxious to avoid the consequences of partisanship, since
it was the class most exposed to those consequences.

On Sunday, October 11--the day after Pandolfo Malatesta had relinquished
Rimini--news reached Pesaro that Ercole Bentivogli's horse was marching
upon the town, in advance of the main body of Cesare's army.  Instantly
there was an insurrection against Giovanni, and the people, taking to
arms, raised the cry of "Duca!" in acclamation of the Duke of
Valentinois, under the very windows of their ruler's palace.

Getting together the three hundred men that constituted his army,
Giovanni beat a hasty retreat to Pesaro's magnificent fortress, and that
same night he secretly took ship to Ravenna accompanied by the Albanian
Giacopo, and leaving his half-brother, Galeazzo Sforza di Cotignola, in
command of the citadel.  Thence Giovanni repaired to Bologna, and,
already repenting his precipitate flight, he appealed for help to
Bentivogli, who was himself uneasy, despite the French protection he
enjoyed.  Similarly, Giovanni addressed fresh appeals to Francesco
Gonzaga; but neither of these tyrants could or dared avail him, and,
whilst he was still imploring their intervention his fief had fallen into
Cesare's power.

Ercole Bentivogli, with a small body of horse, had presented himself at
the gates of Pesaro on October 21, and Galeazzo Sforza, having obtained
safe-conduct for the garrison, surrendered.

Cesare, meanwhile, was at Fano, where he paused to allow his army to come
up with him, for he had outridden it from Fossate, through foul wintry
weather, attended only by his light horse.  It was said that he hoped
that Fano might offer itself to him as other fiefs had done, and--if
Pandolfo Collenuccio is correct--he had been counselled by the Pope not
to attempt to impose himself upon Fano, but to allow the town a free
voice in the matter.  If his hopes were as stated, he was disappointed in
them, for Fano made no offer to him, and matters remained for the present
as they were.

On the 27th, with the banners of the bull unfurled, he rode into Pesaro
at the head of two thousand men, making his entrance with his wonted
pomp, of whose dramatic values he was so fully aware.  He was met at the
gates by the Council, which came to offer him the keys of the town, and,
despite the pouring rain under which he entered the city, the people of
Pesaro thronged the streets to acclaim him as he rode.

He took up his lodgings at the Sforza Palace, so lately vacated by
Giovanni--the palace where Lucrezia Borgia had held her Court when, as
Giovanni's wife, she had been Countess of Pesaro and Cotignola.  Early on
the morrow he visited the citadel, which was one of the finest in Italy,
rivalling that of Rimini for strength.  On his arrival there, a flourish
of trumpets imposed silence, while the heralds greeted him formally as
Lord of Pesaro.  He ordered one of the painters in his train to draw up
plans of the fortress to be sent to the Pope, and issued instructions for
certain repairs and improvements which he considered desirable.

Here in Pesaro came to him the famous Pandolfo Collenuccio, as envoy from
the Duke of Ferrara, to congratulate Cesare upon the victory.  In sending
Collenuccio at such a time Ercole d'Este paid the Duke of Valentinois a
subtle, graceful compliment.  This distinguished poet, dramatist, and
historian was a native of Pesaro who had been exiled ten years earlier by
Giovanni--which was the tyrant's way of showing his gratitude to the man
who, more than any other, had contributed to the bastard Sforza's
succession to his father as Lord of Pesaro and Cotignola.

Collenuccio was one of the few literary men of his day who was not above
using the Italian tongue, treating it seriously as a language and not
merely as a debased form of Latin.  He was eminent as a juris­consult,
and, being a man of action as well as a man of letters, he had filled the
office of Podestá in various cities; he had found employment under
Lorenzo dei Medici, and latterly under Ercole d'Este, whom we now see him

Cesare received him with all honour, sending the master of his household,
Ramiro de Lorqua, to greet him on his arrival and to bear him the usual
gifts of welcome, of barley, wine, capons, candles, sweet-meats, etc.,
whilst on the morrow the duke gave him audience, treating him in the
friendliest manner, as we see from Collenuccio's own report to the Duke
of Ferrara.  In this he says of Cesare: "He is accounted valiant, joyous,
and open-handed, and it is believed that he holds honest men in great
esteem.  Harsh in his vengeance, according to many, he is great of spirit
and of ambition, athirst for eminence and fame."

Collenuccio was reinstated by Cesare in the possessions of which Giovanni
had stripped him, a matter which so excited the resentment of the latter
that, when ultimately he returned to his dominions, one of his first acts
was to avenge it.  Collenuccio, fearing that he might not stand well with
the tyrant, had withdrawn from Pesaro.  But Giovanni, with all semblance
of friendliness, treacherously lured him back to cast him into prison and
have him strangled--a little matter which those who, to the detriment of
the Borgia, seek to make a hero of this Giovanni Sforza, would do well
not to suppress.

A proof of the splendid discipline prevailing in Cesare's army is
afforded during his brief sojourn in Pesaro.  In the town itself, some
two thousand of his troops were accommodated, whilst some thousands more
swarmed in the surrounding country.  Occupation by such an army was,
naturally enough, cause for deep anxiety on the part of a people who were
but too well acquainted with the ways of the fifteenth­century men-at-
arms.  But here was a general who knew how to curb and control his
soldiers.  Under the pain of death his men were forbidden from indulging
any of the predations or violences usual to their kind; and, as a
consequence, the inhabitants of Pesaro had little to complain of.

Justolo gives us a picture of the Duke of Valentinois on the banks of the
River Montone, which again throws into relief the discipline which his
very presence--such was the force of his personality--was able to
enforce.  A disturbance arose among his soldiers at the crossing of this
river, which was swollen with rains and the bridge of which had been
destroyed.  It	became necessary to effect the crossing in one small
boat--the only craft available--and the men, crowding to the bank,
stormed and fought for precedence until the affair grew threatening. 
Cesare rode down to the river, and no more than his presence was
necessary to restore peace.  Under that calm, cold eye of his the men
instantly became orderly, and, whilst he sat his horse and watched them,
the crossing was soberly effected, and as swiftly as the single craft
would permit.

The duke remained but two days in Pesaro.  On the 29th, having appointed
a lieutenant to represent him, and a captain to the garrison, he marched
out again, to lie that night at Cattolica and enter Rimini on the morrow.

There again he was received with open arms, and he justified the people's
welcome of him by an immediate organization of affairs which gave
universal satisfaction.  He made ample provision for the proper
administration of justice and the preservation of the peace; he recalled
the fuorusciti exiled by the unscrupulous Pandolfaccio, and he saw them
reinstated in the property of which that tyrant had dispossessed them. 
As his lieutenant in Rimini, with strict injunctions to preserve law and
order, he left Ramiro de Lorqua, when, on November 2, he departed to
march upon Faenza, which had prepared for resistance.

What Cesare did in Rimini was no more than he was doing throughout the
Romagna, as its various archives bear witness.  They bear witness no less
to his vast ability as an administrator, showing how he resolved the
prevailing chaos into form and order by his admirable organization and
suppression of injustice.  The same archives show us also that he found
time for deeds of beneficence which endeared him to the people, who
everywhere hailed him as their deliverer from thraldom.  It would not be
wise to join in the chorus of those who appear to have taken Cesare's
altruism for granted.  The rejection of the wild stories that picture him
as a corrupt and murderous monster, utterly inhuman, and lay a dozen
ghastly crimes to his account need not entail our viewing Cesare as an
angel of deliverance, a divine agent almost, rescuing a suffering people
from oppression out of sheer humanitarianism.

He is the one as little as the other.  He is just--as Collenuccio wrote
to Ercole d'Este--"great of spirit and of ambition, athirst for eminence
and fame."  He was consumed by the desire for power and worldly
greatness, a colossus of egotism to whom men and women were pieces to be
handled by him on the chess-board of his ambition, to be sacrificed
ruthlessly where necessary to his ends, but to be husbanded and guarded
carefully where they could serve him.

With his eyes upon the career of Cesare Borgia, Macchiavelli was anon to
write of principalities newly-acquired, that "however great may be the
military resources of a prince, he will discover that, to obtain firm
footing in a province, he must engage the favour and interest of the

That was a principle self-evident to Cesare--the principle upon which he
acted throughout in his conquest of the Romagna.  By causing his new
subjects to realize at once that they had exchanged an oppressive for a
generous rule, he attached them to himself.



The second campaign of the Romagna had opened for Cesare as easily as had
the first.  So far his conquest had been achieved by little more than a
processional display of his armed legions.  Like another Joshua, he
reduced cities by the mere blare of his trumpets.  At last, however, he
was to receive a check.  Where grown men had fled cravenly at his
approach, it remained for a child to resist him at Faenza, as a woman had
resisted him at Forli.

His progress north from Pesaro was of necessity slow.  He paused, as we
have seen, at Rimini, and he paused again, and for a rather longer spell,
at Forli, so that it was not until the second week of November that
Astorre Manfredi--the boy of sixteen who was to hold Faenza--caught in
the distance the flash of arms and the banners with the bull device borne
by the host which the Duke of Valentinois led against him.

At first it had been Astorre's intent to follow the examples set him by
Malatesta and Sforza, and he had already gone so far as to remove his
valuables to Ravenna, whither he, too, meant to seek refuge.  But he was
in better case than any of the tyrants so far deposed inasmuch as his
family, which had ruled Faenza for two hundred years, had not provoked
the hatred of its subjects, and these were now ready and willing to stand
loyally by their young lord.  But loyalty alone can do little, unless
backed by the might of arms, against such a force as Cesare was prepared
to hurl upon Faenza.  This Astorre realized, and for his own and his
subjects' sake was preparing to depart, when, to his undoing, support
reached him from an unexpected quarter.

Bologna--whose ruler, Giovanni Bentivogli, was Astorre's grandfather--in
common with Florence and Urbino, grew daily more and more alarmed at the
continual tramp of armed multitudes about her frontiers, and at the
steady growth in numbers and in capacity of this splendid army which
followed Casare--an army captained by such enemies of the Bentivogli as
the Baglioni, the Orsini, and the exiled Malvezzi.

Bentivogli had good grounds for his anxiety, not knowing how long he
might depend upon the protection of France, and well aware that, once
that protection was removed, there would be no barrier between Bologna
and Cesare's manifest intentions concerning her.

Next to Cesare's utter annihilation, to check his progress was the desire
dearest just then to the heart of Bentivogli, and with this end in view
he dispatched Count Guido Torella to Faenza, in mid-October, with an
offer to assist Astorre with men and money.

Astorre, who had succeeded Galeotto Manfredi in the tyranny of Faenza at
the age of three, had been and still continued under the tutelage of the
Council which really governed his territories.  To this Council came
Count Torella with Bentivogli's offer, adding the proposal that young
Astorre should be sent to Venice for his personal safety.  But to this
the Council replied that it would be useless, if that course were
adopted, to attempt resistance, as the people could only be urged to it
by their affection for their young lord, and that, if he were removed
from their midst, they would insist upon surrender.

News of these negotiations reached Rome, and on October 24 Alexander sent
Bentivogli his commands to refrain, under pain of excommunication, from
interfering in the affairs of Faenza.  Bentivogli made a feeble attempt
to mask his disobedience.  The troops with which he intended to assist
his grandson were sent ostensibly to Castel Bolognese, but with
instructions to desert thence and make for Faenza.  This they did, and
thus was Astorre strengthened by a thousand men, whilst the work of
preparing his city for resistance went briskly forward.

Meanwhile, ahead of Cesare Borgia, swept Vitellozzo Vitelli with his
horse into Astorre's dominions.  He descended upon the valley of the
Lamone, and commenced hostilities by the capture and occupation of
Brisghella on November 7.  The other lesser strongholds and townships
offered no resistance to Cesare's arms.  Indeed they were induced into
ready rebellion against their lord by Dionigio di Naldo--the sometime
defender of Imola, who had now taken service with Cesare.

On November 10 Cesare himself halted his host beneath the walls of Faenza
and called upon the town to surrender.  Being denied, he encamped his
army for the siege.  He chose the eastern side of the town, between the
rivers Lamone and Marzano, and, that his artillery might have free play,
he caused several houses to be demolished.

In Faenza itself, meanwhile, the easy conquest of the valley had not
produced a good effect.  Moreover, the defenders had cause to fear
treachery within their gates, for a paper had been picked up out of the
moat containing an offer of terms of surrender.  It had been shot into
the castle attached to an arbalest­bolt, and was intended for the
castellan Castagnini.  This Castagnini was arrested, thrown into prison,
and his possessions confiscated, whilst the Council placed the citadel in
the hands of four of its own members together with Gianevangelista
Manfredi--Astorre's half-brother, and a bastard of Galeotto's.  These set
about defending it against Cesare, who had now opened fire.  The duke
caused the guns to be trained upon a certain bastion through which he
judged that a good assault might be delivered and an entrance gained. 
Night and day was the bombardment of that bastion kept up, yet without
producing visible effect until the morning of the 20th, when suddenly one
of its towers collapsed thunderously into the moat.

Instantly, and without orders, the soldiers, all eager to be among the
first to enter, flung themselves forward in utter and fierce disorder to
storm the breach.  Cesare, at breakfast--as he himself wrote to the Duke
of Urbino--sprang up at the great noise, and, surmising what was taking
place, dashed out to restrain his men.  But the task was no easy one,
for, gathering excitement and the frenzy of combat as they ran, they had
already gained the edge of the ditch, and thither Cesare was forced to
follow them, using voice and hands to beat back again.

At last he succeeded in regaining control of them, and in compelling them
to make an orderly retreat, and curb their impatience until the time for
storming should have come, which was not yet.  In the affair Cesare had a
narrow escape from a stone-shot fired from the castle, whilst one of his
officers--Onorio Savelli--was killed by a cannon-ball from the duke's own
guns, whose men, unaware of what was taking place, were continuing the

Hitherto the army had been forced to endure foul weather--rain, fogs, and
wind; but there was worse come.  Snow began to fall on the morning of the
22nd.  It grew to a storm, and the blizzard continued all that day, which
was a Sunday, all night, and all the following day, and lashed the men
pitilessly and blindingly.  The army, already reduced by shortness of
victuals, was now in a miserable plight in its unsheltered camp, and the
defenders of Faenza, as if realizing this, made a sortie on the 23rd,
from which a fierce fight ensued, with severe loss to both sides.  On the
25th the snow began again, whereupon the hitherto unconquerable Cesare,
defeated at last by the elements and seeing that his men could not
possibly continue to endure the situation, was compelled to strike camp
on the 26th and go into winter quarters, no doubt with immense chagrin at
leaving so much work unaccomplished.

So he converted the siege into a blockade, closing all roads that lead to
Faenza, with a view to shutting out supplies from the town; and he
distributed troops throughout the villages of the territory with orders
constantly to harass the garrison and allow it no rest.

He also sent an envoy with an offer of terms of surrender, but the
Council rejected it with the proud answer that its members "had agreed,
in general assembly, to defend the dominions of Manfredi to the death."

Thereupon Cesare withdrew to Forli with 150 lances and 2,500 foot, and
here he affords a proof of his considerateness.  The town had already
endured several occupations and the severities of being the seat of war
during the siege of the citadel.  Cesare was determined that it should
feel the present occupation as little as possible; so he issued an order
to the inhabitants upon whom his soldiers were billeted to supply the men
only with bed, light, and fire.  What more they required must be paid
for, and, to avoid disputes as to prices of victuals and other
necessaries, he ordered the Council to draw up a tariff, and issued an
edict forbidding his soldiers, under pain of death, from touching any
property of the townsfolk.  Lest they should doubt his earnestness, he
hanged two of his soldiers on December 7--a Piedmontese and a Gascon--and
on the 13th a third, all from the windows of his own palace, and all with
a label hanging from their feet proclaiming that they had been hanged for
taking goods of others in spite of the ban of the Lord Duke, etc.

He remained in Forli until the 23rd, when he departed to Cesena, which
was really his capital in Roomagna, and in the huge citadel of which
there was ample accommodation for the troops that accompanied him.  In
Forli he left, as his lieutenants, the Bishop of Trani and Don Michele da
Corella--the "Michieli" of Capello's Relation and the "Michelotto" of so
many Borgia fables.  That this officer ruled the soldiers left with him
in Forli in accordance with the stern example set him by his master we
know from the chronicles of Bernardi.

In Cesena the duke occupied the splendid palace of Malatesta Novello,
which had been magnificently equipped for him, and there, on Christmas
Eve, he entertained the Council of the town and other important citizens
to a banquet worthy of the repuation for lavishness which he enjoyed.  He
was very different in this from his father, whose table habits were of
the most sparing--to which, no doubt, his Holiness owed the wonderful,
almost youthful vigour which he still enjoyed in this his seventieth
year.  It was notorious that ambassadors cared little for invitations to
the Pope's table, where the meal never consisted of more than one dish.

On Christmas Day the duke attended Mass at the Church of San Giovanni
Evangelista with great pomp, arrayed in the ducal chlamys and followed by
his gentlemen.  With these young patricians Cesare made merry during the
days that followed.  The time was spent in games and joustings, in all of
which the duke showed himself freely, making display of his physical
perfections, fully aware, no doubt, of what a short cut these afforded
him to the hearts of the people, ever ready to worship physical beauty,
prowess, and address.

Yet business was not altogether neglected, for on January 4 he went to
Porto Cesenatico, and there published an edict against all who had
practised with the fuorusciti from his States, forbidding the offence
under pain of death and forfeiture of possessions.

He remained in winter quarters until the following April, from which,
however, it is not to be concluded that Faenza was allowed to be at peace
for that spell.  The orders which he had left behind him, that the town
was constantly to be harassed, were by no means neglected.  On the night
of January 21, by arrangement with some of the inhabitants of the
beleaguered city, the foot surrounding Faenza attempted to surprise the
garrison by a secret escalade.  They were, however, discovered betimes in
the attempt and repulsed, some who had the mischance--as it happened--to
gain the battlements before the alarm was raised being taken and hanged. 
The duke's troops, however, consoled themselves by capturing Russi and
Solarolo, the last two strongholds in the valley that had held for

Meanwhile, Cesare and his merry young patricians spent the time as
agreeably as might be in Cesena during that carnival.  The author of the
Diario Cesenate is moved by the duke's pastimes to criticize him severely
as indulging in amusements unbecoming the dignity of his station.  He is
particularly shocked to know that the duke should have gone forth in
disguise with a few companions to repair to carnival festivities in the
surrounding villages and there to wrestle with the rustics.  It is not
difficult to imagine the discomfiture suffered by many a village Hercules
at the hands of this lithe young man, who could behead a bull at a single
stroke of a spadoon and break a horseshoe in his fingers.  The diary in
question, you will have gathered, is that of a pedant, prim and easily
scandalized.  So much being obvious, it is noteworthy that Cesare's
conduct should have afforded him no subject for graver strictures than
these, Cesare being such a man as has been represented, and the time
being that of carnival when licence was allowed full play.

The Pope accounted that the check endured by Cesare before Faenza was due
not so much to the foul weather by which his army had been beset as to
the assistance which Giovanni Bentivogli had rendered his grandson
Astorre, and bitter were the complaints of it which he addressed to the
King of France.  Alarmed by this, and fearing that he might have
compromised himself and jeopardized the French protection by his action
in the matter, Bentivogli made haste to recall his troops, and did in
fact withdraw them from Faenza early in December, shortly after Cesare
had gone into winter quarters.  Nevertheless, the Pope's complaints
continued, Alexander in his secret, crafty heart no doubt rejoicing that
Bentivogli should have afforded him so sound a grievance.  As Louis XII
desired, for several reasons, to stand well with Rome, he sent an embassy
to Bentivogli to express his regret and censure of the latter's
intervention in the affairs of Faenza.  He informed Bentivogli that the
Pope was demanding the return of Bologna to the States of the Church,
and, without expressing himself clearly as to his own view of the matter,
he advised Bentivogli to refrain from alliances with the enemies of the
Holy See and to secure Bologna to himself by some sound arrangement. 
This showed Bentivogli in what danger he stood, and his uneasiness was
increased by the arrival at Modena of Yves d'Allègre, sent by the King of
France with a condotta of 500 horse for purposes which were not avowed
but which Bentivogli sorely feared might prove to be hostile to himself.

At the beginning of February Cesare moved his quarters from Cesena to
Imola, and thence he sent his envoys to demand winter quarters for his
troops in Castel Bolognese.  This flung Bentivogli into positive terror,
as he interpreted the request as a threat of invasion.  Castel Bolognese
was too valuable a stronghold to be so lightly placed in the duke's
hands.  Thence Bentivogli might, in case of need, hold the duke in check,
the fortress commanding, as it did, the road from Imola to Faenza.  He
had the good sense, however, to compromise the matter by returning Cesare
an offer of accommodation for his men with victuals, artillery, etc., but
without the concession of Castel Bolognese.  With this Cesare was forced
to be content, there being no reasonable grounds upon which he could
decline so generous an offer.  It was a cunning concession on
Bentivogli's part, for, without strengthening the duke's position, it yet
gave the latter what he ostensibly required, and left no cause for
grievance and no grounds upon which to molest Bologna.  So much was this
the case that on February 26 the Pope wrote to Bentivogli expressing his
thanks at the assistance which he had thus given Cesare in the Faenza

It was during this sojourn of Cesare's at Imola that the abduction took
place of Dorotea Caracciolo, the young wife of Gianbattista Caracciolo, a
captain of foot in the Venetian service.  The lady, who was attached to
the Duchess of Urbino, had been residing at the latter's Court, and in
the previous December Caracciolo had begged leave of the Council of Ten
that he might himself go to Urbino for the purpose of escorting her to
Venice.  The Council, however, had replied that he should send for her,
and this the captain had done.  Near Cervia, on the confines of the
Venetian territory, towards evening of February 14, the lady's escort was
set upon by ten well­armed men, and rudely handled by them, some being
wounded and one at least killed, whilst the lady and a woman who was with
her were carried off.

The Podestá of Cervia reported to the Venetian Senate that the abductors
were Spaniards of the army of the Duke of Valentinois, and it was feared
in Venice--according to Sanuto--that the deed might be the work of

The matter contained in that Relation of Capello's to the Senate must by
now have been widespread, and of a man who could perpetrate the
wickednesses therein divulged anything could be believed.  Indeed, it
seems to have followed that, where any act of wickedness was brought to
light, at once men looked to see if Cesare might not be responsible, nor
looked close enough to make quite sure.  To no other cause can it be
assigned that, in the stir which the Senate made, the name of Cesare was
at once suggested as that of the abductor, and this so broadly that
letters poured in upon him on all sides begging him to right this cruel
wrong.  So much do you see assumed, upon no more evidence than was
contained in that letter from the Podestá of Cervia, which went no
further than to say that the abductors were "Spaniards of the Duke of
Valentinois' army."  The envoy Manenti was dispatched at once to Cesare
by the Senate, and he went persuaded, it is clear, that Cesare Borgia was
the guilty person.  He enlisted the support of Monsieur de Trans (the
French ambassador then on his way to Rome) and that of Yves d'Allègre,
and he took them with him to the Duke at Imola.

There, acting upon his strong suspicions, Manenti appears to have taken a
high tone, representing to the duke that he had done an unworthy thing,
and imploring him to restore the lady to her husband.  Cesare's patience
under the insolent assumption in justification of which Manenti had not a
single grain of evidence to advance, is--guilty or innocent--a rare
instance of self-control.  He condescended to take oath that he had not
done this thing which they imputed to him.  He admitted that he had heard
of the outrage, and he expressed the belief that it was the work of one
Diego Ramires--a captain of foot in his service.  This Ramires, he
explained, had been in the employ of the Duke of Urbino, and in Urbino
had made the acquaintance and fallen enamoured of the lady; and he added
that the fellow had lately disappeared, but that already he had set on
foot a search for him, and that, once taken, he would make an example of

In conclusion he begged that the Republic should not believe this thing
against him, assuring the envoy that he had not found the ladies of the
Romagna so difficult that he should be driven to employ such rude and
violent measures.

The French ambassador certainly appears to have attached implicit faith
to Cesare's statement, and he privately informed Manenti that Ramires was
believed to be at Medola, and that the Republic might rest assured that,
if he were taken, exemplary justice would be done.

All this you will find recorded in Sanuto.  After that his diary
entertains us with rumours which were reaching Venice, now that the deed
was the duke's, now that the lady was with Ramires.  Later the two
rumours are consolidated into one, in a report of the Podestá of Cervia
to the effect that "the lady is in the Castle of Forli with Ramires, and
that he took her there by order of the duke."  The Podestá says that a
man whom he sent to gather news had this story from one Benfaremo.  But
he omits to say who and what is this Benfaremo, and what the source of
his information.

Matters remaining thus, and the affair appearing in danger of being
forgotten, Caracciolo goes before the Senate on March 16 and implores
permission to deal with it himself.  This permission is denied him, the
Doge conceiving that the matter will best be dealt with by the Senate,
and Caracciolo is ordered back to his post at Gradisca.  Thence he writes
to the Senate on March 30 that he is certain his wife is in the citadel
of Forli.

After this Sanuto does not mention the matter again until December of
1503--nearly three years later--when we gather that, under pressure of
constant letters from the husband, the Venetian ambassador at the Vatican
makes so vigorous a stir that the lady is at last delivered up, and goes
for the time being into a convent.  But we are not told where or how she
is found, nor where the convent in which she seeks shelter.  That is
Sanuto's first important omission.

And now an odd light is thrown suddenly upon the whole affair, and it
begins to look as if the lady had been no unwilling victim of an
abduction, but, rather, a party to an elopement.  She displays a positive
reluctance to return to her husband; she is afraid to do so--"in fear for
her very life"--and she implores the Senate to obtain from Caracciolo
some security for her, or else to grant her permission to withdraw
permanently to a convent.

The Senate summons the husband, and represents the case to him.  He
assures the Senate that he has forgiven his wife, believing her to be
innocent.  This, however, does not suffice to allay her uneasiness--or
her reluctance--for on January 4, 1504, Sanuto tells us that the Senate
has received a letter of thanks from her in which she relates her
misfortunes, and in which again she begs that her husband be compelled to
pledge security to treat her well ("darli buona vita") or else that she
should be allowed to return to her mother.  Of the nature of the
misfortunes which he tells us she related in her letter, Sanuto says
nothing.  That is his second important omission.

The last mention of the subject in Sanuto relates to her restoration to
her husband.  He tells us that Caracciolo received her with great joy;
but he is silent on the score of the lady's emotions on that occasion.

There you have all that is known of Dorotea Caracciolo's abduction, which
later writers--including Bembo in his Historiae--have positively assigned
to Cesare Borgia, drawing upon their imagination to fill up the lacunae
in the story so as to support their point of view.

Those lacunae, however, are invested with a certain eloquence which it is
well not to disregard.  Admitting that the construing of silence into
evidence is a dangerous course, all fraught with pitfalls, yet it seems
permissible to pose the following questions:

If the revelation of the circumstances under which she was found, the
revelations contained in her letters to the Senate, and the revelations
which one imagines must have followed her return to her husband, confirm
past rumours and convict Cesare of the outrage, how does it happen that
Sanuto--who has never failed to record anything that could tell against
Cesare--should be silent on the matter?  And how does it happen that so
many pens that busied themselves greedily with scandal that touched the
Borgias should be similarly silent?  Is it unreasonable to infer that
those revelations did not incriminate him--that they gave the lie to all
the rumours that had been current?  If that is not the inference, then
what is?

It is further noteworthy that on January 16--after Dorotea's letter to
the Senate giving the details of her misfortunes, which details Sanuto
has suppressed--Diego Ramires, the real and known abductor, is still the
object of a hunt set afoot by some Venetians.  Would that be the case had
her revelations shown Ramires to be no more than the duke's instrument? 
Possibly; but not probably.  In such a case he would not have been worth
the trouble of pursuing.

Reasonably may it be objected: How, if Cesare was not guilty, does it
happen that he did not carry out his threat of doing exemplary justice
upon Ramires when taken--since Ramires obviously lay in his power for
years after the event?  The answer to that you will find in the lady's
reluctance to return to Caracciolo, and the tale it tells.  It is not in
the least illogical to assume that, when Cesare threatened that vengeance
upon Ramires for the outrage which it was alleged had been committed, he
fully intended to execute it; but that, upon taking Ramires, and upon
discovering that here was no such outrage as had been represented, but
just the elopement of a couple of lovers, he found there was nothing for
him to avenge.  Was it for Cesare Borgia to set up as a protector and
avenger of cuckolds?  Rather would it be in keeping with the feelings of
his age and race to befriend the fugitive pair who had planted the
antlers upon the brow of the Venetian captain.

Lastly, Cesare's attitude towards women may be worth considering, that we
may judge whether such an act as was imputed to him is consistent with
it.  Women play no part whatever in his history.  Not once shall you find
a woman's influence swaying him; not once shall you see him permitting
dalliance to retard his advancement or jeopardize his chances.  With him,
as with egotists of his type, governed by cold will and cold intellect,
the sentimental side of the relation of the sexes has no place.  With him
one woman was as another woman; as he craved women, so he took women, but
with an almost contemptuous undiscrimination.  For all his needs
concerning them the lupanaria sufficed.

Is this mere speculation, think you?  Is there no evidence to support it,
do you say?  Consider, pray, in all its bearings the treatise on
pudendagra dedicated to a man of Cesare Borgia's rank by the physician
Torella, written to meet his needs, and see what inference you draw from
that.  Surely such an inference as will invest with the ring of truth--
expressing as it does his intimate nature, and confirming further what
has here been said--that answer of his to the Venetian envoy, "that he
had not found the ladies of Romagna so difficult that he should be driven
to such rude and violent measures."



On March 29 Cesare Borgia departed from Cesena--whither, meanwhile, he
had returned--to march upon Faenza, resume the attack, and make an end of
the city's stubborn resistance.

During the past months, however, and notwithstanding the presence of the
Borgia troops in the territory, the people of Faenza had been able to
increase their fortifications by the erection of out-works and a stout
bastion in the neighbourhood of the Osservanza Hospital, well beyond the
walls.  This bastion claimed Cesare's first attention, and it was carried
by assault on April 12.  Thither he now fetched his guns, mounted them,
and proceeded to a steady bombardment of the citadel.  But the resistance
continued with unabated determination--a determination amounting to
heroism, considering the hopelessness of their case and the straits to
which the Faentini were reduced by now.  Victuals and other necessaries
of life had long since been running low.  Still the men of Faenza
tightened their belts, looked to their defences, and flung defiance at
the Borgia.  The wealthier inhabitants distributed wine and flour at
prices purely nominal, and lent Astorre money for the payment of his
troops.  It is written that to the same end the very priests, their
patriotism surmounting their duty to the Holy Father in whose name this
war was waged, consented to the despoiling of the churches and the
melting down of the sacred vessels.

Even the women of Faenza bore their share of the burden of defence,
carrying to the ramparts the heavy stones that were to be hurled down
upon the besiegers, or actually donning casque and body-armour and doing
sentry duty on the walls while the men rested.

But the end was approaching.  On April 18 the Borgia cannon opened at
last a breach in the walls, and Cesare delivered a terrible assault upon
the citadel.  The fight upon the smoking ruins was fierce and determined
on both sides, the duke's men pressing forward gallantly under showers of
scalding pitch and a storm of boulders, launched upon them by the
defenders, who used the very ruins of the wall for ammunition.  For four
hours was that assault maintained; nor did it cease until the deepening
dusk compelled Cesare to order the retreat, since to continue in the
failing light was but to sacrifice men to no purpose.

Cesare's appreciation of the valour of the garrison ran high.  It
inspired him with a respect which shows his dispassionate breadth of
mind, and he is reported to have declared that with an army of such men
as those who held Faenza against him he would have conquered all Italy. 
He did not attempt a second assault, but confined himself during the
three days that followed to continuing the bombardment.

Within Faenza men were by now in desperate case.  Weariness and hunger
were so exhausting their endurance, so sapping their high valour that
nightly there were desertions to the duke's camp of men who could bear no
more.  The fugitives from the town were well received, all save one--a
man named Grammante, a dyer by trade--who, in deserting to the duke, came
in to inform him that at a certain point of the citadel the defences were
so weak that an assault delivered there could not fail to carry it.

This man afforded Cesare an opportunity of marking his contempt for
traitors and his respect for the gallant defenders of Faenza.  The duke
hanged him for his pains under the very walls of the town he had

On the 21st the bombardment was kept up almost without interruption for
eight hours, and so shattered was the citadel by that pitiless cannonade
that the end was in sight at last.  But the duke's satisfaction was
tempered by his chagrin at the loss of Achille Tiberti, one of the most
valiant of his captains, and one who had followed his fortunes from the
first with conspicuous devotion.  He was killed by the bursting of a gun. 
A great funeral at Cesena bore witness to the extent to which Cesare
esteemed and honoured him.

Astorre, now seeing the citadel in ruins and the possibility of further
resistance utterly exhausted, assembled the Council of Faenza to
determine upon their course of action, and, as a result of their
deliberations, the young tyrant sent his ambassadors to the duke to
propose terms of surrender.  It was a belated proposal, for there was no
longer on Cesare's part the necessity to make terms.  The city's defences
were destroyed, and to talk of surrender now was to talk of giving
something that no longer existed.  Yet Cesare met the ambassadors in a
spirit of splendid generosity.

The terms proposed were that the people of Faenza should have immunity
for themselves and their property; that Astorre should have freedom to
depart and to take with him his moveable possessions, his immoveables
remaining at the mercy of the Pope.  By all the laws of war Cesare was
entitled to a heavy indemnity for the losses he had sustained through the
resistance opposed to him.  Considering those same laws and the
application they were wont to receive in his day, no one could have
censured him had he rejected all terms and given the city over to
pillage.  Yet not only does he grant the terms submitted to him, but in
addition he actually lends an ear to the Council's prayer that out of
consideration for the great suffering of the city in the siege he should
refrain from exacting any indemnity.  This was to be forbearing indeed;
but he was to carry his forbearance even further.  In answer to the
Council's expressed fears of further harm at the hands of his troopers
once these should be in Faenza, he actually consented to effect no
entrance into the town.

We are not for a moment to consider Cesare as actuated in all this by any
lofty humanitarianism.  He was simply pursuing that wise policy of his,
in refraining from punishing conquered States which were to be subject
henceforth to his rule, and which, therefore, must be conciliated that
they might be loyal to him.  But it is well that you should at least
appreciate this policy and the fruit it bore when you read that Cesare
Borgia was a blood-glutted monster of carnage who ravaged the Romagna,
rending and devouring it like some beast of prey.

On the 26th the Council waited upon Cesare at the Hospital of the
Osservanza--where he was lodged--to tender the oath of fealty.  That same
evening Astorre himself, attended by a few of his gentlemen, came to the

To this rather sickly and melancholy lad, who had behind him a terrible
family history of violence, and to his bastard brother, Gianevangelista,
the duke accorded the most gracious welcome.  Indeed, so amiable did
Astorre find the duke that, although the terms of surrender afforded him
perfect liberty to go whither he listed, he chose to accept the
invitation Cesare extended to him to remain in the duke's train.

It is eminently probable, however, that the duke's object in keeping the
young man about him was prompted by another phase of that policy of his
which Macchiavelli was later to formulate into rules of conduct,
expedient in a prince:

"In order to preserve a newly acquired State particular attention should
be given to two points.  In the first place care should be taken entirely
to extinguish the family of the ancient sovereign; in the second, laws
should not be changed, nor taxes increased."

Thus Macchiavelli.  The second point is all that is excellent; the first
is all that is wise--cold, horrible, and revolting though it be to our
twentieth-century notions.

Cesare Borgia, as a matter of fact, hardly went so far as Macchiavelli
advises.  He practised discrimination.  He did not, for instance, seek
the lives of Pandolfaccio Malatesta, or of Caterina Sforza-Riario.  He
saw no danger in their living, no future trouble to apprehend from them. 
The hatred borne them by their subjects was to Cesare a sufficient
guarantee that they would not be likely to attempt a return to their
dominions, and so he permitted them to keep their lives.  But to have
allowed Astorre Manfredi, or even his bastard brother, to live would have
been bad policy from the appallingly egotistical point of view which was
Cesare's--a point of view, remember, which receives Macchiavelli's
horribly intellectual, utterly unsentimental, revoltingly practical

So--to anticipate a little--we see Cesare taking Astorre and
Gianevangelista Manfredi to Rome when he returned thither in the
following June.  A fortnight later--on June 26--the formidable amazon of
Forli, the Countess Sforza-Riario, was liberated, as we know, from the
Castle of Sant' Angelo, and permitted to withdraw to Florence.  But the
gates of that grim fortress, in opening to allow her to pass out, opened
also for the purpose of admitting Astorre and Gianevangelista, upon whom
they closed.

All that is known positively of the fate of these unfortunate young men
is that they never came forth again alive.

The record in Burchard (June 9, 1502) of Astorre's body having been found
in the Tiber with a stone round his neck, suffers in probability from the
addition that, "together with it were found the bodies of two young men
with their arms tied, a certain woman, and many others."

The dispatch of Giustiniani to the effect that: "It is said that this
night were thrown into Tiber and drowned the two lords of Faenza together
with their seneschal," was never followed up by any other dispatch
confirming the rumour, nor is it confirmed by any dispatch so far
discovered from any other ambassador, nor yet does the matter find place
in the Chronicles of Faenza.

But that is of secondary importance.  The ugliest feature of the case is
not the actual assassination of the young men, but the fact that Cesare
had pledged himself that Astorre should go free, and yet had kept him by
him--at first, it would seem, in his train, and later as a prisoner--
until he put an end to his life.  It was an ugly, unscrupulous deed; but
there is no need to exaggerate its heinousness, as is constantly done,
upon no better authority than Guicciardini's, who wrote that the murder
had been committed "saziata prima la libidine di qualcuno."

Of all the unspeakable calumnies of which the Borgias have been the
subject, none is more utterly wanton than this foul exhalation of
Guicciardini's lewd invention.  Let the shame that must eternally attach
to him for it brand also those subsequent writers who repeated and
retailed that abominable and utterly unsupported accusation, and more
particularly those who have not hesitated to assume that Guicciardini's
"qualcuno" was an old man in his seventy-second year--Pope Alexander VI.

Others a little more merciful, a little more careful of physical
possibilities (but no whit less salacious) have taken it that Cesare was
intended by the Florentine historian.

But, under one form or another, the lie has spread as only such foulness
can spread.  It has become woven into the warp of history; it has grown
to be one of those "facts" which are unquestioningly accepted, but it
stands upon no better foundation than the frequent repetition which a
charge so monstrous could not escape.  Its source is not a contemporary
one.  It is first mentioned by Guicciardini; and there is no logical
conclusion to be formed other than that Guicciardini invented it. 
Another story which owes its existence mainly, and its particulars almost
entirely, to Guicciardini's libellous pen--the story of the death of
Alexander VI, which in its place shall be examined--provoked the
righteous anger of Voltaire.  Atheist and violent anti-clerical though he
was, the story's obvious falseness so revolted him that he penned his
formidable indictment in which he branded Guicciardini as a liar who had
deceived posterity that he might vent his hatred of the Borgias.  Better
cause still was there in this matter of Astorre Manfredi for Voltaire's
indignation, as there is for the indignation of all conscientious seekers
after truth.



To return to the surrender of Faenza on April 26, 1501, we see Cesare on
the morrow of that event, striking camp with such amazing suddenness that
he does not even pause to provide for the government of the conquered
tyranny, but appoints a vicar four days later to attend to it.

He makes his abrupt departure from Faenza, and is off like a whirlwind to
sweep unexpectedly into the Bolognese territory, and, by striking
swiftly, to terrify Bentivogli into submission in the matter of Castel

This fortress, standing in the duke's dominions, on the road between
Faenza and Imola, must be a menace to him whilst in the hands of a power
that might become actively hostile.

Ahead of him Cesare sent an envoy to Bentivogli, to demand its surrender.

The alarmed Lord of Bologna, having convened his Council (the
Reggimento), replied that they must deliberate in the matter; and two
days later they dispatched their ambassador to lay before Cesare the
fruits of these deliberations.  They were to seek the duke at Imola; but
they got no farther than Castel S. Pietro, which to their dismay they
found already in the hands of Vitellozzo Vitelli's men-at­arms.  For,
what time Bentivogli had been deliberating, Cesare Borgia had been acting
with that promptness which was one of his most salient characteristics,
and, in addition to Castel S. Pietro he had already captured
Casalfiuminense, Castel Guelfo, and Medecina, which were now invested by
his troops.

When the alarming news of this swift action reached Bologna it caused
Bentivogli to bethink him at last of Louis XII's advice, that he should
come to terms with Cesare Borgia, and he realized that the time to do so
could no longer be put off.  He made haste, therefore, to agree to the
surrender of Castel Bolognese to the duke, to concede him stipend for one
hundred lances of three men each, and to enter into an undertaking to
lend him every assistance for one year against any power with which he
might be at war, the King of France excepted.  In return, Cesare was to
relinquish the captured strongholds and undertake that the Pope should
confirm Bentivogli in his ancient privileges.  On April 29 Paolo Orsini
went as Cesare's plenipotentiary to Bologna to sign this treaty.

It was a crafty arrangement on Bentivogli's part, for, over and above the
pacification of Cesare and the advantage of an alliance with him, he
gained as a result the alliance also of those famous condottieri Vitelli
and Orsini, both bitter enemies of Florence--the latter intent upon the
restoration of the Medici, the former impatient to avenge upon the
Signory the execution of his brother Paolo.  As an instalment, on account
of that debt, Vitelli had already put to death Pietro da Marciano--the
brother of Count Rinuccio da Marciano--when this gentleman fell into his
hands at Medicina.

Two days before the treaty was signed, Bentivogli had seized four members
of the powerful House of Marescotti.  This family was related to the
exiled Malvezzi, who were in arms with Cesare, and Bentivogli feared that
communications might be passing between the two to his undoing.  On that
suspicion he kept them prisoners for the present, nor did be release them
when the treaty was signed, nor yet when, amid public rejoicings
expressing the relief of the Bolognese, it was published on May 2.

Hermes Bentivogli--Giovanni's youngest son--was on guard at the palace
with several other young Bolognese patricians, and he incited these to go
with him to make an end of the traitors who had sought to destroy the
peace by their alleged plottings with Bentivogli's enemies in Cesare's
camp.  He led his companions to the chamber where the Marescotti were
confined, and there, more or less in cold blood, those four gentlemen
were murdered for no better reason--ostensibly--than because it was
suspected they had been in communication with their relatives in the Duke
of Valentinois's army.  That was the way of the Cinquecento, which
appears to have held few things of less account than human life.

In passing, it may be mentioned that Guicciardini, of course, does his
ludicrous best to make this murder appear--at least indirectly, since
directly it would be impossible--the work of Cesare Borgia.

As for Castel Bolognese itself, Cesare Borgia sent a thousand demolishers
in the following July to raze it to the ground.  It is said to have been
the most beautiful castle in the Romagna; but Cesare had other qualities
than beauty to consider in the matter of a stronghold.  Its commanding
position rendered it almost in the nature of a gateway controlling, as we
know, the road from Faenza to Imola, and its occupation by the Bolognese
or other enemies in time of disturbance might be of serious consequence
to Cesare.  Therefore he ruthlessly ordered Ramiro de Lorqua to set about
its demolition.

The Council of Castel Bolognese made great protest, and implored Ramiro
to stay his hand until they should have communicated with the duke
petitioning for the castle's preservation; but Ramiro--a hard, stern man,
and Cesare's most active officer in the Romagna--told them bluntly that
to petition the duke in such a matter would be no better than a waste of
time.  He was no more than right; for Cesare, being resolved upon the
expediency of the castle's destruction, would hardly be likely to listen
to sentimental reasonings for its preservation.  Confident of this,
Ramiro without more ado set about the execution of the orders he had
received.  He pulled down the walls and filled up the moat, until nothing
remained so much as to show the place where the fortress had stood.

Another fortress which shared the fate of Castel Bolognese was the Castle
of Sant' Arcangelo, and similarly would Cesare have disposed of Solarolo,
but that, being of lesser importance and the inhabitants offering, in
their petition for its preservation, to undertake, themselves, the
payment of the Castellan, he allowed it to remain.

Scarcely was the treaty with Bologna signed than Cesare received letters
from the Pope recalling him to Rome, and recommending that he should not
molest the Florentines in his passage--a recommendation which Alexander
deemed very necessary considering the disposition towards Florence of
Vitelli and Orsini.  He foresaw that they would employ arguments to
induce Valentinois into an enterprise of which all the cost would be his,
and all the possible profit their own.

The duke would certainly have obeyed and avoided Tuscany, but that--
precisely as the shrewd Pope had feared--Vitelli and Orsini implored him
to march through Florentine territory.  Vitelli, indeed, flung himself on
his knees before Cesare in the vehemence of his supplications, urging
that his only motive was to effect the deliverance from his unjust
imprisonment of Cerbone, who had been his executed brother's chancellor. 
Beyond that, he swore he would make no demands upon Florence, that he
would not attempt to mix himself in the affairs of the Medici, and that
he would do no violence to town or country.

Thus implored, Cesare gave way.  Probably he remembered the very
circumstances under which Vitelli had joined his banner, and considered
that he could not now oppose a request backed by a promise of so much
moderation; so on May 7 he sent his envoys to the Signory to crave leave
of passage for his troops through Florentine territory.

Whilst still in the Bolognese he was sought out by Giuliano de'Medici,
who begged to be allowed to accompany him, a request which Cesare
instantly refused, as being contrary to that to which he had engaged
himself, and he caused Giuliano to fall behind at Lojano.  Nor would he
so much as receive in audience Piero de'Medici, who likewise sought to
join him in Siennese territory, as soon as he perceived what was toward. 
Yet, however much the duke protested that he had no intention to make any
change in the State of Florence, there were few who believed him. 
Florence, weary and sorely reduced by the long struggle of the Pisan war,
was an easy prey.  Conscious of this, great was her anxiety and alarm at
Cesare's request for passage.  The Signory replied granting him the
permission sought, but imposing the condition that he should keep to the
country, refraining from entering any town, nor bring with him into
Florentine territory Vitelli, Orsini, or any other enemy of the existing
government.  It happened, however, that when the Florentine ambassador
reached him with this reply the duke was already over the frontier of
Tuscany with the excluded condottieri in his train.

It was incumbent upon him, as a consequence, to vindicate this high-
handed anticipation of the unqualified Florentine permission which had
not arrived.  So he declared that he had been offended last year by
Florence in the matter of Forli, and again this year in the matter of
Faenza, both of which cities he charged the Signory with having assisted
to resist him, and he announced that, to justify his intentions so far as
Florence was concerned, he would explain himself at Barberino.

There, on May 12, he gave audience to the ambassador.  He declared to him
that he desired a good understanding with Florence, and that she should
offer no hindrance to the conquest of Piombino, upon which he was now
bound; adding that since he placed no trust in the present government,
which already had broken faith with him, he would require some good
security for the treaty to be made.  Of reinstating the Medici he said
nothing; but he demanded that some satisfaction be given Vitelli and
Orsini, and, to quicken Florence in coming to a decision, he pushed
forward with his army as far as Forno dei Campi--almost under her very

The Republic was thrown into consternation.  Instantly she got together
what forces she disposed of, and proceeded to fling her artillery into
the Arno, to the end that she should be constrained neither to refuse it
to Cesare upon his demand, nor yet to deliver it.

Macchiavelli censures the Signory's conduct of this affair as impolitic. 
He contends that the duke, being in great strength of arms, and Florence
not armed at all, and therefore in no case to hinder his passage, it
would have been wiser and the Signory would better have saved its face
and dignity, had it accorded Cesare the permission to pass which he
demanded, rather than have been subjected to behold him enforce that
passage by weight of arms.  But all that now concerned the Florentines
was to be rid of an army whose presence in their territory was a constant
menace.  And to gain that end they were ready to give any undertakings,
just as they were resolved to fulfil none.

Similarly, it chanced that Cesare was in no less a hurry to be gone; for
he had received another letter from the Pope commanding his withdrawal,
and in addition, he was being plagued by Vitelli and Orsini--grown
restive--with entreaties for permission to go into either Florence or
Pistoja, where they did not lack for friends.  To resist them Cesare had
need of all the severity and resolution he could command; and he even
went so far as to back his refusal by a threat himself to take up arms
against them if they insisted.

On the 15th, at last, the treaty--which amounted to an offensive and
defensive alliance--was signed.  By the terms of this, Florence undertook
to give Cesare a condotta of 300 lances for three years, to be used in
Florentine service, with a stipend of 36,000 ducats yearly.  How much
this really meant the duke was to discover two days later, when he sent
to ask the Signory to lend him some cannon for the emprise against
Piombino, and to pay him the first instalment of one quarter of the
yearly stipend before he left Florentine territory.  The Signory replied
that, by the terms of the agreement, there was no obligation for the
immediate payment of the instalment, whilst in the matter of the
artillery they put him off from day to day, until Cesare understood that
their only aim in signing the treaty had been the immediate one of being
rid of his army.

The risk Florence incurred in so playing fast-and-loose with such a man,
particularly in a moment of such utter unfitness to resist him, is,
notwithstanding the French protection enjoyed by the Signory, amazing in
its reckless audacity.  It was fortunate for Florence that the Pope's
orders tied the duke's hands--and it may be that of this the Signory had
knowledge, and that it was upon such knowledge, in conjunction with
France's protection, that it was presuming.  Cesare took the matter in
the spirit of an excellent loser.

Not a hint of his chagrin and resentment did he betray; instead, he set
about furnishing his needs elsewhere, sending Vitelli to Pisa with a
request for artillery, a request to which Pisa very readily responded, as
much on Vitelli's account as on the duke's.  As for Florence, if Cesare
Borgia could be terribly swift in punishing, he could also be formidably
slow.  If he could strike upon the instant where the opening for a blow
appeared, he could also wait for months until the opening should be
found.  He waited now.

It would be at about this time that young Loenardo da Vinci sought
employment in Cesare Borgia's service.  Leonardo had been in Milan until
the summer of 1500, when he repaired to Florence in quest of better
fortune; but, finding little or no work to engage him there, he took the
chance of the duke of Valentinois's passage to offer his service to one
whose liberal patronage of the arts was become proverbial.  Cesare took
him into his employ as engineer and architect, leaving him in the Romagna
for the present.  Leonardo may have superintended the repairs of the
Castle of Forli, whilst he certainly built the canal from Cesena to the
Porto Cesenatico, before rejoining the duke in Rome.

On May 25 Cesare moved by the way of the valley of Cecina to try
conclusions with Giacomo d'Appiano, Tyrant of Piombino, who with some
Genoese and some Florentine aid, was disposed to offer resistance to the
duke.  The first strategic movement in this affair must be the capture of
the Isle of Elba, whence aid might reach Piombino on its promontory
thrusting out into the sea.  For this purpose the Pope sent from Civita
Vecchia six galleys, three brigantines, and two galleons under the
command of Lodovico Mosca, captain of the papal navy, whilst Cesare was
further reinforced by some vessels sent him from Pisa together with eight
pieces of cannon.  With these he made an easy capture of Elba and
Pianosa.  That done, he proceeded to lay siege to Piombino, which, after
making a gallant resistance enduring for two months, was finally pressed
to capitulate.

Long before that happened, however, Cesare had taken his departure. 
Being awaited in Rome, he was unable to conduct the siege operations in
person.  So he quitted Piombino in June to join the French under
d'Aubigny, bound at last upon the conquest of Naples, and claiming--as
their treaty with him provided--Cesare's collaboration.



Cesare arrived in Rome on June 13.  There was none of the usual pomp on
this occasion.  He made his entrance quietly, attended only by a small
body of men-at-arms, and he was followed, on the morrow, by Yves
d'Allègre with the army--considerably reduced by the detachments which
had been left to garrison the Romagna, and to lay siege to Piombino.

Repairing to his quarters in the Vatican, the duke remained so close
there for the few weeks that he abode in Rome on this occasion(1) that,
from now onward, it became a matter of the utmost difficulty to obtain
audience from him.  This may have been due to his habit of turning night
into day and day into night, whether at work or at play, which in fact
was the excuse offered by the Pope to certain envoys sent to Cesare from
Rimini, who were left to cool their heels about the Vatican ante-chambers
for a fortnight without succeeding in obtaining an audience.

1 "Mansit in Palatio secrete," says Burchard.

Cesare Borgia was now Lord of Imola, Forli, Rimini, Faenza and Piombino,
warranting his assumption of the inclusive title of Duke of Romagna which
he had taken immediately after the fall of Faenza.

As his State grew, so naturally did the affairs of government; and,
during those four weeks in Rome, business claimed his attention and an
enormous amount of it was dispatched.  Chiefly was he engaged upon the
administration of the affairs of Faenza, which he had so hurriedly
quitted.  In this his shrewd policy of generosity is again apparent.  As
his representative and lieutenant he appointed a prominent citizen of
Faenza named Pasi, one of the very members of that Council which had been
engaged in defending the city and resisting Cesare.  The duke gave it as
his motive for the choice that the man was obviously worthy of trust in
view of his fidelity to Astorre.

And there you have not only the shrewdness of the man who knows how to
choose his servants--which is one of the most important factors of
success--but a breadth of mind very unusual indeed in the Cinquecento.

In addition to the immunity from indemnity provided for by the terms of
the city's capitulation, Cesare actually went so far as to grant the
peasantry of the valley 2,000 ducats as compensation for damage done in
the war.  Further, he supported the intercessions of the Council to the
Pope for the erection of a new convent to replace the one that had been
destroyed in the bombardment.  In giving his consent to this--in a brief
dated July 12, 1501--the Pope announces that he does so in response to
the prayers of the Council and of the duke.

Giovanni Vera, Cesare's erstwhile preceptor--and still affectionately
accorded this title by the duke--was now Archbiship of Salerno, Cardinal
of Santa Balbina, and papal legate in Macerata, and he was chosen by the
Pope to go to Pesaro and Fano for the purpose of receiving the oath of
fealty.  With him Cesare sent, as his own personal representative, his
secretary, Agabito Gherardi, who had been in his employ in that capacity
since the duke's journey into France, and who was to follow his fortunes
to the end.

However the people of Fano may have refrained from offering themselves to
the duke's dominion when, in the previous October, he had afforded them
by his presence the opportunity of doing so, their conduct now hardly
indicated that the earlier abstention had been born of reluctance, or
else their minds had undergone, in the meanwhile, a considerable change. 
For, when they received the brief appointing him their lord, they
celebrated the event by public rejoicings and illuminations; whilst on
July 21 the Council, representing the people, in the presence of Vera and
Gherardi, took oath upon the Gospels of allegiance to Cesare and his
descendants for ever.

In the Consistory of June 25 of that year the French and Spanish
ambassadors came formally to notify the Holy Father of the treaty of
Granada, entered into in the previous November by Louis XII of the one
part, and Ferdinand and Isabella of the other, concerning the conquest
and division of the Kingdom of Naples.  The rival claimants had come to a
compromise by virtue of which they were to undertake together the
conquest and thereafter share the spoil--Naples and the Abruzzi going to
France, and Calabria and Puglia to Spain.

Alexander immediately published his Bull declaring Federigo of Naples
deposed for disobedience to the Church, and for having called the Turk to
his aid, either of which charges it would have taxed Alexander's
ingenuity--vast though it was--convincingly to have established; or,
being established, to censure when all the facts were considered.  The
charges were no better than pretexts for the spoliation of the
unfortunate king who, in the matter of his daughter's alliance with
Cesare, had conceived that he might flout the Borgias with impunity.

On June 28 d'Aubigny left Rome with the French troops, accompanied by the
bulk of the considerable army with which Cesare supported his French
ally, besides 1,000 foot raised by the Pope and a condotta of 100 lances
under Morgante Baglioni.  As the troops defiled before the Castle of
Sant' Angelo they received the apostolic benediction from the Pope, who
stood on the lower ramparts of the fortress.

Cesare himself cannot have followed to join the army until after July 10,
for as late as that date there is an edict indited by him against all who
should offer injury to his Romagna officers.  At about the same time that
he quitted Rome to ride after the French, Gonsalo de Cordoba landed a
Spanish army in Calabria, and the days of the Aragon dominion in Naples
were numbered.

King Federigo prepared to face the foe.  Whilst himself remaining in
Naples with Prospero Colonna, he sent the bulk of his forces to Capua
under Fabrizio Colonna and Count Rinuccio Marciano--the brother of that
Marciano whom Vitelli had put to death in Tuscany.

Ravaging the territory and forcing its strongholds as they came, the
allies were under the walls of Capua within three weeks of setting out;
but on July 17, when within two miles of the town, they were met by six
hundred lances under Colonna, who attempted to dispute their passage.  It
was Cesare Borgia himself who led the charge against them.  Jean d'Auton
--in his Chronicles of Louis XII--speaks in warm terms of the duke's
valour and of the manner in which, by words and by example, he encouraged
his followers to charge the Colonna forces, with such good effect that
they utterly routed the Neapolitans, and drove them headlong back to the
shelter of Capua's walls.

The allies brought up their cannon, and opened the bombardment.  This
lasted incessantly from July 17--which was a Monday--until the following
Friday, when two bastions were so shattered that the French were able to
gain possession of them, putting to the sword some two hundred Neapolitan
soldiers who had been left to defend those outworks.  Thence admittance
to the town itself was gained four days later--on the 25th--through a
breach, according to some, through the treacherous opening of a gate,
according to others.  Through gate or breach the besiegers stormed to
meet a fierce resistance, and the most horrible carnage followed.  Back
and back they drove the defenders, fighting their way through the streets
and sparing none in the awful fury that beset them.  The defence was
shattered; resistance was at an end; yet still the bloody work went on. 
The combat had imperceptibly merged into a slaughter; demoralized and
panic-stricken in the reaction from their late gallantry, the soldiers of
Naples flung down their weapons and fled, shrieking for quarter.  But
none was given.  The invader butchered every human thing he came upon,
indiscriminant of age or sex, and the blood of some four thousand victims
flowed through the streets of Capua like water after a thundershower. 
That sack of Capua is one of the most horrid pages in the horrid history
of sacks.  You will find full details in d'Auton's chronicle, if you have
a mind for such horrors.  There is a brief summary of the event in
Burchard's diary under date of July 26, 1501, which runs as follows:

"At about the fourth hour last night the Pope had news of the capture of
Capua by the Duke of Valentinois.  The capture was due to the treason of
one Fabrizio--a citizen of Capua--who secretly introduced the besiegers
and was the first to be killed by them.  After him the same fate was met
by some three thousand foot and some two hundred horse-soldiers, by
citizens, priests, conventuals of both sexes, even in the very churches
and monasteries, and all the women taken were given in prey to the
greatest cruelty.  The total number of the slain is estimated at four

D'Auton, too, bears witness to this wholesale violation of the women,
"which," he adds, "is the very worst of all war's excesses."  He informs
us further that "the foot-soldiers of the Duke of Valentinois acquitted
themselves so well in this, that thirty of the most beautiful women went
captive to Rome," a figure which is confirmed by Burchard.

What an opportunity was not this for Guicciardini!  The foot-soldiers of
the Duke of Valentinois acquitted themselves so well in this, that thirty
of the most beautiful women went captive to Rome."

Under his nimble, malicious, unscrupulous pen that statement is re-edited
until not thirty but forty is the number of the captured victims taken to
Rome, and not Valentinois's foot, but Valentinois himself the ravisher of
the entire forty!  But hear the elegant Florentine's own words:

"It was spread about [divulgossi]" he writes, "that, besides other
wickednesses worthy of eternal infamy, many women who had taken refuge in
a tower, and thus escaped the first fury of the assault, were found by
the Duke of Valentinois, who, with the title of King's Lieutenant,
followed the army with no more people than his gentlemen and his
guards.(1)  He desired to see them all, and, after carefully examining
them [consideratele diligentemente] he retained forty of the most

1  This, incidentally, is another misstatement.  Valentinois had with
him, besides the thousand foot levied by the Pope and the hundred lances
under Morgante Baglioni, an army some thousands strong led for him by
Yves d'Allègre.

Guicciardini's aim is, of course, to shock you; he considers it necessary
to maintain in Cesare the character of ravenous wolf which he had
bestowed upon him.  The marvel is not that Guicciardini should have
penned that utterly ludicrous accusation, but that more or less serious
subsequent writers--and writers of our own time even--instead of being
moved to contemptuous laughter at the wild foolishness of the story,
instead of seeking in the available records the germ of true fact from
which it was sprung, should sedulously and unblushingly have carried
forward its dissemination.

Yriarte not only repeats the tale with all the sober calm of one utterly
destitute of a sense of the ridiculous, but he improves upon it by a
delicious touch, worthy of Guicciardini himself, when he assures us that
Cesare took these forty women for his harem!

It is a nice instance of how Borgia history has grown, and is still

If verisimilitude itself does not repudiate Guicciardini's story, there
are the Capuan chronicles to do it--particularly that of Pellegrini, who
witnessed the pillage.  In those chronicles from which Guicciardini drew
the matter for this portion of his history of Italy, you will seek in
vain for any confirmation of that fiction with which the Florentine
historian--he who had a pen of gold for his friends and one of iron for
his foes--thought well to adorn his facts.

If the grotesque in history-building is of interest to you, you may turn
the pages of the Storia Civile di Capua, by F. Granata, published in
1752.  This writer has carefully followed the Capuan chroniclers in their
relation of the siege; but when it comes to these details of the forty
ladies in the tower (in which those chroniclers fail him) he actually
gives Guicciardini as his authority, setting a fashion which has not
lacked for unconscious, and no less egregious, imitators.

To return from the criticism of fiction to the consideration of fact,
Fabrizio Colonna and Rinuccio da Marciano were among the many captains of
the Neapolitan army that were taken prisoners.  Rinuccio was the head of
the Florentine faction which had caused the execution of Paolo Vitelli,
and Giovio has it that Vitellozzo Vitelli, who had already taken an
instalment of vengeance by putting Pietro da Marciano to death in
Tuscany, caused Rinuccio's wounds to be poisoned, so that he died two
days later.

The fall of Capua was very shortly followed by that of Gaeta, and, within
a week, by that of Naples, which was entered on August 3 by Cesare Borgia
in command of the vanguard of the army.  "He who had come as a cardinal
to crown King Federigo, came now as a condottiero to depose him."

Federigo offered to surrender to the French all the fortresses that still
held for him, on condition that he should have safe-conduct to Ischia and
liberty to remain there for six months.  This was agreed, and Federigo
was further permitted to take with him his moveable possessions and his
artillery, which latter, however, he afterwards sold to the Pope.

Thus the last member of the House of Aragon to sit upon the throne of
Naples took his departure, accompanied by the few faithful ones who loved
him well enough to follow him into exile; amongst these was that poet
Sanazzaro, who, to avenge the wrong suffered by the master whom he loved,
was to launch his terrible epigrams against Alexander, Cesare, and
Lucrezia, and by means of those surviving verses enable the enemies of
the House of Borgia to vilify their memories through centuries to follow.

Federigo's captains Prospero and Fabrizio Colonna, upon being ransomed,
took their swords to Gonzalo de Cordoba, hoping for the day when they
might avenge upon the Borgia the ruin which, even in this Neapolitan
conquest they attributed to the Pope and his son.

And here, so far as Naples is concerned, closes the history of the House
of Aragon.  In Italy it was extinct; and it was to become so, too, in
Spain within the century.



By September 15 Cesare was back in Rome, the richer in renown, in French
favour, and in a matter of 40,000 ducats, which is estimated as the total
of the sums paid him by France and Spain for the support which his
condotta had afforded them.

During his absence two important events had taken place: the betrothal of
his widowed sister Lucrezia to Alfonso d'Este, son of Duke Ercole of
Ferrara, and the publication of the Bull of excommunication (of August
20) against the Savelli and Colonna in consideration of all that they had
wrought against the Holy See from the pontificate of Sixtus IV to the
present time.  By virtue of that Bull the Pope ordered the confiscation
of the possessions of the excommunicated families, whilst the Caetani
suffered in like manner at the same time.

These possessions were divided into two parts, and by the Bull of
September 17 they were bestowed, one upon Lucrezia's boy Roderigo, and
with them the title of Duke of Sermoneta; the other to a child, Giovanni
Borgia (who is made something of a mystery) with the title of Duke of
Nepi and Palestrina.

The entire proceeding is undoubtedly open to grave censure, since the
distribution of the confiscated fiefs subjects to impeachment the purity
of the motives that prompted this confiscation.  It was on the part of
Alexander a gross act of nepotism, a gross abuse of his pontifical
authority; but there is, at least, this to be said, that in perpetrating
it he was doing no more than in his epoch it was customary for Popes to
do.  Alexander, it may be said again in this connection, was part of a
corrupt system, not the corrupter of a pure one.

Touching the boy Giovanni Borgia, the mystery attaching to him concerns
his parentage, and arises out of the singular circumstance that there are
two papal Bulls, both dated September 1, 1501, in each of which a
different father is assigned to him, the second appearing to supplement
and correct the first.

The first of these Bulls, addressed to "Dilecto Filio Nobili Joanni de
Borgia, Infanti Romano," declares him to be a child of three years of
age, the illegitimate son of Cesare Borgia, unmarried (as Cesare was at
the time of the child's birth) and of a woman (unnamed, as was usual in
such cases) also unmarried.

The second declares him, instead, to be the son of Alexander, and runs:
"Since you bear this deficiency not from the said duke, but from us and
the said woman, which we for good reasons did not desire to express in
the preceding writing."

That the second Bull undoubtedly contains the truth of the matter is the
only possible explanation of its existence, and the "good reasons" that
existed for the first one are, no doubt, as Gregorovius says, that
officially and by canon law the Pope was inhibited from recognizing
children.  (His other children, be it remembered, were recognized by him
during his cardinalate and before his elevation to St. Peter's throne.) 
Hence the attempt by these Bulls to circumvent the law to the end that
the child should not suffer in the matter of his inheritance.

Burchard, under date of November 3 of that year, freely mentions this
Giovanni Borgia as the son of the Pope and "a certain Roman woman"
("quadam Romana").

On the same date borne by those two Bulls a third one was issued
confirming the House of Este perpetually in the dominion of Ferrara and
its other Romagna possessions, and reducing by one-third the tribute of
4,000 ducats yearly imposed upon that family by Sixtus IV; and it was
explicitly added that these concessions were made for Lucrezia and her

Three days later a courier from Duke Ercole brought the news that the
marriage contract had been signed in Ferrara, and it was in salvoes of
artillery that day and illuminations after dark that the Pope gave
expression to the satisfaction afforded him by the prospect of his
daughter's entering one of the most ancient families and ascending one of
the noblest thrones in Italy.

It would be idle to pretend that the marriage was other than one of
convenience.  Love between the contracting parties played no part in this
transaction, and Ercole d'Este was urged to it under suasion of the King
of France, out of fear of the growing might of Cesare, and out of
consideration for the splendid dowry which he demanded and in the matter
of which he displayed a spirit which Alexander contemptuously described
as that of a tradesman.  Nor would Ercole send the escort to Rome for the
bride until he had in his hands the Bull of investiture in the fiefs of
Cento and Pieve, which, with 100,000 ducats, constituted Lucrezia's
dowry.  Altogether a most unromantic affair.

The following letter from the Ferrarese ambassador in Rome, dated
September 23, is of interest in connection with this marriage:


"His Holiness the Pope, taking into consideration such matters as might
occasion displeasure not only to your Excellency and to the Most
Illustrious Don Alfonso, but also to the duchess and even to himself, has
charged us to write to your Excellency to urge you so to contrive that
the Lord Giovanni of Pesaro, who, as your Excellency is aware, is in
Mantua, shall not be in Ferrara at the time of the nuptials. 
Notwithstanding that his divorce from the said duchess is absolutely
legitimate and accomplished in accordance with pure truth, as is publicly
known not only from the proceedings of the trial but also from the free
confession of the said Don Giovanni, it is possible that he may still be
actuated by some lingering ill-will; wherefore, should he find himself in
any place where the said lady might be seen by him, her Excellency might,
in consequence, be compelled to withdraw into privacy, to be spared the
memory of the past.  Wherefore, his Holiness exhorts your Excellency to
provide with your habitual prudence against such a contingency."

Meanwhile, the festivities wherewith her betrothal was celebrated went
merrily amain, and into the midst of them, to bear his share, came Cesare
crowned with fresh laurels gained in the Neapolitan war.  No merry-
makings ever held under the auspices of Pope Alexander VI at the Vatican
had escaped being the source of much scandalous rumour, but none had been
so scandalous and disgraceful as the stories put abroad on this occasion. 
These found a fitting climax in that anonymous Letter to Silvio Savelli,
published in Germany--which at the time, be it borne in mind, was
extremely inimical to the Pope, viewing with jaundiced eyes his ever-
growing power, and stirred perhaps to this unspeakable burst of venomous
fury by the noble Este alliance, so valuable to Cesare in that it gave
him a friend upon the frontier of his Romagna possessions.

The appalling publication, which is given in full in Burchard, was
fictitiously dated from Gonzola de Cordoba's Spanish camp at Taranto on
November 25.  A copy of this anonymous pamphlet, which is the most
violent attack on the Borgias ever penned, perhaps the most terrible
indictment against any family ever published--a pamphlet which
Gregorovius does not hesitate to call "an authentic document of the state
of Rome under the Borgias"--fell into the hands of the Cardinal of
Modena, who on the last day of the year carried it to the Pope.

Before considering that letter it is well to turn to the entries in
Burchard's diary under the dates of October 27 and November 11 of that
same year.  You will find two statements which have no parallel in the
rest of the entire diary, few parallels in any sober narrative of facts. 
The sane mind must recoil and close up before them, so impossible does it
seem to accept them.

The first of these is the relation of the supper given by Cesare in the
Vatican to fifty courtesans--a relation which possibly suggested to the
debauched Regent d'Orléans his fêtes d'Adam, a couple of centuries later.

Burchard tells us how, for the amusement of Cesare, of the Pope, and of
Lucrezia, these fifty courtesans were set to dance after supper with the
servants and some others who were present, dressed at first and
afterwards not so.  He draws for us a picture of those fifty women on all
fours, in all their plastic nudity, striving for the chestnuts flung to
them in that chamber of the Apostolic Palace by Christ's Vicar--an old
man of seventy--by his son and his daughter.  Nor is that all by any
means.  There is much worse to follow--matter which we dare not
translate, but must leave more or less discreetly veiled in the decadent
Latin of the Caerimoniarius:

"Tandem exposita dona ultima, diploides de serico, paria caligarum,
bireta ed alia pro illis qui pluries dictas meretrices carnaliter
agnoscerent; que fuerunt ibidem in aula publice carnaliter tractate
arbitrio presentium, dona distributa victoribus."

Such is the monstrous story!

Gregorovius, in his defence of Lucrezia Borgia, refuses to believe that
she was present; but he is reluctant to carry his incredulity any

"Some orgy of that nature," he writes, "or something similar may very
well have taken place.  But who will believe that Lucrezia, already the
legal wife of Alfonso d'Este and on the eve of departure for Ferrara, can
have been present as a smiling spectator?"

Quite so.  Gregorovius puts his finger at once upon one of the obvious
weaknesses of the story.  But where there is one falsehood there are
usually others; and if we are not to believe that Lucrezia was present,
why should we be asked to believe in the presence of the Pope?  If
Burchard was mistaken in the one, why might he not be mistaken in the
other?  But the question is not really one of whom you will believe to
have been present at that unspeakable performance, but rather whether you
can possibly bring yourself to believe that it ever took place as it is
related in the Diarium.

Gregorovius says, you will observe, "Some orgy of that nature, or
something similar, may very well have taken place."  We could credit that
Cesare held "some orgy of that nature."  He had apartments in the
Vatican, and if it shock you to think that it pleased him, with his
gentlemen, to make merry by feasting a parcel of Roman harlots, you are--
if you value justice--to be shocked at the times rather than the man. 
The sense of humour of the Cinquecento was primitive, and in primitive
humour prurience plays ever an important part, as is discernible in the
literature and comedies of that age.  If you would appreciate this to the
full, consider Burchard's details of the masks worn at Carnival by some
merry-makers ("Venerunt ad plateam St. Petri larvati...habentes nasos
lungos et grossos in forma priaporum") and you must realize that in
Cesare's conduct in this matter there would have been nothing so very
abnormal considered from the point of view of the Cinquecento, even
though it were to approach the details given by Burchard.

But even so, you will hesitate before you accept the story of that
saturnalia in its entirety, and before you believe that an old man of
seventy, a priest and Christ's Vicar, was present with Cesare and his
friends.  Burchard does not say that he himself was a witness of what he
relates.  But the matter shall presently be further considered.

Meanwhile, let us pass to the second of these entries in the diary, and
(a not unimportant detail) on the very next page of it, under the date of
November 11.  In this it is related that certain peasants entered Rome by
the Viridarian Gate, driving two mares laden with timber; that, in
crossing the Square of St. Peter's, some servants of the Pope's ran out
and cut the cords so that the timber was loosened and the beasts relieved
of their burden; they were then led to a courtyard within the precincts
of the palace, where four stallions were loosed upon them.  "Ascenderunt
equas et coierunt cum eis et eas graviter pistarunt et leserunt," whilst
the Pope at a window above the doorway of the Palace, with Madonna
Lucrezia, witnessed with great laughter and delight, the show which it is
suggested was specially provided for their amusement.

The improbabilities of the saturnalia of the fifty courtesans pale before
the almost utter impossibility of this narrative.  To render it possible
in the case of two chance animals as these must have been under the
related circumstances, a biological coincidence is demanded so utterly
unlikely and incredible that we are at once moved to treat the story with
scorn, and reject it as a fiction.  Yet not one of those many writers who
have retailed that story from Burchard's Diarium as a truth incontestable
as the Gospels, has paused to consider this--so blinded are we when it is
a case of accepting that which we desire to accept.

The narrative, too, is oddly--suspiciously--circumstantial, even to the
unimportant detail of the particular gate by which the peasants entered
Rome.  In a piece of fiction it is perfectly natural to fill in such
minor details to the end that the picture shall be complete; but they are
rare in narratives of fact.  And one may be permitted to wonder how came
the Master of Ceremonies at the Vatican to know the precise gate by which
those peasants came.  It is not--as we have seen--the only occasion on
which an excess of detail in the matter of a gate renders suspicious the
accuracy of a story of Burchard's.

Both these affairs find a prominent place in the Letter to Silvio
Savelli.  Indeed Gregorovius cites the pamphlet as one of the authorities
to support Burchard, and to show that what Burchard wrote must have been
true; the other authority he cites is Matarazzo, disregarding not only
the remarkable discrepancy between Matarazzo's relation and that of
Burchard, but the circumstance that the matter of that pamphlet became
current throughout Italy, and that it was thus--and only thus--that
Matarazzo came to hear of the scandal.(1)

1  The frequency with which the German historian cites Matarazzo as an
authority is oddly inconsistent, considering that when he finds
Matarazzo's story of the murder of the Duke of Gandia upsetting the
theory which Gregorovius himself prefers, by fastening the guilt upon
Giovanni Sforza, he devotes some space to showing--with perfect justice--
that Matarazzo is no authority at all.

The Letter to Silvio Savelli opens by congratulating him upon his escape
from the hands of the robbers who had stripped him of his possessions,
and upon his having found a refuge in Germany at the Emperor's Court.  It
proceeds to marvel that thence he should have written letters to the Pope
begging for justice and reinstatement, his wonder being at the credulity
of Savelli in supposing that the Pope--"betrayer of the human race, who
has spent his life in betrayals"--will ever do any just thing other than
through fear or force.  Rather does the writer suggest the adoption of
other methods; he urges Savelli to make known to the Emperor and all
princes of the Empire the atrocious crimes of that "infamous wild beasts"
which have been perpetrated in contempt of God and religion.  He then
proceeds to relate these crimes.  Alexander, Cesare, and Lucrezia, among
others of the Borgia family, bear their share of the formidable
accusations.  Of the Pope are related perfidies, simonies, and
ravishments; against Lucrezia are urged the matter of her incest, the
supper of the fifty courtesans, and the scene of the stallions; against
Cesare there are the death of Biselli, the murder of Pedro Caldes, the
ruin of the Romagna, whence he has driven out the legitimate lords, and
the universal fear in which he is held.

It is, indeed, a compendium of all the stories which from Milan, Naples,
and Venice--the three States where the Borgias for obvious reasons are
best hated--have been disseminated by their enemies, and a more violent
work of rage and political malice was never uttered.  This malice becomes
particularly evident in the indictment of Cesare for the ruin of the
Romagna.  Whatever Cesare might have done, he had not done that--his
bitterest detractor could not (without deliberately lying) say that the
Romagna was other than benefiting under his sway.  That is not a matter
of opinion, not a matter of inference or deduction.  It is a matter of
absolute fact and irrefutable knowledge.

To return now to the two entries in Burchard's Diarium when considered in
conjunction with the Letter to Silvio Savelli (which Burchard quotes in
full), it is remarkable that nowhere else in the discovered writings of
absolute contemporaries is there the least mention of either of those
scandalous stories.  The affair of the stallions, for instance, must have
been of a fairly public character.  Scandal-mongering Rome could not have
resisted the dissemination of it.  Yet, apart from the Savelli letter, no
single record of it has been discovered to confirm Burchard.

At this time, moreover, it is to be remembered, Lucrezia's betrothal to
Alfonso d'Este was already accomplished; preparations for her departure
and wedding were going forward, and the escort from Ferrara was daily
expected in Rome.  If Lucrezia had never been circumspect, she must be
circumspect now, when the eyes of Italy were upon her, and there were not
wanting those who would have been glad to have thwarted the marriage--the
object, no doubt, of the pamphlet we are considering.  Yet all that was
written to Ferrara was in praise of her--in praise of her goodness and
her modesty, her prudence, her devoutness, and her discretion, as
presently we shall see.

If from this we are to conclude--as seems reasonable--that there was no
gossip current in Rome of the courtesans' supper and the rest, we may
assume that there was no knowledge in Rome of such matters; for with
knowledge silence would have been impossible.  So much being admitted, it
becomes a matter of determining whether the author of the Letter to
Silvio Savelli had access to the diary of Burchard for his facts, or
whether Burchard availed himself of the Letter to Silvio Savelli to
compile these particular entries.  The former alternative being out of
the question, there but remains the latter--unless it is possible that
the said entries have crept into the copies of the "Diarium" and are not
present in the original, which is not available.

This theory of interpolation, tentatively put forward, is justified, to
some extent at least, by the following remarkable circumstances: that two
such entries, having--as we have said--absolutely no parallel in the
whole of the Diarium, should follow almost immediately the one upon the
other; and that Burchard should relate them coldly, without reproof or
comment of any kind--a most unnatural reticence in a writer who loosed
his indignation one Easter-tide to see Lucrezia and her ladies occupying
the choir of St. Peter's, where women never sat.

The Pope read the anonymous libel when it was submitted to him by the
Cardinal of Modena--read it, laughed it to scorn, and treated it with the
contempt which it deserved, yet a contempt which, considering its nature,
asks a certain greatness of mind.

If the libel was true it is almost incredible that he should not have
sought to avenge it, for an ugly truth is notoriously hurtful and
provocative of resentment, far more so than is a lie.  Cesare, however,
was not of a temper quite as long-suffering as his father.  Enough and
more of libels and lampoons had he endured already.  Early in December a
masked man--a Neapolitan of the name of Mancioni--who had been going
through Rome uttering infamies against him was seized and so dealt with
that he should in future neither speak nor write anything in any man's
defamation.  His tongue was cut out and his right hand chopped off, and
the hand, with the tongue attached to its little finger, was hung in
sight of all and as a warning from a window of the Church of Holy Cross.

And towards the end of January, whilst Cesare's fury at that pamphlet out
of Germany was still unappeased, a Venetian was seized in Rome for having
translated from Greek into Latin another libel against the Pope and his
son.  The Venetian ambassador intervened to save the wretch, but his
intervention was vain.  The libeller was executed that same night.

Costabili--the Ferrara ambassador--who spoke to the Pope on the matter of
this execution, reported that his Holiness said that more than once had
he told the duke that Rome was a free city, in which any one was at
liberty to say or write what he pleased; that of himself, too, much evil
was being spoken, but that he paid no heed to it.

"The duke," proceeded Alexander, "is good-natured, but he has not yet
learnt to bear insult."  And he added that, irritated, Cesare had
protested that, "However much Rome may be in the habit of speaking and
writing, for my own part I shall give these libellers a lesson in good

The lesson he intended was not one they should live to practise.



At about the same time that Burchard was making in his Diarium those
entries which reflect so grossly upon the Pope and Lucrezia, Gianluca
Pozzi, the ambassador of Ferrara at the Vatican, was writing the
following letter to his master, Duke Ercole, Lucrezia's father-in-law

"This evening, after supper, I accompanied Messer Gerardo Saraceni to
visit the Most Illustrious Madonna Lucrezia in your Excellency's name and
that of the Most Illustrious Don Alfonso.  We entered into a long
discussion touching various matters.  In truth she showed herself a
prudent, discreet, and good-natured lady."(1)

1  See Gregorovius's Lucrezia Borgia.

The handsome, athletic Cardinal Ippolito d'Este, with his brothers
Sigismondo and Fernando, had arrived in Rome on December 23 with the
imposing escort that was to accompany their brother Alfonso's bride back
to Ferrara.

Cesare was prominent in the welcome given them.  Never, perhaps, had he
made greater display than on the occasion of his riding out to meet the
Ferrarese, accompanied by no fewer than 4,000 men-at-arms, and mounted on
a great war-horse whose trappings of cloth of gold and jewels were
estimated at 10,000 ducats.

The days and nights that followed, until Lucrezia's departure a fortnight
later, were days and nights of gaiety and merry-making at the Vatican; in
banquets, dancing, the performance of comedies, masques, etc., was the
time made to pass as agreeably as might be for the guests from Ferrara,
and in all Cesare was conspicuous, either for the grace and zest with
which he nightly danced, or for the skill and daring which he displayed
in the daily joustings and entertainments, and more particularly in the
bull-fight that was included in them.

Lucrezia was splendidly endowed, to the extent, it was estimated, of
300,000 ducats, made up by 100,000 ducats in gold, her jewels and
equipage, and the value of the Castles of Pieve and Cento.  Her departure
from Rome took place on January 6, and so she passes out of this
chronicle, which, after all, has been little concerned with her.

Of the honour done her everywhere on that journey to Ferrara, the details
are given elsewhere, particularly in the book devoted to her history and
rehabilitation by Herr Gregorovius.  After all, the real Lucrezia Borgia
fills a comparatively small place in the actual history of her house.  It
is in the fictions concerning her family that she is given such
unenviable importance, and presented as a Maenad, a poisoner, and worse. 
In reality she appears to us, during her life in Rome, as a rather
childish, naïve, and entirely passive figure, important only in so far as
she found employment at her father's or brother's hands for the
advancement of their high ambitions and unscrupulous aims.

In the popular imagination she lives chiefly as a terrific poisoner, an
appalling artist in venenation.  It is remarkable that this should be the
case, for not even the scandal of her day so much as suggests that she
was connected--directly or even indirectly--with a single case of
poisoning.  No doubt that popular conception owes its being entirely to
Victor Hugo's drama.

Away from Rome and settled in Ferrara from the twenty-second year of her
age, to become anon its duchess, her life is well known and admits of no
argument.  The archives of the State she ruled show her devout, god-
fearing, and beloved in life, and deeply mourned in death by a sorrowing
husband and a sorrowing people.  Not a breath of scandal touches her from
the moment that she quits the scandalous environment of the Papal Court.

Cesare continued at the Vatican after her departure.  His duchess was to
have come to Rome in that Easter of 1502, and it had been disposed that
the ladies and gentlemen who had gone as escort of honour with Lucrezia
should proceed--after leaving her in Ferrara--to Lombardy, to do the like
office by Charlotte d'Albret, and, meeting her there, accompany her to
Rome.  She was coming with her brother, the Cardinal Amanieu d'Albret,
and bringing with her Cesare's little daughter, Louise de Valentinois,
now two years of age.  But the duchess fell ill at the last moment, and
was unable to undertake the journey, of which Cardinal d'Albret brought
word to Rome, where he arrived on February 7.

Ten days later Cesare set out with his father for Piombino, for which
purpose six galleons awaited them at Civita Vecchia under the command of
Lodovico Mosca, the captain of the Pontifical navy.  On these the Pope
and his son embarked, upon their visit to the scene of the latest
addition to Cesare's ever-growing dominions.

They landed at Piombino on February 21, and made a solemn entrance into
the town, the Pope carried in state in the Sedia Gestatoria, under a
canopy, attended by six cardinals and six singers from the Sixtine
Chapel, whilst Cesare was accompanied by a number of his gentlemen.

They abode four days in Piombino, whence they crossed to Elba, for the
purpose of disposing for the erection there of two fortresses--a matter
most probably entrusted to Leonardo da Vinci, who continued in the ducal
train as architect and engineer.

On March 1 they took ship to return to Rome; but they were detained at
sea for five days by a tempest which seems to have imperilled the
vessels.  The Pope was on board the captain's galley with his cardinals-
in-waiting and servants, and when these were reduced by the storm and the
imminent danger to a state of abject terror, the Pope--this old man of
seventy-one--sat calm and intrepid, occasionally crossing himself and
pronouncing the name of Jesus, and encouraging the very sailors by his
example as much as by his words.

In Piombino Cesare had left Michele da Corella as his governor.  This
Corella was a captain of foot, a soldier of fortune, who from the
earliest days of Cesare's military career had followed the duke's
fortunes--the very man who is alleged to have strangled Alfonso of Aragon
by Cesare's orders.  He is generally assumed to have been a Spaniard, and
is commonly designated as Michelotto, or Don Miguel; but Alvisi supposes
him, from his name of Corella, to have been a Venetian, and he tells us
that by his fidelity to Cesare and the implicit manner in which he
executed his master's orders, he earned--as is notorious--considerable
hatred.  He has been spoken of, indeed, as the âme damnée of Cesare
Borgia; but that is a purely romantic touch akin to that which gave the
same designation to Richelieu's Father Joseph.

The Romagna was at this time administered for Cesare Borgia by Ramiro de
Lorqua, who, since the previous November, had held the office of Governor
in addition to that of Lieutenant-General in which he had been earlier
invested.  His power in the Romagna was now absolute, all Cesare's other
officers, even the very treasurers, being subject to him.

He was a man of some fifty years of age, violent and domineering, feared
by all, and the dispenser of a harsh justice which had at least the merit
of an impartiality that took no account of persons.

Bernardi gives us an instance of the man's stern, uncompromising,
pitiless nature.  On January 29, 1502, two malefactors were hanged in
Faenza.  The rope suspending one of them broke while the fellow was
alive, and the crowd into which he tumbled begged for mercy for him at
first, then, swayed by pity, the people resolved to save him in spite of
the officers of justice who demanded his surrender.  Preventing his
recapture, the mob bore him off to the Church of the Cerviti.  The
Lieutenant of Faenza came to demand the person of the criminal, but he
was denied by the Prior, who claimed to extend him sanctuary.

But the days of sanctuary were overpast, and the laws of the time held
that any church or consecrated place in which a criminal took refuge
should ipso facto be deemed unconsecrated by his pursuers, and further,
that any ecclesiastic sheltering such a fugitive did so under peril of
excommunication from his bishop.  This law Ramiro accounted it his duty
to enforce when news was carried to him at Imola of what had happened.

He came at once to Faenza, and, compelling the Prior by actual force to
yield up the man he sheltered, he hanged the wretch, for the second time,
from a window of the Palace of the Podestá.  At the same time he seized
several who were alleged to have been ringleaders of the fellow's rescue
from the hands of the officers, and made the citizens of Faenza
compromise for the lives of these by payment of a fine of 10,000 ducats,
giving them a month in which to find the money.

The Faentini sent their envoys to Ramiro to intercede with him; but that
harsh man refused so much as to grant them audience--which was well for
them, for, as a consequence, the Council sent ambassadors to Rome to
submit the case to the Pope's Holiness and to the Duke of Valentinois,
together with a petition that the fine should be remitted--a petition
that was readily granted.

Harsh as it was, however, Ramiro's rule was salutary, its very harshness
necessary in a province where lawlessness had become a habit through
generations of misgovernment.  Under Cesare's dominion the change already
was remarkable.  During his two years of administration--to count from
its commencement--the Romagna was already converted from a seething hell
of dissensions, disorders and crimes--chartered brigandage and murder--
into a powerful State, law-abiding and orderly, where human life and
personal possessions found zealous protection, and where those who
disturbed the peace met with a justice that was never tempered by mercy.

A strong hand was wanted there, and the duke, supreme judge of the tools
to do his work, ruled the Romagna and crushed its turbulence by means of
the iron hand of Ramiro de Lorqua.

It was also under the patronage of Valentinois that the first printing-
press of any consequence came to be established in Italy.  This was set
up at Fano by Girolamo Sancino in 1501, and began the issue of worthy
books.  One of the earliest works undertaken (says Alvisi) was the
printing of the Statutes of Fano for the first time in January of 1502. 
And it was approved by the Council, civil and ecclesiastical, that
Sancino should undertake this printing of the Statutes "Ad perpetuam
memoriam Illmi.  Domini nostri Ducis."



It may well be that it was about this time that Cesare, his ambition
spreading--as men's ambition will spread with being gratified--was
considering the consolidation of Central Italy into a kingdom of which he
would assume the crown.

It was a scheme in the contemplation of which he was encouraged by
Vitellozzo Vitelli, who no doubt conceived that in its fulfilment the
ruin of Florence would be entailed--which was all that Vitelli cared
about.  What to Cesare would have been no more than the means, would have
been to Vitelli a most satisfactory end.

Before, however, going so far there was still the work of subjugating the
States of the Church to be completed, as this could not be so considered
until Urbino, Camerino, and Sinigaglia should be under the Borgia

For this, no doubt, Cesare was disposing during that Easter of 1502 which
he spent in Rome, and during which there were heard from the south the
first rumblings of the storm of war whereof ill-starred Naples was once
more--for the third time within ten years--to be the scene.  The allies
of yesterday were become the antagonists of to-day, and France and Spain
were ready to fly at each other's throats over the division of the spoil,
as a consequence of certain ill-definitions of the matter in the treaty
of Granada.  The French Viceroy, Louis d'Armagnac, and the great Spanish
Captain, Gonzalo de Cordoba, were on the point of coming to blows.

Nor was the menace of disturbance confined to Naples.  In Florence, too,
the torch of war was alight, and if--as he afterwards swore--Cesare
Borgia had no hand in kindling it, it is at least undeniable that he
complacently watched the conflagration, conscious that it would make for
the fulfilment of his own ends.  Besides, there was still that little
matter of the treaty of Forno dei Campi between Cesare and Florence, a
treaty which the Signory had never fulfilled and never intended to
fulfil, and Cesare was not the man to forget how he had been fooled.

But for the protection of France which she enjoyed, Florence must long
ere this have been called to account by him, and crushed out of all shape
under the weight of his mailed hand.  As it was she was to experience the
hurt of his passive resentment, and find this rather more than she could

Vitellozzo Vitelli, that vindictive firebrand whose original motive in
allying himself with Cesare had been the hope that the duke might help
him to make Florence expiate his brother's blood, finding that Cesare
withheld the expected help, was bent at last upon dealing, himself, with
Florence.  He entered into plots with the exiled Piero de'Medici to
restore the latter to his dominion; he set intrigues afoot in Pisa, where
his influence was vast, and in Siena, whose tyrant, Pandolfo Petrucci,
was ready and willing to forward his designs, and generally made so
disturbing a stir in Tuscany that the Signory became gravely alarmed.

Cesare certainly took no apparent active part in the affair.  He lent
Vitelli no aid; but neither did he attempt to restrain him or any other
of the Borgia condottieri who were allied with him.

The unrest, spreading and growing sullenly a while, burst suddenly forth
in Arezzo on June 4, when the cries of "Medici!" and "Marzocco!" rang in
its streets, to announce that the city was in arms against the government
of Florence.  Arezzo followed this up by summoning Vitelli, and the
waiting, watchful condottiero was quick to answer the desired call.  He
entered the town three days later at the head of a small body of foot,
and was very shortly afterwards followed by his brother Giulio Vitelli,
Bishop of Città di Castello, with the artillery, and, presently, by
Gianpaolo Baglioni with a condotta of horse.

A few days later Vitelli was in possession of all the strongholds of the
Val di Chiana, and panic-stricken Florence was speeding ambassadors hot-
foot to Rome to lay her complaints of these matters before the Pope.

Alexander was able to reply that, far from supporting the belligerents,
he had launched a Bull against them, provoked by the poisoning of the
Bishop de'Pazzi.

Cesare looked on with the inscrutable calm for which Macchiavelli was
presently to find him so remarkable.  Aware as he was of the French
protection which Florence enjoyed and could invoke, he perceived how vain
must ultimately prove Vitelli's efforts, saw, perhaps, in all this the
grave danger of ultimate ruin which Vitelli was incurring.  Yet Vitelli's
action served Cesare's own purposes, and, so that his purposes were
served, there were no other considerations likely to weigh with that cold
egotist.  Let Vitelli be caught in the toils he was spinning, and be
choked in them.  Meanwhile, Florence was being harrowed, and that was all
to Cesare's satisfaction and advantage.  When sufficiently humbled, it
might well befall that the Republic should come on her knees to implore
his intervention, and his pardon for having flouted him.

While matters stood so in Arezzo, Pisa declared spontaneously for Cesare,
and sent (on June 10) to offer herself to his dominion and to announce to
him that his banner was already flying from her turrets--and the growth
of Florence's alarm at this is readily conceived.

To Cesare it must have been a sore temptation.  To accept such a pied-à-
terre in Tuscany as was now offered him would have been the first great
step towards founding that kingdom of his dreams.  An impulsive man had
surely gulped the bait.  But Cesare, boundless in audacity, most swift to
determine and to act, was not impulsive.  Cold reason, foresight and
calculation were the ministers of his indomitable will.  He looked ahead
and beyond in the matter of Pisa's offer, and he perceived the danger
that might await him in the acceptance.  The time for that was not yet. 
To take what Pisa offered might entail offending France, and although
Cesare was now in case to dispense with French support, he was in no case
to resist her opposition.

And so, the matter being considered and determined, Cesare quitted Rome
on the 12th and left it for the Pope to give answer to the Pisan envoys
in the Consistory of June 14--that neither his Holiness nor the Duke of
Valentinois could assent to the proposals which Pisa made.

From Rome Cesare travelled swiftly to Spoleto, where his army, some ten
thousand strong, was encamped.  He was bent at last upon the conquest of
Camerino, and, ever an opportunist, he had seized the moment when
Florence, which might have been disposed to befriend Varano, Tyrant of
Camerino, was over-busy with her own affairs.

In addition to the powerful army awaiting him at Spoleto, the duke had a
further 2,000 men in the Romagna; another 1,000 men held themselves at
his orders between Sinigaglia and Urbino, and Dionigio di Naldo was
arming yet another 1,000 men at Verucchio for his service.  Yet further
to increase this force, Cesare issued an edict during his brief sojourn
at Spoleto ordering every house in the Romagna to supply him with one

It was whilst here--as he afterwards wrote to the Pope--that news reached
him that Guidobaldo da Montefeltre, Duke of Urbino, was arming men and
raising funds for the assistance of Camerino.  He wrote that he could not
at first believe it, but that shortly afterwards--at Foligni--he took a
chancellor of Camerino who admitted that the hopes of this State were all
founded upon Urbino's assistance; and later, a messenger from Urbino
falling into his hands, he discovered that there was a plot afoot to
seize the Borgia artillery as it passed through Ugubio, it being known
that, as Cesare had no suspicions, the guns would be guarded only by a
small force.  Of this treachery the duke strongly expressed his
indignation in his letter to the Pope.

Whether the matter was true--or whether Cesare believed it to be true--it
is impossible to ascertain with absolute conviction.  But it is in the
highest degree unlikely that Cesare would have written such a letter to
his father solely by way of setting up a pretext.  Had that been his only
aim, letters expressing his simulated indignation would have been in
better case to serve his ends had they been addressed to others.

If Guidobaldo did engage in such an act, amounting to a betrayal, he was
certainly paid by Cesare in kind and with interest.  If the duke had been
short of a pretext for carrying a drawn sword into the dominions of
Guidobaldo, he had that pretext now in this act of enmity against himself
and the Holy See.

First, however, he disposed for the attack upon Camerino.  This State,
lying on the Eastern spurs of the Apennines, midway between Spoleto and
Urbino, was ruled by Giulio Cesare Varano, an old war-dog of seventy
years of age, ruthless and bloodthirsty, who owed his throne to his
murder of his own brother.

He was aided in the government of his tyranny by his four sons, Venanzio,
Annibale, Pietro, and Gianmaria.

Several times already had he been menaced by Cesare Borgia, for he was
one of the Vicars proscribed for the non-payment of tribute due to the
Holy See, and at last his hour was come.  Against him Cesare now
dispatched an army under the command of Francesco Orsini, Duke of
Gravina, and Oliverotto Eufreducci, another murderous, bloody gentleman
who had hitherto served the duke in Vitelli's condotta, and who, by an
atrocious act of infamy and brigandage, had made himself Lord of Fermo,
which he pretended--being as sly as he was bloody--to hold as Vicar for
the Holy See.

This Oliverotto Eufreducci--hereafter known as Oliverotto da Fermo--was a
nephew of Giovanni Fogliano, Lord of Fermo.  He had returned home to his
uncle's Court in the early part of that year, and was there received with
great honour and affection by Fogliano and his other relatives.  To
celebrate his home-coming, Oliverotto invited his uncle and the principal
citizens of Fermo to a banquet, and at table contrived to turn the
conversation upon the Pope and the Duke of Valentinois; whereupon, saying
that these were matters to be discussed more in private, he rose from
table and begged them to withdraw with him into another room.

All unsuspecting--what should old Fogliano suspect from one so loved and
so deeply in his debt?--they followed him to the chamber where he had
secretly posted a body of his men-at-arms.  There, no sooner had the door
closed upon this uncle, and those others who had shown him so much
affection, than he gave the signal for the slaughter that had been
concerted.  His soldiers fell upon those poor, surprised victims of his
greed, and made a speedy and bloody end of all.

That first and chief step being taken, Oliverotto flung himself on his
horse, and, gathering his men-at-arms about him, rode through Fermo on
the business of butchering what other relatives and friends of Fogliano
might remain.  Among these were Raffaele della Rovere and two of his
children, one of whom was inhumanly slaughtered in its mother's lap.

Thereafter he confiscated to his own uses the property of those whom he
had murdered, and of those who, more fortunate, had fled his butcher's
hands.  He dismissed the existing Council and replaced it by a government
of his own.  Which done--to shelter himself from the consequences--he
sent word to the Pope that he held Fermo as Vicar of the Church.

Whilst a portion of his army marched on Camerino, Cesare, armed with his
pretext for the overthrow of Guidobaldo, set himself deliberately and by
an elaborate stratagem to the capture of Urbino.  Of this there can be
little doubt.  The cunning of the scheme is of an unsavoury sort, when
considered by the notions that obtain to-day, for the stratagem was no
better than an act of base treachery.  Yet, lest even in this you should
be in danger of judging Cesare Borgia by standards which cannot apply to
his age, you will do well to consider that there is no lack of evidence
that the fifteenth century applauded the business as a clever coup.

Guidobaldo da Montefeltre was a good prince.  None in all Italy was more
beloved by his people, towards whom he bore himself with a kindly,
paternal bonhomie.  He was a cultured, scholarly man, a patron of the
arts, happiest in the splendid library of the Palace of Urbino.  It
happened, unfortunately, that he had no heir, which laid his dominions
open to the danger of division amongst the neighbouring greedy tyrants
after his death.  To avoid this he had adopted Francesco Maria della
Rovere, hereditary Prefect of Sinigaglia, his sister's child and a nephew
of Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere's.  There was wisdom and foresight in
the adoption, considering the favour enjoyed in Rome and in France by the
powerful cardinal.

From Nocera Cesare sent Guidobaldo a message calculated to allay whatever
uneasiness he may have been feeling, and to throw him completely off his
guard.  The duke notified him that he was marching upon Camerino--which
was at once true and untrue--and begged Guidobaldo to assist him in this
enterprise by sending him provisions to Gubbio, which he should reach on
the morrow--since he was marching by way of Cagli and Sassoferrato. 
Further--and obviously with intent that the Duke of Urbino should reduce
the forces at his disposal--he desired Guidobaldo to send Vitelli the
support of a thousand men, which the latter had earlier solicited, but
which Guidobaldo had refused to supply without orders from the Pope. 
Cesare concluded his letter with protestations of brotherly love--the
Judas' kiss which makes him hateful to us in this affair.

It all proved very reassuring to Guidobaldo who set his mind at ease and
never bethought him of looking to his defences, when, from Nocera, Cesare
made one of those sudden movements, terrible in their swiftness as the
spring of a tiger--enabling him to drive home his claws where least
expected.  Leaving all baggage behind him, and with provisions for only
three days, he brought his troops by forced marches to Cagli, within the
Urbino State, and possessed himself of it almost before the town had come
to realize his presence.

Not until the citadel, taken entirely by surprise, was in Cesare's hands
did a messenger speed to Guidobaldo with the unwelcome tidings that the
Duke of Valentinois was in arms, as an enemy, within the territory. 
Together with that message came others into the garden of the Zoccolanti
monastery--that favourite resort of Guidobaldo's--where he was indulging
his not unusual custom of supping in the cool of that summer evening. 
They brought him word that, while Valentinois was advancing upon him from
the south, a force of 1,000 men were marching upon Urbino from Isola di
Fano in the east, and twice that number through the passes of Sant'
Angelo and Verucchio in the north--all converging upon his capital.

The attack had been shrewdly planned and timed, and if anything can
condone the treachery by which Guidobaldo was lulled into his false
security, it is the circumstance that this conduct of the matter avoided
bloodshed--a circumstance not wholly negligible, and one that was ever a
part of Cesare Borgia's policy, save where punishment had to be inflicted
or reprisals taken.

Guidobaldo, seeing himself thus beset upon all sides at once, and being
all unprepared for resistance, perceived that nothing but flight remained
him; and that very night he left Urbino hurriedly, taking with him the
boy Francesco Maria, and intending at first to seek shelter in his Castle
of S. Leo--a fortress that was practically impregnable.  But already it
was too late.  The passes leading thither were by now in the hands of the
enemy, as Guidobaldo discovered at dawn.  Thereupon, changing his plans,
he sent the boy and his few attendants to Bagno, and, himself, disguised
as a peasant, took to the hills, despite the gout by which he was
tormented.  Thus he won to Ravenna, which was fast becoming a home for
dethroned princes.

Urbino, meanwhile, in no case to resist, sent its castellan to meet
Cesare and to make surrender to him--whereof Cesare, in the letter
already mentioned, gives news to the Pope, excusing himself for having
undertaken this thing without the Pope's knowledge, but that "the
treachery employed against me by Guidobaldo was so enormous that I could
not suffer it."

Within a few hours of poor Guidobaldo's flight Cesare was housed in
Urbino's splendid palace, whose stupendous library was the marvel of all
scholars of that day.  Much of this, together with many of the art-
treasures collected by the Montefeltri, Cesare began shortly afterwards
to transfer to Cesena.

In addition to publishing an edict against pillage and violence in the
City of Urbino, Cesare made doubly sure that none should take place by
sending his soldiers to encamp at Fermignano, retaining near him in
Urbino no more than his gentlemen-at-arms.  The capital being taken, the
remainder of the duchy made ready surrender, all the strongholds
announcing their submission to Cesare with the exception of that almost
inaccessible Castle of S. Leo, which capitulated only after a
considerable resistance.

From Urbino Cesare now entered into communication with the Florentines,
and asked that a representative should be sent to come to an agreement
with him.  In response to this request, the Republic sent him Bishop
Soderini as her ambassador.  The latter arrived in Urbino on June 25 and
was immediately and very cordially received by the duke.  With him, in
the subordinate capacity of secretary, came a lean, small-headed, tight-
lipped man, with wide-set, intelligent eyes and prominent cheek-bones--
one Niccolò Macchiavelli, who, in needy circumstances at present, and
comparatively obscure, was destined to immortal fame.  Thus did
Macchiavelli meet Cesare Borgia for the first time, and, for all that we
have no records of it, it is not to be doubted that his study of that
remarkable man began then in Urbino, to be continued presently, as we
shall see, when Macchiavelli returns to him in the quality of an
ambassador himself.

To Soderini the duke expounded his just grievance, founded upon the
Florentines' unobservance of the treaty of Forno dei Campi; he demanded
that a fresh treaty should be drawn up to replace the broken one, and
that, for the purpose, Florence should change her government, as in the
ruling one, after what had passed, he could repose no faith.  He
disclaimed all associations with the affair of Vitelli, but frankly
declared himself glad of it, as it had, no doubt, led Florence to
perceive what came of not keeping faith with him.  He concluded by
assuring Soderini that, with himself for their friend, the Florentines
need fear no molestation from any one; but he begged that the Republic
should declare herself in the matter, since, if she did not care to have
him for her friend, she was, of course, at liberty to make of him her

So impressed was Soderini by Cesare Borgia that on that same night he
wrote to the Signory:

"This lord is very magnificent and splendid, and so spirited in feats of
arms that there is nothing so great but that it must seem small to him. 
In the pursuit of glory and in the acquisition of dominions he never
rests, and he knows neither danger nor fatigue.  He moves so swiftly that
he arrives at a place before it is known that he has set out for it.  He
knows how to make himself beloved of his soldiers, and he has in his
service the best men of Italy.  These things render him victorious and
formidable, and to these is yet to be added his perpetual good fortune. 
He argues," the Florentine envoy proceeds, "with such sound reason that
to dispute with him would be a long affair, for his wit and eloquence
never fail him" ("dello ingegno e della lingua si vale quanto vuole").

You are to remember that this homage is one of the few surviving
impressions of one who came into personal contact with Cesare, and of
one, moreover, representing a Government more or less inimical to him,
who would therefore have no reason to draw a favourable portrait of him
for that Government's benefit.  One single page of such testimony is
worth a dozen volumes of speculation and inference drawn afterwards by
men who never knew him--in many cases by men who never began to know his

The envoy concludes by informing the Signory that he has the duke's
assurances that the latter has no thought of attempting to deprive
Florence of any of her possessions, as "the object of his campaign has
not been to tyrannize, but to extirpate tyrants."

Whilst Cesare awaited the Florentines' reply to their ambassador's
communication, he withdrew to the camp at Fermignano, where he was sought
on July 6 by a herald from Louis XII.  This messenger came to exhort
Cesare to embark upon no enterprise against the Florentine Republic,
because to offend Florence would be to offend the Majesty of France. 
Simultaneously, however, Florence received messages from the Cardinal
d'Amboise, suggesting that they should come to terms with Valentinois by
conceding him at least a part of what had been agreed in the Treaty of
Forno dei Campi.

As a consequence, Soderini was able to inform Cesare that the Republic
was ready to treat with him, but that first he must withdraw Vitelli from
Arezzo, and compel him to yield up the captured fortresses.  The duke,
not trusting--as he had frankly avowed--a Government which once already
had broken faith with him, and perceiving that, if he whistled his war-
dogs to heel as requested, he would have lost the advantages of his
position, refused to take any such steps until the treaty should be
concluded.  He consented, however, to enforce meanwhile an armistice.

But now it happened that news reached Florence of the advance of Louis
XII with an army of 20,000 men, bound for Naples to settle the dispute
with Spain.  So the Republic--sly and treacherous as any other Italian
Government of the Cinquecento--instructed Soderini to temporize with the
duke; to spend the days in amiable, inconclusive interviews and
discussions of terms which the Signory did not mean to make.  Thus they
counted upon gaining time, until the arrival of the French should put an
end to the trouble caused by Vitelli, and to the need for any compromise.

But Cesare, though forced to submit, was not fooled by Soderini's smooth,
evasive methods.  He too--having private sources of information in
France--was advised of the French advance and of the imminence of danger
to himself in consequence of the affairs of Florence.  And it occasioned
him no surprise to see Soderini come on July 19 to take his leave of him,
advised by the Signory that the French vanguard was at hand, and that,
consequently, the negotiations might now with safety be abandoned.

To console him, he had news on the morrow of the conquest of Camerino.

The septuagenarian Giulio Cesare Varano had opposed to the Borgia forces
a stout resistance, what time he sent his two sons Pietro and Gianmaria
to Venice for help.  It was in the hope of this solicited assistance that
he determined to defend his tyranny, and the war opened by a cavalry
skirmish in which Venanzio Varano routed the Borgia horse under the
command of the Duke of Gravina.  Thereafter, however, the Varani had to
endure a siege; and the old story of the Romagna sieges was repeated. 
Varano had given his subjects too much offence in the past, and it was
for his subjects now to call the reckoning.

A strong faction, led by a patrician youth of Camerino, demanded the
surrender of the State, and, upon being resisted, took arms and opened
the gates to the troops of Valentinois.  The three Varani were taken
prisoners.  Old Giulio Cesare was shut up in the Castle of Pergola, where
he shortly afterwards died--which was not wonderful or unnatural at his
time of life, and does not warrant Guicciardini for stating, without
authority, that he was strangled.  Venanzio and Annibale were imprisoned
in the fortress of Cattolica.

In connection with this surrender of Camerino, Cesare wrote the following
affectionate letter to his sister Lucrezia--who was dangerously ill at
Ferrara in consequence of her delivery of a still-born child:

"Most Illustrious and most Excellent Lady, our very dear Sister,--
Confident of the circumstance that there can be no more efficacious and
salutary medicine for the indisposition from which you are at present
suffering than the announcement of good and happy news, we advise you
that at this very moment we have received sure tidings of the capture of
Camerino.  We beg that you will do honour to this message by an immediate
improvement, and inform us of it, because, tormented as we are to know
you so ill, nothing, not even this felicitous event, can suffice to
afford us pleasure.  We beg you also kindly to convey the present to the
Illustrious Lord Don Alfonso, your husband and our beloved Brother-in-
law, to whom we are not writing to-day."



The coincidence of the arrival of the French army with the conquest of
Urbino and Camerino and the Tuscan troubles caused one more to be added
to that ceaseless stream of rumours that flowed through Italy concerning
the Borgias.  This time the envy and malice that are ever provoked by
success and power gave voice in that rumour to the thing it hoped, and
there ensued as pretty a comedy as you shall find in the pages of

The rumour had it that Louis XII, resentful and mistrustful of the growth
of Cesare's might, which tended to weaken France in Italy and became a
menace to the French dominions, was come to make an end of him. 
Instantly Louis's Court in Milan was thronged by all whom Cesare had
offended--and they made up by now a goodly crowd, for a man may not rise
so swiftly to such eminence without raising a rich crop of enemies.

Meanwhile, however, Valentinois in the Montefeltre Palace at Urbino
remained extremely at ease.  He was not the man to be without
intelligences.  In the train of Louis was Francesco Troche, the Pope's
confidential chamberlain and Cesare's devoted servant, who, possessed of
information, was able to advise Valentinois precisely what were the
intentions of the King of France.  Gathering from these advices that it
was Louis's wish that the Florentines should not be molested further, and
naturally anxious not to run counter to the king's intentions, Cesare
perceived that the time to take action had arrived, the time for
passivity in the affairs of Florence was at an end.

So he dispatched an envoy to Vitelli, ordering his instant evacuation of
Arezzo and his withdrawal with his troops from Tuscany, and he backed the
command by a threat to compel Vitelli by force of arms, and to punish
disobedience by depriving him of his state of Città di Castello--"a
matter," Cesare informed him, "which would be easily accomplished, as the
best men of that State have already offered themselves to me."

It was a command which Vitelli had no choice but to obey, not being in
sufficient force to oppose the duke.  So on July 29, with Gianpaolo
Baglioni, he relinquished the possession of Arezzo and departed out of
Tuscany, as he had been bidden.  But so incensed was he against the duke
for this intervention between himself and his revenge, and so freely did
he express himself in the matter, that it was put about at once that he
intended to go against Cesare.

And that is the first hint of the revolt of the condottieri.

Having launched that interdict of his, Cesare, on July 25, in the garb of
a knight of St. John of Jerusalem, and with only four attendants,
departed secretly from Urbino to repair to Milan and King Louis.  He
paused for fresh horses at Forli on the morrow, and on the 28th reached
Ferrara, where he remained for a couple of hours to visit Lucrezia, who
was now in convalescence.  Ahead of him he dispatched, thence, a courier
to Milan to announce his coming, and, accompanied by Alfonso d'Este,
resumed his journey.

Meanwhile, the assembly of Cesare's enemies had been increasing daily in
Milan, whither they repaired to support Louis and to vent their hatred of
Cesare and their grievances against him.  There, amongst others, might be
seen the Duke of Urbino, Pietro Varano (one of the sons of the deposed
Lord of Camerino), Giovanni Sforza of Pesaro, and Francesco Gonzaga of
Mantua--which latter was ever ready to turn whichever way the wind was
blowing, and was now loudest in his denunciations of Cesare and eagerly
advocating the formation of a league against him.

Louis received the news of Cesare's coming, and--endowed, it is clear,
with a nice sense of humour-­kept the matter secret until within a few
hours of the duke's actual arrival.  On the morning of August 5,
according to Bernardi,(1) he whispered the information in Trivulzio's
ear-­and whispered it loudly enough to be overheard by those courtiers
who stood nearest.

1 Cronache Forlivesi.

Whatever check their satisfaction at the supposed state of things may
have received then was as nothing to their feelings a few hours later
when they witnessed the greeting that passed between king and duke. 
Under their uneasy eyes Louis rode forth to meet his visitor, and gave
him a glad and friendly welcome, addressing him as "cousin" and "dear
relative," and so, no doubt, striking dismay into the hearts of those
courtiers, who may well have deemed that perhaps they had expressed
themselves too freely.

Louis, in person, accompanied Valentinois to the apartments prepared for
him in the Castle of Milan, and on the morrow gave a banquet and
commanded merry-makings in his visitor's honour.

Conceive the feelings of those deposed tyrants and their friends, and the
sudden collapse of the hopes which they had imagined the king to be
encouraging.  They did, of course, the only thing there was to do.  They
took their leave precipitately and went their ways--all save Gonzaga,
whom the king retained that he might make his peace with Cesare, and
engage in friendship with him, a friendship consolidated there and then
by the betrothal of their infant children: little Francesco Gonzaga and
Louise de Valentinois, aged two, the daughter whom Cesare had never
beheld and was never to behold.

Two factors were at work in the interests of Valentinois--the coming war
in Naples with the Spaniard, which caused Louis to desire to stand well
with the Pope; and the ambition of Louis's friend and counsellor, the
Cardinal d'Amboise, to wear the tiara, which caused this prelate to
desire to stand well with Cesare himself, since the latter's will in the
matter of a Pope to succeed his father should be omnipotent with the
Sacred College.

Therefore, that they might serve their interests in the end, both king
and cardinal served Cesare's in the meantime.

The Duke of Valentinois's visit to Milan had served to increase the
choler of Vitelli, who accounted that by this action Cesare had put him
in disgrace with the King of France; and Vitelli cried out that thus was
he repaid for having sought to make Cesare King of Tuscany.  In such high
dudgeon was the fierce Tyrant of Città di Castello that he would not go
to pay his court to Louis, and was still the more angry to hear of the
warm welcome accorded in Milan to the Cardinal Orsini.  In this he read
approval of the Orsini for having stood neutral in the Florentine
business, and, by inference from that, disapproval of himself.

Before accusing Valentinois of treachery to his condottieri, before
saying that he shifted the blame of the Tuscan affair on to the shoulders
of his captains, it would be well to ascertain that there was any blame
to shift--that is to say, any blame that must originally have fallen upon
Cesare.  Certainly he made no effort to restrain Vitelli until the King
of France had arrived and he had secret information which caused him to
deem it politic to intervene.  But of what avail until that moment, would
any but an armed intervention have been with so vindictive and one-idea'd
a man, and what manner of fool would not Cesare have been to have spent
his strength in battle with his condottieri for the purpose of
befriending a people who had never shown themselves other than his own

Like the perfect egotist he was, he sat on the fence, and took pleasure
in the spectacle of the harassing of his enemies by his friends, prepared
to reap any advantages there might be, but equally prepared to avoid any

It was not heroic, it was not noble; but it was extremely human.

Cesare was with the King of France in Genoa at the end of August, and
remained in his train until September 2, when finally he took his leave
of him.  When they heard of his departure from the Court of Louis, his
numerous enemies experienced almost as much chagrin as that which had
been occasioned them by his going thither.  For they had been consoling
themselves of late with a fresh rumour; and again they were believing
what it pleased them to believe.  Rumours, you perceive, were never
wanting where the Borgias were concerned, and it may be that you are
beginning to rate these voces populi at their proper value, and to
apprehend the worth of many of those that have been embalmed as truths in
the abiding records.

This last one had it that Louis was purposely keeping Cesare by him, and
intended ultimately to carry him off to France, and so put an end to the
disturbances the duke was creating in Italy.  What a consolation would
not that have been to those Italian princelings to whose undoing he had
warred!  And can you marvel that they believed and circulated so readily
the thing for which they hoped so fondly?  By your appreciation of that
may you measure the fresh disappointment that was theirs.

So mistaken were they, indeed, as it now transpired, that Louis had
actually, at last, removed his protection from Bologna, under the
persuasion of Cesare and the Pope.  Before the duke took his departure
from King Louis's Court, the latter entered into a treaty with him in
that connection to supply him with three hundred lances: "De bailler au
Valentinois trois cents lances pour l'aider à conquérir Bologne au nome
de l'Eglise, et opprimer les Ursins, Baillons et Vitelozze."

It was a double-dealing age, and Louis's attitude in this affair sorted
well with it.  Feeling that he owed Bologna some explanation, he
presently sent a singularly lame one by Claude de Seyssel.  He put it
that the Bentivogli personally were none the less under his protection
than they had been hitherto, but that the terms of the protection
provided that it was granted exclusively of the rights and authority of
the Holy Roman See over Bologna, and that the king could not embroil
himself with the Pope.  With such a shifty message went M. de Seyssel to
make it quite clear to Bentivogli what his position was.  And on the
heels of it came, on September 2, a papal brief citing Bentivogli and his
two sons to appear before the Pontiff within fifteen days for the purpose
of considering with his Holiness the matter of the pacification and
better government of Bologna, which for so many years had been so
disorderly and turbulent.  Thus the Pope's summons, with a menace that
was all too thinly veiled.

But Bentivogli was not taken unawares.  He was not even astonished.  Ever
since Cesare's departure from Rome in the previous spring he had been
disposing against such a possibility as this--fortifying Bologna,
throwing up outworks and erecting bastions beyond the city, and levying
and arming men, in all of which he depended largely upon the citizens and
particularly upon the art-guild, which was devoted to the House of

Stronger than the affection for their lord--which, when all is said, was
none too great in Bologna--was the deep-seated hatred of the clergy
entertained by the Bolognese.  This it was that rallied to Bentivogli
such men as Fileno della Tuate, who actually hated him.  But it was a
choice of evils with Fileno and many of his kidney.  Detesting the ruling
house, and indignant at the injustices it practised, they detested the
priests still more--so much that they would have taken sides with Satan
himself against the Pontificals.  In this spirit did they carry their
swords to Bentivogli.

Upon the nobles Bentivogli could not count--less than ever since the
cold-blooded murder of the Marescotti; but in the burghers' adherence he
deemed himself secure, and indeed on September 17 he had some testimony
of it.

On that date--the fortnight's grace expiring--the brief was again read to
the Reggimento; but it was impossible to adopt any resolution.  The
people were in arms, and, with enormous uproar, protested that they would
not allow Giovanni Bentivogli or his sons to go to Rome, lest they should
be in danger once they had left their own State.

Italy was full of rumours at the time of Cesare's proposed emprise
against Bologna, and it was added that he intended, further, to make
himself master of Città di Castello and Perugia, and thus, by depriving
them of their tyrannies, punish Vitelli and Baglioni for their defection.

This was the natural result of the terms of Cesare's treaty with France
having become known; but the part of it which regarded the Orsini,
Vitelli, and Baglioni was purely provisional.  Considering that these
condottieri were now at odds with Cesare, they might see fit to consider
themselves bound to Bentivogli by the Treaty of Villafontana, signed by
Vitelli and Orsini on the duke's behalf at the time of the capitulation
of Castel Bolognese.  They might choose to disregard the fact that this
treaty had already been violated by Bentivogli himself, through the non-
fulfilment of the terms of it, and refuse to proceed against him upon
being so bidden by Valentinois.

It was for such a contingency as this that provision was made by the
clause concerning them in Cesare's treaty with Louis.

The Orsini were still in the duke's service, in command of troops levied
for him and paid by him, and considering that with them Cesare had no
quarrel, it is by no means clear why they should have gone over to the
alliance of the condottieri that was now forming against the duke.  Join
it, however, they did.  They, too, were in the Treaty of Villafontana;
but that they should consider themselves bound by it, would have been--
had they urged it--more in the nature of a pretext than a reason.  But
they chose a pretext even more slender.  They gave out that in Milan
Louis XII had told Cardinal Orsini that the Pope's intention was to
destroy the Orsini.

To accept such a statement as true, we should have to believe in a
disloyalty and a double-dealing on the part of Louis XII altogether
incredible.  To what end should he, on the one side, engage to assist
Cesare with 300 lances to "oppress" the Orsini--if necessary, and among
others--whilst, on the other, he goes to Orsini with the story which they
attribute to him?  What a mean, treacherous, unkingly figure must he not
cut as a consequence!  He may have been--we know, indeed, that he was--no
more averse to double­dealing than any other Cinquecentist; but he was
probably as averse to being found out in a meanness and made to look
contemptible as any double-dealer of our own times.  It is a
consideration worth digesting.

When word of the story put about by the Orsini was carried to the Pope he
strenuously denied the imputation, and informed the Venetian ambassador
that he had written to complain of this to the King of France, and that,
far from such a thing being true, Cesare was so devoted to the Orsini as
to be "more Orsini than Borgian."

It is further worth considering that the defection of the Orsini was
neither immediate nor spontaneous, as must surely have been the case had
the story been true.  It was the Baglioni and Vitelli only who first met
to plot at Todi, to declare that they would not move against their ally
of Bologna, and to express the hope that they might bring the Orsini to
the same mind.  They succeeded so well that the second meeting was held
at Magione--a place belonging to the powerful Cardinal Orsini, situated
near the Baglioni's stronghold of Perugia.  Vitellozzo was carried
thither on his bed, so stricken with the morbo gallico--which in Italy
was besetting most princes, temporal and ecclesiastical--that he was
unable to walk.

Gentile and Gianpaolo Baglioni, Cardinal Gianbattista Orsini, Francesco
Orsini, Duke of Gravina, Paolo Orsini, the bastard son of the Archbishop
of Trani, Pandolfo Petrucci--Lord of Siena--and Hermes Bentivogli were
all present.  The last-named, prone to the direct methods of murder by
which he had rid Bologna of the Marescotti, is said to have declared that
he would kill Cesare Borgia if he but had the opportunity, whilst Vitelli
swore solemnly that within a year he would slay or capture the duke, or
else drive him out of Italy.

From this it will be seen that the Diet of Magione was no mere defensive
alliance, but actually an offensive one, with the annihilation of Cesare
Borgia for its objective.

They certainly had the power to carry out their resolutions, for whilst
Cesare disposed at that moment of not more than 2,500 foot, 300 men-at-
arms, and the 100 lances of his Caesarean guard of patricians, the
confederates had in arms some 9,000 foot and 1,000 horse.  Conscious of
their superior strength, they determined to strike at once, before Cesare
should be further supported by the French lances, and to make sure of him
by assailing him on every side at once.  To this end it was resolved that
Bentivogli should instantly march upon Imola, where Cesare lay, whilst
the others should possess themselves of Urbino and Pesaro simultaneously.

They even approached Florence and Venice in the matter, inviting the
Republics to come into the league against Valentinois.

The Florentines, however, could not trust such enemies of their own as
Vitelli and the Orsini, nor dared they join in an enterprise which had
for scope to make war upon an ally of France; and they sent word to
Cesare of their resolve to enter into no schemes against him.

The Venetians would gladly have moved to crush a man who had snatched the
Romagna from under their covetous eyes; but in view of the league with
France they dared not.  What they dared, they did.  They wrote to Louis
at length of the evils that were befalling Italy at the hands of the Duke
of Valentinois, and of the dishonour to the French crown which lay for
Louis in his alliance with Cesare Borgia.  They even went so far--and
most treacherously, considering the league--as to allow their famous
captain, Bartolomeo d'Alviano, to reconduct Guidobaldo to Urbino, as we
shall presently see.

Had the confederates but kept faith with one another Cesare's knell had
soon been tolled.  But they were a weak-kneed pack of traitors,
irresolute in their enmity as in their friendships.  The Orsini hung
back.  They urged that they did not trust themselves to attack Cesare
with men actually in his pay; whilst Bentivogli--treacherous by nature to
the back-bone of him--actually went so far as to attempt to open secret
negotiations with Cesare through Ercole d'Este of Ferrara.



On October 2 news of the revolt of the condottieri and the diet of
Magione had reached the Vatican and rendered the Pope uneasy.  Cesare,
however, had been informed of it some time before at Imola, where he was
awaiting the French lances that should enable him to raid the Bolognese
and drive out the Bentivogli.

Where another might have been paralyzed by a defection which left him
almost without an army, and would have taken the course of sending envoys
to the rebels to attempt to make terms and by concessions to patch up a
treaty, Cesare, with characteristic courage, assurance, and promptitude
of action, flung out officers on every side to levy him fresh troops.

His great reputation as a condottiero, the fame of his wealth and his
notorious liberality, stood him now in excellent stead.  The response to
his call was instantaneous.  Soldiers of fortune and mercenaries showed
the trust they had in him, and flocked to his standard from every
quarter.  One of the first to arrive was Gasparo Sanseverino, known as
Fracassa, a condottiero of great renown, who had been in the Pontifical
service since the election of Pope Alexander.  He was a valuable
acquisition to Cesare, who placed him in command of the horse.  Another
was Lodovico Pico della Mirandola, who brought a small condotta of 60
lances and 60 light horse.  Ranieri della Sassetta rode in at the head of
100 mounted arbalisters, and Francesco de Luna with a body of 50

1  The arquebus, although it had existed in Italy for nearly a century,
was only just coming into general use.

Valentinois sent out Raffaele dei Pazzi and Galeotto Pallavicini, the one
into Lombardy to recruit 1,000 Gascons, the other to raise a body of
Swiss mercenaries.  Yet, when all is said, these were but supplementary
forces; the main strength of Cesare's new army lay in the troops raised
in the Romagna, which, faithful to him and confident of his power and
success, rallied to him now in the hour of his need.  Than this there can
be no more eloquent testimony to the quality of his rule.  In command of
these Romagnuoli troops he placed such Romagnuoli captains as Dionigio di
Naldo and Marcantonio da Fano, thereby again affording proof of his
wisdom, by giving these soldiers their own compatriots and men with whom
they were in sympathy for their leaders.

With such speed had he acted, and such was the influence of his name,
that already, by October 14, he had assembled an army of upwards of 6,000
men, which his officers were diligently drilling at Imola, whilst daily
now were the French lances expected, and the Swiss and Gascon mercenaries
he had sent to levy.

It may well be that this gave the confederates pause, and suggested to
them that they should reconsider their position and ask themselves
whether the opportunity for crushing Cesare had not slipped by whilst
they had stood undecided.

It was Pandolfo Petrucci who took the first step towards a
reconciliation, by sending word to Valentinois that it was not his
intention to take any measures that might displease his Excellency.  His
Excellency will no doubt have smiled at that belated assurance from the
sparrow to the hawk.  Then, a few days later, came news that Giulio
Orsini had entered into an agreement with the Pope.  This appeared to
give the confederacy its death-blow, and Paolo Orsini was on the point of
setting out to seek Cesare at Imola for the purpose of treating with him
--which would definitely have given burial to the revolt--when suddenly
there befell an event which threw the scales the other way.

Cesare's people were carrying out some work in the Castle of S. Leo, in
the interior of which a new wall was in course of erection.  For the
purposes of this, great baulks of timber were being brought into the
castle from the surrounding country.  Some peasants, headed by one
Brizio, who had been a squire of Guidobaldo's, availed themselves of the
circumstance to capture the castle by a stratagem.  Bringing forward some
great masses of timber and felled trees, they set them down along the
drawbridge in such a manner as to prevent its being hoisted.  That done,
an attack in force was directed against the fortress.  The place, whose
natural defences rendered it practically impregnable, was but slightly
manned; being thus surprised, and unable to raise the bridge, it was
powerless to offer any resistance, so that the Montefeltre peasants,
having killed every Borgia soldier of the garrison, took possession of it
and held it for Duke Guidobaldo.

This capture of S. Leo was as a spark that fired a train.  Instantly the
hardy hillmen of Urbino were in arms to reconquer Guidobaldo's duchy for
him.  Stronghold after stronghold fell into their hands, until they were
in Urbino itself.  They made short work of the capital's scanty
defenders, flung Cesare's governor into prison, and finally obtained
possession of the citadel.

It was the news of this that caused the confederates once more to pause. 
Before declaring themselves, they waited to see what action Venice would
take, whilst in the meantime they sought shelter behind a declaration
that they were soldiers of the Church and would do nothing against the
will of the Pontiff.  They were confidently assured that Venice would
befriend Guidobaldo, and help him back to his throne now that his own
people had done so much towards that end.  It remained, however, to be
seen whether Venice would at the same time befriend Pesaro and Rimini.

Instantly Cesare Borgia--who was assailed by grave doubts concerning the
Venetians--took his measures.  He ordered Bartolomeo da Capranica, who
was chief in command of his troops in Urbino, to fall back upon Rimini
with all his companies, whilst to Pesaro the duke dispatched Michele da
Corella and Ramiro de Lorqua.

It was a busy time of action with the duke at Imola, and yet, amid all
the occupation which this equipment of a new army must have given him, he
still found time for diplomatic measures, and, taking advantage of the
expressed friendliness of Florence, he had replied by desiring the
Signory to send an envoy to confer with him.  Florence responded by
sending, as her representative, that same Niccolò Macchiavelli who had
earlier accompanied Soderini on a similar mission to Valentinois, and who
had meanwhile been advanced to the dignity of Secretary of State.

Macchiavelli has left us, in his dispatches to his Government, the most
precious and valuable information concerning that period of Cesare
Borgia's history during which he was with the duke on the business of his
legation.  Not only is it the rare evidence of an eye-witness that
Macchiavelli affords us, but the evidence, as we have said, of one
endowed with singular acumen and an extraordinary gift of psychological
analysis.  The one clear and certain inference to be drawn, not only from
those dispatches, but from the Florentine secretary's later writings, is
that, at close quarters with Cesare Borgia, a critical witness of his
methods, he conceived for him a transcending admiration which was later
to find its fullest expression in his immortal book The Prince--a book,
remember, compiled to serve as a guide in government to Giuliano
de'Medici, the feeble brother of Pope Leo X, a book inspired by Cesare
Borgia, who is the model prince held up by Macchiavelli for emulation.

Does it serve any purpose, in the face of this work from the pen of the
acknowledged inventor of state-craft, to describe Cesare's conquest of
the Romagna by opprobrious epithets and sweeping statements of
condemnation and censure--statements kept carefully general, and never
permitted to enter into detail which must destroy their own ends and
expose their falsehood?

Gregorovius, in this connection, is as full of contradictions as any man
must be who does not sift out the truth and rigidly follow it in his
writings.  Consider the following scrupulously translated extracts from
his Geschichte der Stadt Rom:

  (a) "Cesare departed from Rome to resume his bloody work in the

  (b) "...the frightful deeds performed by Cesare on both sides of the
Apennines.  He assumes the semblance of an exterminating angel, and
performs such hellish iniquities that we can only shudder at the
contemplation of the evil of which human nature is capable."

And now, pray, consider and compare with those the following excerpt from
the very next page of that same monumental work:

"Before him [Cesare] cities trembled; the magistrates prostrated
themselves in the dust; sycophantic courtiers praised him to the stars. 
Yet it is undeniable that his government was energetic and good; for the
first time Romagna enjoyed peace and was rid of her vampires.  In the
name of Cesare justice was administered by Antonio di Monte Sansovino,
President of the Ruota of Cesena, a man universally beloved."

It is almost as if the truth had slipped out unawares, for the first
period hardly seems a logical prelude to the second, by which it is
largely contradicted.  If Cesare's government was so good that Romagna
knew peace at last and was rid of her vampires, why did cities tremble
before him?  There is, by the way, no evidence of such trepidations in
any of the chronicles of the conquered States, one and all of which hail
Cesare as their deliverer.  Why, if he was held in such terror, did city
after city--as we have seen--spontaneously offer itself to Cesare's

But to rebut those statements of Gregorovius's there is scarce the need
to pose these questions; sufficiently does Gregorovius himself rebut
them.  The men who praised Cesare, the historian tells us, were
sycophantic courtiers.  But where is the wonder of his being praised if
his government was as good as Gregorovius admits it to have been?  What
was unnatural in that praise?  What so untruthful as to deserve to be
branded sycophantic?  And by what right is an historian to reject as
sycophants the writers who praise a man, whilst accepting every word of
his detractors as the words of inspired evangelists, even when their
falsehoods are so transparent as to provoke the derision of the
thoughtful and analytic?

As l'Espinois points out in his masterly essay in the Revue des Questions
Historiques, Gregorovius refuses to recognize in Cesare Borgia the
Messiah of a united Central Italy, but considers him merely as a high-
flying adventurer; whilst Villari, in his Life and Times of Macchiavelli,
tells you bluntly that Cesare Borgia was neither a statesman nor a
soldier but a brigand-chief.

These are mere words; and to utter words is easier than to make them

"High-flying adventurer," or "brigand-chief," by all means, if it please
you.  What but a high-flying adventurer was the wood-cutter, Muzio
Attendolo, founder of the ducal House of Sforza?  What but a high-flying
adventurer was that Count Henry of Burgundy who founded the kingdom of
Portugal?  What else was the Norman bastard William, who conquered
England?  What else the artillery officer, Napoleon Bonaparte, who became
Emperor of the French?  What else was the founder of any dynasty but a
high-flying adventurer--or a brigand-chief, if the melodramatic term is
more captivating to your fancy?

These terms are used to belittle Cesare.  They achieve no more, however,
than to belittle those who penned them; for, even as they are true, the
marvel is that the admirable matter in these truths appears to have
escaped those authors.

What else Gregorovius opines--that Cesare was no Messiah of United Italy
--is true enough.  Cesare was the Messiah of Cesare.  The well-being of
Italy for its own sake exercised his mind not so much as the well-being
of the horse he rode.  He wrought for his own aggrandisement--but he
wrought wisely; and, whilst the end in view is no more to be censured
than the ambition of any man, the means employed are in the highest
degree to be commended, since the well-being of the Romagna, which was
not an aim, was, nevertheless, an essential and praiseworthy incident.

When it can be shown that every other of those conquerors who cut heroic
figures in history were purest altruists, it will be time to damn Cesare
Borgia for his egotism.

What Villari says, for the purpose of adding rhetorical force to his
"brigand-chief"--that Cesare was no statesman and no soldier--is entirely
of a piece with the rest of the chapter in which it occurs(1)--a chapter
rich in sweeping inaccuracies concerning Cesare.  But it is staggering to
find the statement in such a place, amid Macchiavelli's letters on
Cesare, breathing an obvious and profound admiration of the duke's
talents as a politician and a soldier--an admiration which later is to go
perilously near to worship.  To Macchiavelli, Cesare is the incarnation
of a hazy ideal, as is abundantly shown in The Prince.  For Villari to
reconcile all this with his own views must seem impossible.  And
impossible it is; yet Villari achieves it, with an audacity that leaves
you breathless.

1  In his Niccolò Machiavelli.

No--he practically tells you--this Macchiavelli, who daily saw and spoke
with Cesare for two months (and during a critical time, which is when men
best reveal their natures), this acute Florentine--the acutest man of his
age, perhaps--who studied and analysed Cesare, and sent his Government
the results of his analyses, and was inspired by them later to write The
Prince--this man did not know Cesare Borgia.  He wrote, not about Cesare
himself, but about a creation of his own intellect.

That is what Villari pretends.  Macchiavelli, the representative of a
power unfriendly at heart under the mask of the expedient friendliness,
his mind already poisoned by all the rumours current throughout Italy,
comes on this mission to Valentinois.  Florence, fearing and hating
Valentinois as she does, would doubtless take pleasure in detractory
advices.  Other ambassadors--particularly those of Venice--pander to
their Governments' wishes in this respect, conscious that there is a
sycophancy in slander contrasted with which the ordinary sycophancy of
flattery is as water to wine; they diligently send home every scrap of
indecent or scandalous rumour they can pick up in the Roman ante-
chambers, however unlikely, uncorroborated, or unconcerning the business
of an ambassador.

But Macchiavelli, in Cesare Borgia's presence, is overawed by his
greatness, his force and his intellect, and these attributes engage him
in his dispatches.  These same dispatches are a stumbling-block to all
who prefer to tread the beaten, sensational track, and to see in Cesare
Borgia a villain of melodrama, a monster of crime, brutal, and,
consequently, of no intellectual force.  But Villari contrives to step
more or less neatly, if fatuously, over that formidable obstacle, by
telling you that Macchiavelli presents to you not really Cesare Borgia,
but a creation of his own intellect, which he had come to admire.  It is
a simple, elementary expedient by means of which every piece of
historical evidence ever penned may be destroyed--including all that
which defames the House of Borgia.

Macchiavelli arrived at Imola on the evening of October 7, 1502, and, all
travel-stained as he was, repaired straight to the duke, as if the
message with which he was charged was one that would not brook a moment's
delay in its deliverance.  Actually, however, he had nothing to offer
Cesare but the empty expressions of Florence's friendship and the hopes
she founded upon Cesare's reciprocation.  The crafty young Florentine--he
was thirty-three at the time--was sent to temporize and to avoid
committing himself or his Government.

Valentinois listened to the specious compliments, and replied by similar
protestations and by reminding Florence how he had curbed the hand of
those very condottieri who had now rebelled against him as a consequence. 
He showed himself calm and tranquil at the loss of Urbino, telling
Macchiavelli that he "had not forgotten the way to reconquer it," when it
should suit him.  Of the revolted condottieri he contemptuously said that
he accounted them fools for not having known how to choose a more
favourable moment in which to harm him, and that they would presently
find such a fire burning under their feet as would call for more water to
quench it than such men as these disposed of.

Meanwhile, the success of those rustics of Urbino who had risen, and the
ease of their victories, had fired others of the territory to follow
their example.  Fossombrone and Pergola were the next to rebel and to put
the Borgia garrisons to the sword; but, in their reckless audacity, they
chose their moment ill, for Michele da Corella was at hand with his
lances, and, although his orders had been to repair straight to Pesaro,
he ventured to depart from them to the extent of turning aside to punish
the insurgence of those towns by launching his men-at-arms upon them and
subjecting them to an appalling and pitiless sack.

When Cesare heard the news of it and the details of the horrors that had
been perpetrated, he turned, smiling cruelly, to Macchiavelli, who was
with him, and, "The constellations this year seem unfavourable to
rebels," he observed.

A battle of wits was toward between the Florentines' Secretary of State
and the Duke of Valentinois, each mistrustful of the other.  In the end
Cesare, a little out of patience at so much inconclusiveness, though
outwardly preserving his immutable serenity, sought to come to grips by
demanding that Florence should declare whether he was to account her his
friend or not.  But this was precisely what Macchiavelli's instructions
forbade him from declaring.  He answered that he must first write to the
Signory, and begged the duke to tell him what terms he proposed should
form the treaty.  But there it was the duke's turn to fence and to avoid
a direct answer, desiring that Florence should open the negotiations and
that from her should come the first proposal.

He reminded Macchiavelli that Florence would do well to come to a
decision before the Orsini sought to patch up a peace with him, since,
once that was done, there would be fresh difficulties, owing, of course,
to Orsini's enmity to the existing Florentine Government.  And of such a
peace there was now every indication, Paolo Orsini having at last sent
Cesare proposals for rejoining him, subject to his abandoning the Bologna
enterprise (in which, the Orsini argued, they could not bear a hand
without breaking faith with Bentivogli) and turning against Florence. 
Vitelli, at the same time, announced himself ready to return to Cesare's
service, but first he required some "honest security."

Well might it have pleased Cesare to oblige the Orsini to the letter, and
to give a lesson in straight-dealing to these shuffling Florentine
pedlars who sent a nimble-witted Secretary of State to hold him in play
with sweet words of barren meaning.  But there was France and her wishes
to be considered, and he could not commit himself.  So his answer was
peremptory and condescending.  He told them that, if they desired to show
themselves his friends, they could set about reconquering and holding
Urbino for him.

It looked as if the condottieri agreed to this, for on October 11 Vitelli
seized Castel Durante, and on the next day Baglioni was in possession of

In view of this, Cesare bade the troops which he had withdrawn to advance
again upon the city of Urbino and take possession of it.  But suddenly,
on the 12th, a messenger from Guidobaldo rode into Urbino to announce
their duke's return within a few days to defend the subjects who had
shown themselves so loyal to him.  This, the shifty confederates
accounted, must be done with the support of Venice, whence they concluded
that Venice must have declared against Valentinois, and again they
treacherously changed sides.

The Orsini proceeded to prompt action.  Assured of their return to
himself, and counting upon their support in Urbino, Cesare had contented
himself with sending thither a small force of 100 lances and 200 light
horse.  Upon these fell the Orsini, and put them to utter rout at
Calmazzo, near Fossombrone, capturing Ugo di Moncada, who commanded one
of the companies, but missing Michele da Corella, who contrived to escape
to Fossombrone.

The conquerors entered Urbino that evening, and, as if to put it on
record that they burnt their boats with Valentinois, Paolo Orsini wrote
that same night to the Venetian Senate advices of the victory won.  Three
days later--on October 18--Guidobaldo, accompanied by his nephews
Ottaviano Fregioso and Gianmaria Varano, re-entered his capital amid the
cheers and enthusiasm of his loyal and loving people.

Vitelli made haste to place his artillery at Guidobaldo's disposal for
the reduction of Cagli, Pergola, and Fossombrone, which were still held
for Valentinois, whilst Oliverotto da Fermo went with Gianmaria Varano to
attempt the reconquest of Camerino, and Gianpaolo Baglioni to Fano,
which, however, he did not attempt to enter as an enemy--an idle course,
seeing how loyally the town held for Cesare--but as a ducal condottiero.

Fired by Orsini's example, Bentivogli also took the offensive, and began
by ordering the canonists of Bologna University to go to the churches and
encourage the people to disregard the excommunications launched against
the city.  He wrote to the King of France to complain that Cesare had
broken the Treaty of Villafontana by which he had undertaken never again
to molest Bologna--naïvely ignoring the circumstance that he himself had
been the first to violate the terms of that same treaty, and that it was
precisely upon such grounds that Cesare was threatening him.

Thus matters stood, the confederates turning anxious eyes towards Venice,
and, haply, beginning to wonder whether the Republic was indeed going to
move to their support as they had so confidently expected, and realizing
perhaps by now their rashness, and the ruin that awaited them should
Venice fail them.  And fail them Venice did.  The Venetians had received
a reply from Louis XII to that letter in which they had heaped odium upon
the Borgia and shown the king what dishonour to himself dwelt in his
alliance with Valentinois.  Their criticisms and accusations were ignored
in that reply, which resolved itself into nothing more than a threat that
"if they opposed themselves to the enterprise of the Church they would be
treated by him as enemies," and of this letter he sent Cesare a copy, as
Cesare himself told Macchiavelli.

So, whilst Valentinois in Imola was able to breathe more freely, the
condottieri in Urbino may well have been overcome with horror at their
position and at having been thus left in the lurch by Venice.  None was
better aware than Pandolfo Petrucci of the folly of their action and of
the danger that now impended, and he sent his secretary to Valentinois to
say that if the duke would but reassure them on the score of his
intentions they would return to him and aid him in recovering what had
been lost.

Following upon this message came Paolo Orsini himself to Imola on the
25th, disguised as a courier, and having first taken the precaution of
obtaining a safe-conduct.  He left again on the 29th, bearing with him a
treaty the terms of which had been agreed between himself and Cesare
during that visit.  These were that Cesare should engage to protect the
States of all his allied condottieri, and they to serve him and the
Church in return.  A special convention was to follow, to decide the
matter of the Bentivogli, which should be resolved by Cesare, Cardinal
Orsini, and Pandolfo Petrucci in consultation, their judgment to be
binding upon all.

Cesare's contempt for the Orsini and the rest of the shifty men who
formed that confederacy--that "diet of bankrupts," as he had termed it--
was expressed plainly enough to Macchiavelli.

"To-day," said he, "Messer Paolo is to visit me, and to-morrow there will
be the cardinal; and thus they think to befool me, at their pleasure. 
But I, on my side, am only dallying with them.  I listen to all they have
to say and bide my own time."

Later, Macchiavelli was to remember those words, which meanwhile afforded
him matter for reflection.

As Paolo Orsini rode away from Imola, the duke's secretary, Gherardi,
followed and overtook him to say that Cesare desired to add to the treaty
another clause--one relating to the King of France.  To this Paolo Orsini
refused to consent, but, upon being pressed in the matter by Gherardi,
went so far as to promise to submit the clause to the others.

On October 30 Cesare published a notice in the Romagna, intimating the
return to obedience on the part of his captains.

Macchiavelli was mystified by this, and apprehensive--as men will be of
the things they cannot fathom--of what might be reserved in it for
Florence.  It was Gherardi who reassured him, laughing in the face of the
crafty Florentine, as he informed him that even children should come to
smile at such a treaty as this.  He added that he had gone after Paolo
Orsini to beg the addition of another clause, intentionally omitted by
the duke.

"If they accept that clause," concluded Messer Agabito, "it will open a
window; if they refuse it, a door, by which the duke can issue from the

Macchiavelli's wonder increased.  But the subject of it now was that the
condottieri should be hoodwinked by a document in such terms, and well
may he have bethought him then of those words which Cesare had used to
him a few days earlier.



It really seemed as if the condottieri were determined to make their
score as heavy as possible.  For even whilst Paolo Orsini had been on his
mission of peace to Cesare, and whilst they awaited his return, they had
continued in arms against the duke.  The Vitelli had aided Guidobaldo to
reconquer his territory, and had killed, in the course of doing so,
Bartolomeo da Capranica, Cesare's most valued captain and Vitelli's
brother­in-arms of yesterday.  The Baglioni were pressing Michele da
Corella in Pesaro, but to little purpose; whilst the butcher Oliverotto
da Fermo in Camerino--of which he had taken possession with Gianmaria
Varano--was slaughtering every Spaniard he could find.

On the other side, Corella in Pesaro hanged five men whom he caught
practising against the duke's government, and, having taken young Pietro
Varano--who was on his way to join his brother in Camerino in view of the
revolt there--he had him strangled in the market-place.  There is a story
that, with life not yet extinct, the poor youth was carried into church
by the pitiful crowd.  But here a friar, discovering that he still lived,
called in the soldiers and bade them finish him.  This friar, going later
through Cagli, was recognized, set upon by a mob, and torn to pieces--in
which, if the rest of the tale be true, he was richly served.

Into the theatre of bloodshed came Paolo Orsini from his mission to
Valentinois, bringing with him the treaty for signature by the
condottieri.  Accustomed as they were to playing fast and loose, they
opined that, so far as Urbino was concerned, enough changes of government
had they contrived there already.  Vitelli pointed out the unseemliness
of once again deposing Guidobaldo, whom they had just reseated upon his
throne.  Besides, he perceived in the treaty the end of his hopes of a
descent upon Florence, which was the cause of all his labours.  So he
rejected it.

But Valentinois had already got the Orsini and Pandolfo Petrucci on his
side, and so the confederacy was divided.  Another factor came to
befriend the duke.  On November 2 he was visited by Antonio Galeazzo
Bentivogli, sent by his father Giovanni to propose a treaty with him--
this state of affairs having been brought about by the mediation of
Ercole d'Este.  From the negotiations that followed it resulted that, on
the 13th, the Orsini had word from Cesare that he had entered into an
alliance with the Bentivogli--which definitely removed their main
objection to bearing arms with him.

It was resigning much on Cesare's part, but the treaty, after all, was
only for two years, and might, of course, be broken before then, as they
understood these matters.  This treaty was signed at the Vatican on the
23rd, between Borgia and Bentivogli, to guarantee the States of both. 
The King of France, the Signory of Florence, and the Duke of Ferrara
guaranteed the alliance.

Inter alia, it was agreed between them that Bologna should supply Cesare
with 100 lances and 200 light horse for one or two enterprises within the
year, and that the condotta of 100 lances which Cesare held from Bologna
by the last treaty should be renewed.  The terms of the treaty were to be
kept utterly secret for the next three months, so that the affairs of
Urbino and Camerino should not be prejudiced by their publication.

The result was instantaneous.  On November 27 Paolo Orsini was back at
Imola with the other treaty, which bore now the signatures of all the
confederates.  Vitelli, finding himself isolated, had swallowed his
chagrin in the matter of Florence, and his scruples in the matter of
Urbino, abandoning the unfortunate Guidobaldo to his fate.  This came
swiftly.  From Imola, Paolo Orsini rode to Fano on the 29th, and ordered
his men to advance upon Urbino and seize the city in the Duke of
Valentinois's name, proclaiming a pardon for all rebels who would be

Guidobaldo and the ill-starred Lord of Faenza were the two exceptions in
Romagna--the only two who had known how to win the affections of their
subjects.  For Guidobaldo there was nothing that the men of Urbino would
not have done.  They rallied to him now, and the women of Valbone--like
the ladies of England to save Coeur-de-Lion--came with their jewels and
trinkets, offering them that he might have the means to levy troops and
resist.  But this gentle, kindly Guidobaldo could not subject his country
to further ravages of war; and so he determined, in his subjects'
interests as much as in his own, to depart for the second time.

Early in December the Orsini troops are in his territory, and Paolo,
halting them a few miles out of Urbino, sends to beg Guidobaldo's
attendance in his camp.  Guidobaldo, crippled by gout and unable at the
time to walk a step, sends Paolo his excuses and begs that he will come
to Urbino, where he awaits him.  There Guidobaldo makes formal surrender
to him, takes leave of his faithful friends, enjoins fidelity to
Valentinois and trust in God, and so on December 19 he departs into
exile, the one pathetic noble figure amid so many ignoble ones.  Paolo,
taking possession of the duchy, assumes the title of governor.

The Florentines had had their chance of an alliance with Cesare, and had
deliberately neglected it.  Early in November they had received letters
from the King of France urging them to come to an accord with Cesare, and
they had made known to the duke that they desired to reoccupy Pisa and to
assure themselves of Vitelli; but, when he pressed that Florence should
give him a condotta, Macchiavelli--following his instructions not to
commit the Republic in any way--had answered "that his Excellency must
not be considered as other lords, but as a new potentate in Italy, with
whom it is more seemly to make an alliance or a friendship than to grant
him a condotta; and, as alliances are maintained by arms, and that is the
only power to compel their observance, the Signory could not perceive
what security they would have when three-quarters or three-fifths of
their arms would be in the duke's hands."  Macchiavelli added
diplomatically that "he did not say this to impugn the duke's good faith,
but to show him that princes should be circumspect and never enter into
anything that leaves a possibility of their being put at a

1  See the twenty-first letter from Macchiavelli on this legation.

Cesare answered him calmly ("senza segno d'alterazione alcuna") that
without a condotta, he didn't know what to make of a private friendship
whose first principles were denied him.  And there the matter hung, for
Macchiavelli's legation had for only aim to ensure the immunity of
Tuscany and to safeguard Florentine interests without conceding any
advantages to Cesare--as the latter had perceived from the first.

On December 10 Cesare moved from Imola with his entire army, intent now
upon the conquest of Sinigaglia, which State Giuliano della Rovere had
been unable to save for his nephew, as king and Pope had alike turned a
deaf ear upon the excuses he had sought to make for the Prefetessa,
Giovanna da Montefeltre--the mother of the young prefect--who had aided
her brother Guidobaldo in the late war in Urbino.

On the morrow Valentinois arrived in Cesena and encamped his army there
for Christmas, as in the previous year.  The country was beginning to
feel the effects of this prolonged vast military occupation, and although
the duke, with intent to relieve the people, had done all that was
possible to provision the troops, and had purchased from Venice 30,000
bushels of wheat for the purpose, yet all had been consumed.  "The very
stones have been eaten," says Macchiavelli.

To account for this state of things--and possibly for certain other
matters--Messer Ramiro de Lorqua, the Governor-General, was summoned from
Pesaro; whilst to avert the threatened famine Cesare ordered that the
cereals in the private granaries of Cesena should be sold at reduced
prices, and he further proceeded, at heavy expense, to procure grain from
without.  Another, less far-seeing than Valentinois, might have made
capital out of Urbino's late rebellion, and pillaged the country to
provide for pressing needs.  But that would have been opposed to Cesare's
policy, of fostering the goodwill of the people he subjected.

On December 20 three of the companies of French lances that had been with
Cesare took their leave of him and returned to Lombardy, so that Cesare
was left with only one company.  There appears to be some confusion as to
the reasons for this, and it is stated by some that those companies were
recalled to Milan by the French governor.  Macchiavelli, ever inquisitive
and inquiring, questioned one of the French officers in the matter, to be
told that the lances were returning because the duke no longer needed
them, the inference being that this was in consequence of the return of
the condottieri to their allegiance.  But the astute secretary did not at
the time account this convincing, arguing that the duke could not yet be
said to be secure, nor could he know for certain how far he might trust
Vitelli and the Orsini.  Presumably, however, he afterwards obtained more
certain information, for he says later that Valentinois himself dismissed
the French, and that the dismissal was part of the stratagem he was
preparing, and had for object to reassure Vitelli and the other
confederates, and to throw them off their guard, by causing them to
suppose him indifferently supported.

But the departure of the French did not take place without much
discussion being provoked, and rumour making extremely busy, whilst it
was generally assumed that it would retard the Sinigaglia conquest. 
Nevertheless, the duke calmly pursued his preparations, and proceeded now
to send forward his artillery.  There was no real ground upon which to
assume that he would adopt any other course.  Cesare was now in
considerable strength, apart from French lances, and even as these left
him he was joined by a thousand Swiss, and another six hundred Romagnuoli
from the Val di Lamone.  Moreover, as far as the reduction of Sinigaglia
was concerned, no resistance was to be expected, for Cardinal Giuliano
della Rovere had written enjoining the people to surrender peacefully to
the duke.

What matters Cesare may have found in Cesena to justify the arrest of his
Governor-General we do not know to the full with absolute certainty.  On
December 22 Ramiro de Lorqua, coming from Pesaro in response to his
master's summons, was arrested on his arrival and flung into prison.  His
examination was to follow.

Macchiavelli, reporting the arrest, says: "It is thought he [Cesare] may
sacrifice him to the people, who have a very great desire of it."

Ramiro had made himself detested in Romagna by the ruthlessness of his
rule, and a ruthless servant reflects upon his master, a matter which
could nowise suit Borgia.  To all who have read The Prince it will be
clear that upon that ground alone--of having brought Valentinois's
justice into disrepute by the harshness which in Valentinois's name he
practised--Macchiavelli would have approved the execution of Ramiro.  He
would have accounted it perfectly justifiable that Ramiro should be
sacrificed to the people for no better reason than because he had
provoked their hatred, since this sacrifice made for the duke's welfare. 
He does, as a matter of fact, justify this execution, but upon much
fuller grounds than these.  Still, had the reasons been no better than
are mentioned, he would still have justified it upon those.  So much is
clear; and, when so much is clear, much more will be clear to you
touching this strange epoch.

There was, however, more than a matter of sacrificing the Governor-
General to the hatred of the people.  There was, for one thing, the
matter of that wheat which had disappeared.  Ramiro was charged with
having fraudulently sold it to his own dishonest profit, putting the duke
to the heavy expense of importing fresh supplies for the nourishment of
the people.  The seriousness of the charge will be appreciated when it is
considered that, had a famine resulted from this peculation, grave
disorder might have ensued and perhaps even a rebellion against a
government which could provide no better.

The duke published the news of the governor's arrest throughout Romagna. 
He announced his displeasure and regret at the harshnesses and corrupt
practices of Ramiro de Lorqua, in spite of the most urgent admonishings
that he should refrain from all undue exactions and the threat of grave
punishment should he disobey.  These frauds, corruption, extortion, and
rapine practised by the governor were so grave, continuous and general,
stated the duke in his manifesto, that "there is no city, country-side,
or castle, nor any place in all Romagna, nor officer or minister of the
duke's, who does not know of these abuses; and, amongst others, the
famine of wheat occasioned by the traffic which he held against our
express prohibition, sending out such quantities as would abundantly have
sufficed for the people and the army."

He concludes with assurances of his intention that, in the future, they
shall be ruled with justice and integrity, and he urges all who may have
charges to prefer against the said governor to bring them forward

It was freely rumoured that the charges against Ramiro by no means ended
there, and in Bologna--and from Bologna the truth of such a matter might
well transpire, all things considered--it was openly said that Ramiro had
been in secret treaty with the Bentivogli, Orsini, and Vitelli, against
the Duke of Valentinois: "Aveva provixione da Messer Zoane Bentivogli e
da Orsini e Vitelozo contro el duca," writes Fileno della Tuate, who, it
will be borne in mind, was no friend of the Borgia, and would be at no
pains to find justification for the duke's deeds.

But of that secret treaty there was, for the moment, no official mention. 
Later the rumour of it was to receive the fullest confirmation, and,
together with that, we shall give, in the next chapter, the duke's
obvious reasons for having kept the matter secret at first.  Matter
enough and to spare was there already upon which to dispose of Messer
Ramiro de Lorqua and disposed of he was, with the most summary justice.

On the morning of December 26 the first folk to be astir in Cesena
beheld, in the grey light of that wintry dawn, the body of Ramiro lying
headless in the square.  It was richly dressed, with all his ornaments
upon it, a scarlet cloak about it, and the hands were gloved.  On a pike
beside the body the black-bearded head was set up to view, and so
remained throughout that day, a terrible display of the swift and
pitiless justice of the duke.

Macchiavelli wrote: "The reason of his death is not properly known" ("non
si sa bene la cagione della sua morte") "beyond the fact that such was
the pleasure of the prince, who shows us that he can make and unmake men
according to their deserts."

The Cronica Civitas Faventiae, the Diariurn Caesenate, and the Cronache
Forlivese, all express the people's extreme satisfaction at the deed, and
endorse the charges of brutality against the man which are contained in
Cesare's letter.



Cesare left Cesena very early on the morning of December 26--the morning
of Ramiro's execution--and by the 29th he was at Fano, where he received
the envoys who came from Ancona with protestations of loyalty, as well as
a messenger from Vitellozzo Vitelli, who brought him news of the
surrender of Sinigaglia.  The citadel itself was still being held by
Andrea Doria--the same who was afterwards to become so famous in Genoa;
this, it was stated, was solely because Doria desired to make surrender
to the duke himself.  The Prefectress, Giovanna da Montefeltre, had
already departed from the city, which she ruled as regent for her eleven-
year old boy, and had gone by sea to Venice.

The duke returned answer to Vitelli that he would be in Sinigaglia
himself upon the morrow, and he invited the condottieri to receive him
there, since he was decided to possess himself of the citadel at once,
whether Doria chose to surrender it peacefully or not; and that, to
provide for emergencies, he would bring his artillery with him.  Lastly,
Vitelli was bidden to prepare quarters within the new town for the troops
that would accompany Cesare.  To do this it was necessary to dispose the
soldiers of Oliverotto da Fermo in the borgo.  These were the only troops
with the condottieri in Sinigaglia; the remainder of their forces were
quartered in the strongholds of the territory at distances of from five
to seven miles of the town.

On the last day of that year 1502 Cesare Borgia appeared before
Sinigaglia to receive the homage of those men who had used him so
treacherously, and whom--with the exception of Paolo Orsini--he now met
face to face for the first time since their rebellion.  Here were
Francesco Orsini, Duke of Gravina, with Paolo and the latter's son Fabio;
here was Oliverotto, the ruffianly Lord of Fermo, who had won his
lordship by the cold-blooded murder of his kinsman, and concerning whom a
rumour ran in Rome that Cesare had sworn to choke him with his own hands;
and here was Vitellozzo Vitelli, the arch-traitor of them all.

Gianpaolo Baglioni was absent through illness--a matter less fatal to him
than was their health to those who were present--and the Cardinal and
Giulio Orsini were in Rome.

Were these captains mad to suppose that such a man as Cesare Borgia could
so forget the wrong they had done him, and forgive them in this easy
fashion, exacting no amends?  Were they mad to suppose that, after such
proofs as they had given him of what manner of faith they kept, he would
trust them hereafter with their lives to work further mischief against
him?  (Well might Macchiavelli have marvelled when he beheld the terms of
the treaty the duke had made with them.)  Were they mad to imagine that
one so crafty as Valentinois would so place himself into their hands--the
hands of men who had sworn his ruin and death?  Truly, mad they must have
been--rendered so by the gods who would destroy them.

The tale of that happening is graphically told by the pen of the admiring
Macchiavelli, who names the affair "Il Bellissimo Inganno."  That he so
named it should suffice us and restrain us from criticisms of our own,
accepting that criticism of his.  To us, judged from our modern
standpoint, the affair of Sinigaglia is the last word in treachery and
iscariotism.  But you are here concerned with the standpoint of the
Cinquecento, and that standpoint Macchiavelli gives you when he describes
this business as "the beautiful stratagem."  To offer judgment in despite
of that is to commit a fatuity, which too often already has been

Here, then, is Macchiavelli's story of the event:

On the morning of December 31 Cesare's army, composed of 10,000 foot and
3,000 horse,(1) was drawn up on the banks of the River Metauro--some five
miles from Sinigaglia--in accordance with his orders, awaiting his
arrival.  He came at daybreak, and immediately ordered forward 200 lances
under the command of Don Michele da Corella; he bade the foot to march
after these, and himself brought up the rear with the main body of the

1 This is Macchiavelli's report of the forces; but, it appears to be an
exaggeration, for, upon leaving Cesena, Cesare does not appear to have
commanded more than 10,000 men in all.

In Sinigaglia, as we have seen, the condottieri had only the troops of
Oliverotto--1,000 foot and 150 horse--which had been quartered in the
borgo, and were now drawn up in the market-place, Oliverotto at their
head, to do honour to the duke.

As the horse under Don Michele gained the little river Misa and the
bridge that spanned it, almost directly opposite to the gates of
Sinigaglia, their captain halted them and drew them up into two files,
between which a lane was opened.  Through this the foot went forward and
straight into the town, and after came Cesare himself, a graceful,
youthful figure, resplendent in full armour at the head of his lances. 
To meet him advanced now the three Orsini and Vitellozzo Vitelli. 
Macchiavelli tells us of the latter's uneasiness, of his premonitions of
evil, and the farewells (all of which Macchiavelli had afterwards heard
reported) which he had taken of his family before coming to Sinigaglia. 
Probably these are no more than the stories that grow up about such men
after such an event as that which was about to happen.

The condottieri came unarmed, Vitelli mounted on a mule, wearing a cloak
with a green lining.  In that group he is the only man deserving of any
respect or pity--a victim of his sense of duty to his family, driven to
his rebellion and faithlessness to Valentinois by his consuming desire to
avenge his brother's death upon the Florentines.  The others were poor
creatures, incapable even of keeping faith with one another.  Paolo
Orsini was actually said to be in secret concert with Valentinois since
his mission to him at Imola, and to have accepted heavy bribes from him. 
Oliverotto you have seen at work, making a holocaust of his family and
friends under the base spur of his cupidity; whilst of the absent ones,
Pandolfo Petrucci alone was a man of any steadfastness and honesty.

The duke's reception of them was invested with that gracious friendliness
of which none knew the art better than did he, intent upon showing them
that the past was forgiven and their offences against himself forgotten. 
As they turned and rode with him through the gates of Sinigaglia some of
the duke's gentlemen hemmed them about in the preconcerted manner, lest
even now they should be taken with alarm.  But it was all done
unostentatiously and with every show of friendliness, that no suspicions
should be aroused.

From the group Cesare had missed Oliverotto, and as they now approached
the market-square, where the Tyrant of Fermo sat on his horse at the head
of his troops, Cesare made a sign with his eyes to Don Michele, the
purport of which was plain to the captain.  He rode ahead to suggest to
Ohiverotto that this was no time to have his men under arms and out of
their lodgings, and to point out to him that, if they were not dismissed
they would be in danger of having their quarters snatched from them by
the duke's men, from which trouble might arise.  To this he added that
the duke was expecting his lordship.

Oliverotto, persuaded, gave the order for the dismissal of his troops,
and the duke, coming up at that moment, called to him.  In response he
went to greet him, and fell in thereafter with the others who were riding
with Valentinois.

In amiable conversation with them all, and riding between Vitelli and
Francesco Orsini, the duke passed from the borgo into the town itself,
and so to the palace, where the condottieri disposed to take their leave
of him.  But Cesare was not for parting with them yet; he bade them in
with him, and they perforce must accept his invitation.  Besides, his
mood was so agreeable that surely there could be nought to fear.

But scarce were they inside when his manner changed of a sudden, and at a
sign from him they were instantly overpowered and arrested by those
gentlemen of his own who were of the party and who came to it well
schooled in what they were to do.

Buonaccorsi compiled his diary carefully from the letters of Macchiavelli
to the Ten, in so far as this and other affairs are concerned; and to
Buonaccorsi we must now turn for what immediately follows, which is no
doubt from Macchiavelli's second letter of December 31, in which the full
details of the affair are given.  His first letter no more than briefly
states the happening; the second unfortunately is missing; so that the
above particulars--and some yet to follow--are culled from the relations
which he afterwards penned ("Del modo tenuto," etc.), edited, however, by
the help of his dispatches at the time in regard to the causes which led
to the affair.  Between these and the actual relation there are some
minor discrepancies.  Unquestionably the dispatches are the more
reliable, so that, where such discrepancies occur, the version in the
dispatches has been preferred.

To turn for a moment to Buonaccorsi, he tells us that, as the Florentine
envoy (who was, of course, Macchiavelli) following the Duke of
Valentinois entered the town later, after the arrest of the condottieri,
and found all uproar and confusion, he repaired straight to the palace to
ascertain the truth.  As he approached he met the duke, riding out in
full armour to quell the rioting and restrain his men, who were by now
all out of hand and pillaging the city.  Cesare, perceiving the
secretary, reined in and called him.

"This," he said, "is what I wanted to tell Monsignor di Volterra
[Soderini] when he came to Urbino, but I could not entrust him with the
secret.  Now that my opportunity has come, I have known very well how to
make use of it, and I have done a great service to your masters."

And with that Cesare left him, and, calling his captains about him, rode
down into the town to put an end to the horrors that were being
perpetrated there.

Immediately upon the arrest of the condottieri Cesare had issued orders
to attack the soldiers of Vitelli and Orsini, and to dislodge them from
the castles of the territory where they were quartered, and similarly to
dislodge Oliverotto's men and drive them out of Sinigaglia.  This had
been swiftly accomplished.  But the duke's men were not disposed to leave
matters at that.  Excited by the taste of battle that had been theirs,
they returned to wreak their fury upon the town, and were proceeding to
put it to sack, directing particular attention to the wealthy quarter
occupied by the Venetian merchants, which is said to have been plundered
by them to the extent of some 20,000 ducats.  They would have made an end
of Sinigaglia but for the sudden appearance amongst them of the duke
himself.  He rode through the streets, angrily ordering the pillage to
cease; and, to show how much he was in earnest, with his own hands he cut
down some who were insolent or slow to obey him; thus, before dusk, he
had restored order and quiet.

As for the condottieri, Vitelli and Oliverotto were dealt with that very
night.  There is a story that Oliverotto, seeing that all was lost, drew
a dagger and would have put it through his heart to save himself from
dying at the hands of the hangman.  If it is true, then that was his last
show of spirit.  He turned craven at the end, and protested tearfully to
his judges--for a trial was given them--that the fault of all the wrong
wrought against the duke lay with his brother-in-law, Vitellozzo.  More
wonderful was it that the grim Vitelli's courage also should break down
at the end, and that he should beg that the Pope be implored to grant him
a plenary indulgence and that his answer be awaited.

But at dawn--the night having been consumed in their trial--they were
placed back to back, and so strangled, and their bodies were taken to the
church of the Misericordia Hospital.

The Orsini were not dealt with just yet.  They were kept prisoners, and
Valentinois would go no further until he should have heard from Rome that
Giulio Orsini and the powerful cardinal were also under arrest.  To put
to death at present the men in his power might be to alarm and so lose
the others.  They are right who say that his craft was devilish; but what
else was to be expected of the times?

On the morrow--January 1, 1503--the duke issued dispatches to the Powers
of Italy giving his account of the deed.  It set forth that the Orsini
and their confederates, notwithstanding the pardon accorded them for
their first betrayal and revolt, upon learning of the departure of the
French lances--and concluding that the duke was thereby weakened, and
left with only a few followers of no account--had plotted a fresh and
still greater treachery.  Under pretence of assisting him in the taking
of Sinigaglia, whither it was known that he was going, they had assembled
there in their full strength, but displaying only one-third of it, and
concealing the remainder in the castles of the surrounding country.  They
had then agreed with the castellan of Sinigaglia, that on that night they
should attack him on every side of the new town, which, being small,
could contain, as they knew, but few of his people.  This treachery
coming to his knowledge, he had been able to forestall it, and, entering
Sinigaglia with all his troops, he had seized the traitors and taken the
forces of Oliverotto by surprise.  He concluded by exhorting all to
render thanks unto God that an end was set to the many calamities
suffered in Italy in consequence of those malignant ones.(1)

1  See this letter in the documents appended to Alvisi's Cesare Borgia,
document 76.

For once Cesare Borgia is heard giving his own side of an affair.  But
are the particulars of his version true?  Who shall say positively?  His
statement is not by any means contrary to the known facts, although it
sets upon them an explanation rather different to that afforded us by
Macchiavelli.  But it is to be remembered that, after all, Macchiavelli
had to fall back upon the inferences which he drew from what he beheld,
and that there is no scrap of evidence directly to refute any one of
Cesare's statements.  There is even confirmation of the statement that
the condottieri conceived that he was weakened by the departure of the
French lances and left with only a few followers of no account.  For
Macchiavelli himself dwells upon the artifice with which Cesare broke up
his forces and disposed of them in comparatively small numbers here and
there to the end that his full strength should remain concealed; and he
admires the strategy of that proceeding.

Certainly the duke's narrative tends to increase his justification for
acting as he did.  But at best it can only increase it, for the actual
justification was always there, and by the light of his epoch it is
difficult to see how he should be blamed.  These men had openly sworn to
have his life, and from what has been seen of them there is little reason
to suppose they would not have kept their word had they but been given
the opportunity.

In connection with Cesare's version, it is well to go back for a moment
to the execution of Ramiro de Lorqua, and to recall the alleged secret
motives that led to it.  Macchiavelli himself was not satisfied that all
was disclosed, and that the governor's harshness and dishonesty had been
the sole causes of the justice done upon him.  "The reason of his death
is not properly known," wrote the Florentine secretary.  Another envoy of
that day would have filled his dispatches with the rumours that were
current, with the matters that were being whispered at street corners. 
But Macchiavelli's habit was to disregard rumours as a rule, knowing
their danger--a circumstance which renders his evidence the most valuable
which we possess.

It is perhaps permissible to ask: What dark secrets had the torture of
the cord drawn from Messer Ramiro?  Had these informed the duke of the
true state of affairs at Sinigaglia, and had the knowledge brought him
straight from Cesena to deal with the matter?

There is justification for these questions, inasmuch as on January 4 the
Pope related to Giustiniani--for which see his dispatches--that Ramiro de
Lorqua, being sentenced to death, stated that he desired to inform the
duke of certain matters, and informed him that he had concerted with the
Orsini to give the latter the territory of Cesena; but that, as this
could not now be done, in consequence of Cesare's treaty with the
condottieri, Vitelli had arranged to kill the duke, in which design he
had the concurrence of Oliverotto.  They had planned that a crossbow-man
should shoot the duke as he rode into Sinigaglia, in consequence of which
the duke took great care of himself and never put off his armour until
the affair was over.  Vitellozzo, the Pope said, had confessed before he
died that all that Ramiro had told the duke was true, and at the
Consistory of January 6, when the Sacred College begged for the release
of the old Cardinal Orsini--who had been taken with the Archbishop of
Florence, Giacomo di Santacroce, and Gianbattista da Virginio--the Pope
answered by informing the cardinals of this plot against the duke's life.

These statements by Cesare and his father are perfectly consistent with
each other and with the events.  Yet, for want of independent
confirmation, they are not to be insisted upon as affording the true
version--as, of course, the Pope may have urged what he did as a pretext
to justify what was yet to follow.

It is readily conceivable that Ramiro, under torture, or in the hope
perhaps of saving his life, may have betrayed the alleged plot to murder
Cesare.  And it is perfectly consistent with Cesare's character and with
his age that he should have entered into a bargain to learn what Ramiro
might have to disclose, and then have repudiated it and given him to the
executioner.  If Cesare, under such circumstances as these, had learnt
what was contemplated, he would very naturally have kept silent on the
score of it until he had dealt with the condottieri.  To do otherwise
might be to forewarn them.  He was, as Macchiavelli says, a secret man,
and the more dangerous for his closeness, since he never let it be known
what he intended until he had executed his designs.

Guicciardini, of course, has called the Sinigaglia affair a villainy
("scelleragine") whilst Fabio Orsini and a nephew of Vitelli's who
escaped from Sinigaglia and arrived two days later at Perugia, sought to
engage sympathy by means of an extraordinary tale, so alien to all the
facts--apart from their obvious reasons to lie and provoke resentment
against Cesare--as not to be worth citing.



Andrea Doria did not remain to make formal surrender of the citadel of
Sinigaglia to the duke--for which purpose, be it borne in mind, had
Cesare been invited, indirectly, to come to Sinigaglia.  He fled during
the night that saw Vitelli and Oliverotto writhing their last in the
strangler's hands.  And his flight adds colour to the versions of the
affair that were afforded the world by Cesare and his father.  Andrea
Doria, waiting to surrender his trust, had nothing to fear from the duke,
no reason to do anything but remain.  Andrea Doria, intriguing against
the duke's life with the condottieri, finding them seized by the duke,
and inferring that all was discovered, had every reason to fly.

The citadel made surrender on that New Year's morning, when Cesare
summoned it to do so, whilst the troops of the Orsini and Vitelli lodged
in the castles of the territory, being taken unawares, were speedily
disposed of.  So, there being nothing more left to do in Sinigaglia,
Cesare once more marshalled his men and set out for Città di Castello--
the tyranny of the Vitelli, which he found undefended and of which he
took possession in the name of the Church.  Thence he rushed on towards
Perugia, for he had word that Guidobaldo of Urbino, Fabio Orsini,
Annibale and Venanzio Varano, and Vitelli's nephew were assembled there
under the wing of Gianpaolo Baglioni, who, with a considerable condotta
at his back, was making big talk of resisting the Duke of Romagna and
Valentinois.  In this, Gianpaolo persevered most bravely until he had
news that the duke was as near as Gualdo, when precipitately he fled--
leaving his guests to shift for themselves.  He had remembered, perhaps,
at the last moment how narrow an escape he had had of it at Sinigaglia,
and he repaired to Siena to join Pandolfo Petrucci, who had been equally
fortunate in that connection.

To meet the advancing and irresistible duke came ambassadors from Perugia
with smooth words of welcome, the offer of the city, and their thanks for
his having delivered them of the tyrants that oppressed them; and there
is not the slightest cause to suppose that this was mere sycophancy, for
a more bloody, murderous crew than these Baglioni--whose feuds not only
with the rival family of the Oddi, but among their very selves, had more
than once embrued the walls of that city in the hills--it would be
difficult to find in Italy, or anywhere in Europe.  The history of the
Baglioni is one record of slaughter.  Under their rule in Perugia human
blood seems commonly to have flowed anywhere more freely than in human
veins.  It is no matter for wonder that the people sent their ambassador
to thank Cesare for having delivered them from the yoke that had
oppressed them.

Perugia having rendered him her oath of fealty, the duke left her his
secretary, Agabito Gherardi, as his commissioner, whilst sending Vincenzo
Calmeta to Fermo--Oliverotto's tyranny--another State which was very
fervent in the thanks it expressed for this deliverance.

Scarcely was Cesare gone from Perugia when into the hands of his people
fell the person of the Lady Panthasilea Baglioni d'Alviano--the wife of
the famous Venetian condottiero Bartolomeo d'Alviano--and they, aware of
the feelings prevailing between their lord and the Government of Venice,
bethought them that here was a valuable hostage.  So they shut her up in
the Castle of Todi, together with her children and the women who had been
with her when she was taken.

As in the case of Dorotea Caracciolo, the rumour is instantly put about
that it was Cesare who had seized her, that he had taken her to his camp,
and that this poor woman had fallen a prey to that lustful monster.  So--
and in some such words--ran the story, and such a hold did it take upon
folks' credulity that we see Piero di Bibieno before the Council of Ten,
laying a more or less formal charge against the duke in rather broader
terms than are here set down.  So much, few of those who have repeated
his story omit to tell you.  But for some reason, not obviously apparent,
they do not think it worth while to add that the Doge himself--better
informed, it is clear, for he speaks with finality in the matter--
reproved him by denying the rumour and definitely stating that it was not
true, as you may read in the Diary of Marino Sanuto.  That same diary
shows you the husband--a person of great consequence in Venice--before
the Council, clamouring for the enlargement of his lady; yet never once
does he mention the name of Valentinois.  The Council of Ten sends an
envoy to wait upon the Pope; and the Pope expresses his profound regret
and his esteem for Alviano, and informs the envoy that he is writing to
Valentinois to demand her instant release--in fact, shows the envoy the

To that same letter the duke replied on January 29 that he had known
nothing of the matter until this communication reached him; that he has
since ascertained that the lady was indeed captured and that she has
since been detained in the Castle of Todi with all the consideration due
to her rank; and that, immediately upon ascertaining this he had
commanded that she should be set at liberty, which was done.

And so the Lady Panthasilea returned unharmed to her husband.

In Assisi Cesare received the Florentine ambassador Salviati, who came to
congratulate the duke upon the affair of Sinigaglia and to replace
Macchiavelli--the latter having been ordered home again.  Congratulations
indeed were addressed to him by all those Powers that had received his
official intimation of the event.  Amongst these were the felicitations
of the beautiful and accomplished Isabella d'Este, Marchioness of
Gonzaga--whose relations with him were ever of the friendliest, even when
Faenza by its bravery evoked her pity--and with these she sent him, for
the coming carnival, a present of a hundred masks of rare variety and
singular beauty, because she opined that "after the fatigues he had
suffered in these glorious enterprises, he would desire to contrive for
some recreation."

Here in Assisi, too, he received the Siennese envoys who came to wait
upon him, and he demanded that, out of respect for the King of France,
they should drive out Pandolfo Petrucci from Siena.  For, to use his own
words, "having deprived his enemies of their weapons, he would now
deprive them of their brain," by which he paid Petrucci the compliment of
accounting him the "brain" of all that had been attempted against him. 
To show the Siennese how much he was in earnest, he leaves all baggage
and stores at Assisi, and, unhampered, makes one of his sudden swoops
towards Siena, pausing on January 13 at Castel della Pieve to publish, at
last, his treaty with Bentivogli.  The latter being now sincere, no doubt
out of fear of the consequences of further insincerity, at once sends
Cesare 30 lances and 100 arbalisters under the command of Antonio della

It was there in Assisi, on the morning of striking his camp again, that
Cesare completed the work that had been begun at Sinigaglia by having
Paolo Orsini and the Duke of Gravina strangled.  There was no cause to
delay the matter longer.  He had word from Rome of the capture of
Cardinal Orsini, of Gianbattista da Virginio, of Giacomo di Santacroce,
and Rinaldo Orsini, Archbishop of Florence.

On January 27, Pandolfo Petrucci being still in Siena, and Cesare's
patience exhausted, he issued an ultimatum from his camp at Sartiano in
which he declared that if, within twenty-four hours, Petrucci had not
been expelled from the city, he would loose his soldiers upon Siena to
devastate the territory, and would treat every inhabitant "as a Pandolfo
and an enemy."

Siena judged it well to bow before that threatening command, and Cesare,
seeing himself obeyed, was free to depart to Rome, whither the Pope had
recalled him and where work awaited him.  He was required to make an end
of the resistance of the barons, a task which had been entrusted to his
brother Giuffredo, but which the latter had been unable to carry out.

In this matter Cesare and his father are said to have violently
disagreed, and it is reported that high words flew between them; for
Cesare--who looked ahead and had his own future to consider, which should
extend beyond the lifetime of Alexander VI--would not move against Silvio
Savelli in Palombara, nor Gian Giordano in Bracciano, alleging, as his
reason for the latter forbearance, that Gian Giordano, being a knight of
St. Michael like himself, he was inhibited by the terms of that
knighthood from levying war upon him.  To that he adhered, whilst
disposing, however, to lay siege to Ceri, where Giulio and Giovanni
Orsini had taken refuge.

In the meantime, the Cardinal Gianbattista Orsini had breathed his last
in the Castle of Sant' Angelo.

Soderini had written ironically to Florence on February 15: "Cardinal
Orsini, in prison, shows signs of frenzy.  I leave your Sublimities to
conclude, in your wisdom, the judgment that is formed of such an

It was not, however, until a week later--on February 22--that he
succumbed, when the cry of "Poison!" grew so loud and general that the
Pope ordered the cardinal's body to be carried on a bier with the face
exposed, that all the world might see its calm and the absence of such
stains as were believed usually to accompany venenation.

Nevertheless, the opinion spread that he had been poisoned--and the
poisoning of Cardinal Orsini has been included in the long list of the
Crimes of the Borgias with which we have been entertained.  That the
rumour should have spread is not in the least wonderful, considering in
what bad odour were the Orsini at the Vatican just then, and--be it
remembered--what provocation they had given.  Although Valentinois dubbed
Pandolfo Petrucci the "brain" of the conspiracy against him, the real
guiding spirit, there can be little doubt, was this Cardinal Orsini, in
whose stronghold at Magione the diet had met to plot Valentinois's ruin--
the ruin of the Gonfalonier of the Church, and the fresh alienation from
the Holy See of the tyrannies which it claimed for its own, and which at
great cost had been recovered to it.

Against the Pope, considered as a temporal ruler, that was treason in the
highest degree, and punishable by death; and, assuming that Alexander did
cause the death of Cardinal Orsini, the only just censure that could fall
upon him for the deed concerns the means employed.  Yet even against that
it might be urged that thus was the dignity of the purple saved the
dishonouring touch of the hangman's hands.

Some six weeks later--on April 10--died Giovanni Michieli, Cardinal of
Sant' Angelo, and Giustiniani, the Venetian ambassador, wrote to his
Government that the cardinal had been ill for only two days, and that his
illness had been attended by violent sickness.  This--and the reticence
of it--was no doubt intended to arouse the suspicion that the cardinal
had been poisoned.  Giustiniani adds that Michieli's house was stripped
that very night by the Pope, who profited thereby to the extent of some
150,000 ducats, besides plate and other valuables; and this was intended
to show an indecent eagerness on the Pope's part to possess himself of
that which by the cardinal's death he inherited, whereas, in truth, the
measure would be one of wise precaution against the customary danger of
pillage by the mob.

But in March of the year 1504, under the pontificate of Julius II
(Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere) a subdeacon, named Asquino de Colloredo,
was arrested for defaming the dead cardinal ("interfector bone memorie
Cardinalis S. Angeli").(1)  What other suspicions were entertained
against him, what other revelations it was hoped to extract from him,
cannot be said; but Asquino was put to the question, to the usual
accompaniment of the torture of the cord, and under this he confessed
that he had poisoned Cardinal Michieli, constrained to it by Pope
Alexander VI and the Duke of Valentinois, against his will and without
reward ("verumtamen non voluisse et pecunias non habuisse").

1  Burchard's Diarium, March 6, 1504.

Now if Asquino defamed the memory of Cardinal Michieli it seems to follow
naturally that he had hated the cardinal; and, if we know that he hated
him, we need not marvel that, out of that hatred, he poisoned him.  But
something must have been suspected as a motive for his arrest in addition
to the slanders he was uttering, otherwise how came the questions put to
him to be directed so as to wring from him the confession that he had
poisoned the cardinal?  If you choose to believe his further statement
that he was constrained to it by Pope Alexander and the Duke of
Valentinois, you are, of course, at liberty to do so.  But you will do
well first to determine precisely what degree of credit such a man might
be worth when seeking to extenuate a fault admitted under pressure of the
torture--and offering the extenuation likeliest to gain him the favour of
the della Rovere Pope, whose life's task--as we shall see--was the
defamation of the hated Borgias.  You will also do well closely to
examine the last part of his confession--that he was constrained to it
"against his will and without reward."  Would the deed have been so very
much against the will of one who went about publishing his hatred of the
dead cardinal by the slanders he emitted?

Upon such evidence as that the accusation of the Pope's murder of
Cardinal Michieli has been definitely established--and it must be
admitted that it is, if anything, rather more evidence than is usually
forthcoming of the vampirism and atrocities alleged against him.

Giustiniani, writing to his Government in the spring of 1503, informs the
Council of Ten that it is the Pope's way to fatten his cardinals before
disposing of them--that is to say, enriching them before poisoning them,
that he may inherit their possessions.  It was a wild and sweeping
statement, dictated by political animus, and it has since grown to
proportions more monstrous than the original.  You may read usque ad
nauseam of the Pope and Cesare's constant practice of poisoning cardinals
who had grown rich, for the purpose of seizing their possessions, and you
are very naturally filled with horror at so much and such abominable
turpitude.  In this matter, assertion--coupled with whorling periods of
vituperation--have ever been considered by the accusers all that was
necessary to establish the accusations.  It has never, for instance, been
considered necessary to cite the names of the cardinals composing that
regiment of victims.  That, of course, would be to challenge easy
refutation of the wholesale charge; and refutation is not desired by
those who prefer the sensational manner.

The omission may, in part at least, be repaired by giving a list of the
cardinals who died during the eleven years of the pontificate of
Alexander VI.  Those deaths, in eleven years, number twenty-one--
representing, incidentally, a percentage that compares favourably with
any other eleven years of any other pontificate or pontificates.  They

     Ardicino della Porta     .     .     In 1493, at Rome
     Giovanni de'Conti  .     .     .     In 1493, at Rome
     Domenico della Rovere    .     .     In 1494, at Rome
     Gonzalo de Mendoza .     .     .     In 1495, in Spain
     Louis André d'Epinay     .     .     In 1495, in France
     Gian Giacomo Sclafetano  .     .     In 1496, at Rome
     Bernardino di Lunati     .     .     In 1497, at Rome
     Paolo Fregosi.     .     .     .     In 1498, at Rome
     Gianbattista Savelli     .     .     In 1498, at Rome
     Giovanni della Grolaye   .     .     In 1499, at Rome
     Giovanni Borgia    .     .     .     In 1500, at Fossombrone
     Bartolomeo Martini .     .     .     In 1500, at Rome
     John Morton  .     .     .     .     In 1500, in England
     Battista Zeno.     .     .     .     In 1501, at Rome
     Juan Lopez   .     .     .     .     In 1501, at Rome
     Gianbattista Ferrari     .     .     In 1502, at Rome
     Hurtado de Mendoza .     .     .     In 1502, in Spain
     Gianbattista Orsini.     .     .     In 1503, at Rome
     Giovanni Michieli  .     .     .     In 1503, at Rome
     Giovanni Borgia (Seniore).     .     In 1503, at Rome
     Federico Casimir   .     .     .     In 1503, in Poland

Now, search as you will, not only such contemporary records as diaries,
chronicles, and dispatches from ambassadors in Rome during that period of
eleven years but also subsequent writings compiled from them, and you
shall find no breath of scandal attaching to the death of seventeen of
those cardinals, no suggestion that they died other than natural deaths.

Four remain: Cardinals Giovanni Borgia (Giuniore), Gianbattista Ferrari
(Cardinal of Modena), Gianbattista Orsini, and Giovanni Michieli, all of
whom the Pope and Cesare have, more or less persistently, been accused of

Giovanni Borgia's death at Fossombrone has been dealt with at length in
its proper place, and it has been shown how utterly malicious and
groundless was the accusation.

Giovanni Michieli's is the case that has just been reviewed, and touching
which you may form your own conclusions.

Gianbattista Orsini's also has been examined.  It rests upon rumour; but
even if that rumour be true, it is unfair to consider the deed in any but
the light of a political execution.

There remains the case of the Cardinal of Modena, a man who had amassed
enormous wealth in the most questionable manner, and who was universally
execrated.  The epigrams upon his death, in the form of epitaphs, dealt
most terribly with "his ignominious memory"--as Burchard has it.  Of
these the Master of Ceremonies collected upwards of a score, which he
gives in his Diarium.  Let one suffice here as a fair example of the
rest, the one that has it that the earth has the cardinal's body, the
bull (i.e. the Borgia) his wealth, and hell his soul.

     "Hac Janus Baptista jacet Ferrarius urna,
     Terra habuit corpus, Bos bona, Styx animam."

The only absolutely contemporary suggestion of his having been poisoned
emanated from the pen of that same Giustiniani.  He wrote to the Venetian
Senate to announce the cardinal's death on July 20.  In his letter he
relates how his benefices were immediately distributed, and how the
lion's share fell to the cardinal's secretary, Sebastiano Pinzone, and
that it was said ("é fama") that this man had received them as the price
of blood ("in premium sanguinis"), "since it is held, from many evident
signs, that the cardinal died from poison" ("ex veneno").

Already on the 11th he had written: "The Cardinal of Modena lies ill,
with little hope of recovery.  Poison is suspected" ("si dubita di

That was penned on the eighth day of the cardinal's sickness, for he was
taken ill on the 3rd--as Burchard shows.  Burchard, further, lays before
us the whole course of the illness; tells us how, from the beginning, the
cardinal refused to be bled or to take medicine of any kind, tells us
explicitly and positively that the cardinal was suffering from a certain
fever--so prevalent and deadly in Rome during the months of July and
August; he informs us that, on the 11th (the day on which Giustiniani
wrote the above-cited dispatch), the fever abated, to return on the 16th. 
He was attended (Burchard continues) by many able physicians, who strove
to induce him to take their medicines; but he refused persistently until
the following day, when he accepted a small proportion of the doses
proposed.  On July 20--after an illness of seventeen days--he finally

Those entries in the diary of the Master of Ceremonies constitute an
incontrovertible document, an irrefutable testimony against the charges
of poisoning when taken in conjunction with the evidence of fact afforded
by the length of the illness.

It is true that, under date of November 20, 1504 (under the pontificate
of Julius II), there is the following entry:

"Sentence was pronounced in the 'Ruota' against Sebastiano Pinzone,
apostolic scribe, contumaciously absent, and he was deprived of all
benefices and offices in that he had caused the death of the Cardinal of
Modena, his patron, who had raised him from the dust."

But not even that can shake the conviction that must leap to every honest
mind from following the entries in the diary contemporary with the
cardinal's decease.  They are too circumstantial and conclusive to be
overthrown by this recorded sentence of the Ruota two years later against
a man who was not even present to defend himself.  Besides, it is
necessary to discriminate.  Burchard is not stating opinions of his own
when he writes "in that he caused the death of the Cardinal of Modena,"
etc.; he is simply--and obviously--recording the finding of the Tribunal
of the Ruota, without comment of his own.  Lastly, it is as well to
observe that in that verdict against Pinzone--of doubtful justice as it
is--there is no mention made of the Borgias.

The proceedings instituted against Sebastiano Pinzone were of a piece
with those instituted against Asquino de Colloredo and others yet to be
considered; they were set on foot by Giuliano della Rovere--that
implacable enemy of the House of Borgia--when he became Pope, for the
purpose of heaping ignominy upon the family of his predecessor.  But that
shall be further dealt with presently.

Another instance of the unceasing growth of Borgia history is afforded in
connection with this Sebastiano Pinzone by Dr. Jacob Burckhardt (in Der
Cultur der Renaissance in Italien) who, in the course of the usual
sweeping diatribe against Cesare, mentions "Michele da Corella, his
strangler, and Sebastiano Pinzone, his poisoner."  It is an amazing
statement; for, whilst obviously leaning upon Giustiniani's dispatch for
the presumption that Pinzone was a poisoner at all, he ignores the
statement contained in it that Pinzone was the secretary and favourite of
Cardinal Ferrari, nor troubles to ascertain that the man was never in
Cesare Borgia's service at all, nor is ever once mentioned anywhere as
connected in any capacity whatever with the duke.  Dr. Burckhardt felt,
no doubt, the necessity of linking Pinzone to the Borgias, that the
alleged guilt of the former may recoil upon the latter, and so he
accomplished it in this facile and irresponsible manner.

Now, notwithstanding the full and circumstantial evidence afforded by
Burchard's Diarium of the Cardinal of Modena's death of a tertian fever,
the German scholar Gregorovius does not hesitate to write of this
cardinal's death: "It is certain that it was due to their [the Borgias']
infallible white powders."

Oh the art of writing history in sweeping statements to support a
preconceived point of view!  Oh that white powder of the Borgias!

Giovio tells us all about it.  Cantarella, he calls it--Cantharides.  Why
Cantarella?  Possibly because it is a pleasing, mellifluous word that
will help a sentence hang together smoothly; possibly because the
notorious aphrodisiac properties of that drug suggested it to Giovio as
just the poison to be kept handy by folk addicted to the pursuits which
he and others attribute to the Borgias.  Can you surmise any better
reason?  For observe that Giovio describes the Cantarella for you--a
blunder of his which gives the lie to his statement.  "A white powder of
a faint and not unpleasing savour," says he; and that, as you know, is
nothing like cantharides, which is green, intensely acrid, and burning. 
Yet who cares for such discrepancies?  Who will ever question anything
that is uttered against a Borgia?  "Cantarella--a white powder of a faint
and not unpleasing savour," answers excellently the steady purpose of
supporting a defamation and pandering to the tastes of those who like
sensations in their reading--and so, from pen to pen, from book to book
it leaps, as unchallenged as it is impossible.

Whilst Cesare's troops were engaged in laying siege to Ceri, and, by
engines contrived by Leonardo da Vinci, pressing the defenders so sorely
that at the end of a month's resistance they surrendered with safe-
conduct, the inimical and ever-jealous Venetians in the north were
stirring up what trouble they could.  Chafing under the restraint of
France, they but sought a pretext that should justify them in the eyes of
Louis for making war upon Cesare, and when presently envoys came to lay
before the Pope the grievance of the Republic at the pillage by Borgian
soldiery of the Venetian traders in Sinigaglia, Cesare had no delusions
concerning their disposition towards himself.

Growing uneasy lest they should make this a reason for assailing his
frontiers, he sent orders north recommending vigilance and instructing
his officers to deal severely with all enemies of his State, whilst he
proceeded to complete the provisions for the government of the Romagna. 
To replace the Governor-General he appointed four seneschals: Cristoforo
della Torre for Forli, Faenza and Imola; Hieronimo Bonadies for Cesena,
Rimini, and Pesaro; Andrea Cossa for Fano, Sinigaglia, Fossombrone, and
Pergola; and Pedro Ramires for the duchy of Urbino.  This last was to
find a deal of work for his hands; for Urbino was not yet submissive,
Majolo and S. Leo still holding for Guidobaldo.

Ramires began by reducing Majolo, and then proceeded to lay siege to S.
Leo.  But the Castellan--one Lattanzio--encouraged by the assurances
given him that the Venetians would render Guidobaldo assistance to
reconquer his dominions, resisted stubbornly, and was not brought to
surrender until the end of June, after having held the castle for six

If Venice was jealous and hostile in the north, Florence was scarcely
less so in mid-Italy--though perhaps with rather more justification, for
Cesare's growing power and boundless ambition kept the latter Republic in
perpetual fear of being absorbed into his dominions--into that kingdom
which it was his ultimate aim to found.  There can be little doubt that
Francesco da Narni, who appeared in Tuscany early in the March of that
year, coming from the French Court for the purpose of arranging a league
of Florence, Bologna, Siena, and Lucca--the four States more or less
under French protection--had been besought by Florence, to the obvious
end that these four States, united, might inter-defend themselves against
Valentinois.  And Florence even went so far as to avail herself of this
to the extent of restoring Pandolfo Petrucci to the lordship of Siena--
preferring even this avowed enemy to the fearful Valentinois.  Thus came
about Petrucci's restoration towards the end of March, despite the fact
that the Siennese were divided on the subject of his return.

With the single exception of Camerino, where disturbances still
continued, all was quiet in the States of the Church by that summer of

This desirable state of things had been achieved by Cesare's wise and
liberal government, which also sufficed to ensure its continuance.

He had successfully combated the threatened famine by importing grain
from Sicily.  To Sinigaglia--his latest conquest--he had accorded, as to
the other subjected States, the privilege of appointing her own native
officials, with, of course, the exception of the Podestà (who never could
be a native of any place where he dispensed justice) and the Castellan. 
In Cesena a liberal justice was measured out by the Tribunal of the
Ruota, which Cesare had instituted there, equipping it with the best
jurisconsults of the Romagna.

In Rome he proceeded to a military organization on a new basis, and with
a thoroughness never before seen in Italy--or elsewhere, for that matter
--but which was thereafter the example all sought to copy.  We have seen
him issuing an edict that every house in the Romagna should furnish him
one man-at-arms to serve him when necessary.  The men so levied were
under obligation to repair to the market-place of their native town when
summoned thither by the ringing of the bells, and it was estimated that
this method of conscription would yield him six or seven thousand men,
who could be mobilized in a couple of days.  He increased the number of
arquebusiers, appreciating the power and value of a weapon which--
although invented nearly a century earlier--was still regarded with
suspicion.  He was also the inventor of the military uniform, putting his
soldiers into a livery of his own, and causing his men-at-arms to wear
over their armour a smock, quartered red and yellow with the name CESARE
lettered on the breast and back, whilst the gentlemen of his guard wore
surcoats of his colours in gold brocade and crimson velvet.

He continued to levy troops and to arm them, and it is scarcely over-
stating the case to say that hardly a tyrant of the Romagna would have
dared to do so much for fear of the weapons being turned against himself. 
Cesare knew no such fear.  He enjoyed a loyalty from the people he had
subjected which was almost unprecedented in Italy.  The very officers he
placed in command of the troops of his levying were, for the most part,
natives of the Romagna.  Is there no inference concerning him to be drawn
from that!

For every man in his service Cesare ordered a back-and-breast and
headpiece of steel, and the armourers' shops of Brescia rang busily that
summer with the clang of metal upon metal, as that defensive armour for
Cesare's troops was being forged.  At the same time the foundries were
turning out fresh cannon in that season which saw Cesare at the very
height and zenith of his power, although he himself may not have
accounted that, as yet, he was further than at the beginning.

But the catastrophe that was to hurl him irretrievably from the eminence
to which in three short years he had climbed was approaching with
stealthy, relentless foot, and was even now upon him.



"Cesar Borgia che era della gente Per armi e per virtú tenuto un sole,
Mancar dovendo andó dove andar sole Phebo, verso la sera, al Occidente.

Girolamo Casio--Epitaffi."



Unfortunate Naples was a battle-field once more.  France and Spain were
engaged there in a war whose details belong elsewhere.

To the aid of France, which was hard beset and with whose arms things
were going none too well, Cesare was summoned to fulfil the obligations
under which he was placed by virtue of his treaty with King Louis.

Rumours were rife that he was negotiating secretly with Gonzalo de
Cordoba, the Great Captain, and the truth of whether or not he was guilty
of so base a treachery has never been discovered.  These rumours had been
abroad since May, and, if not arising out of, they were certainly
stimulated by, an edict published by Valentinois concerning the papal
chamberlain, Francesco Troche.  In this edict Cesare enjoined all
subjects of the Holy See to arrest, wherever found, this man who had fled
from Rome, and whose flight "was concerned with something against the
honour of the King of France."

Francesco Troche had been Alexander's confidential chamberlain and
secretary; he had been a diligent servant of the House of Borgia, and
when in France had acted as a spy for Valentinois, keeping the duke
supplied with valuable information at a critical time, as we have seen.

Villari says of him that he was "one of the Borgias' most trusted
assassins."  That he has never been so much as alleged to have murdered
anyone does not signify.  He was a servant--a trusted servant--of the
Borgias; therefore the title of "assassin" is, ipso facto, to be bestowed
upon him.

The flight of a man holding such an intimate position as Troche's was
naturally a subject of much speculation and gossip, but a matter upon
which there was no knowledge.  Valentinois was ever secret.  In common
with his father--though hardly in so marked a degree, and if we except
the case of the scurrilous Letter to Silvio Savelli--he showed a
contemptuous indifference to public opinion on the whole which is
invested almost with a certain greatness.  At least it is rarely other
than with greatness that we find such an indifference associated.  It was
not for him to take the world into his confidence in matters with which
the world was not concerned.  Let the scandalmongers draw what inferences
they pleased.  It was a lofty and dignified procedure, but one that was
fraught with peril; and the Borgias have never ceased to pay the price of
that excessive dignity of reserve.  For tongues must be wagging, and,
where knowledge is lacking, speculation will soon usurp its place, and
presently be invested with all the authority of "fact."

Out of surmises touching that matter "which concerned the honour of the
King of France" grew presently--and contradictorily--the rumour that
Troche was gone to betray to France Valentinois's intention of going over
to the Spanish side.  A motive was certainly required to account for
Troche's action; but the invention of motives does not appear ever to
have troubled the Cinquecentist.

It was now said that Troche was enraged at having been omitted from the
list of cardinals to be created at the forthcoming Consistory.  It is all
mystery, even to the end he made; for, whereas some said that, after
being seized on board a ship that was bound for Corsica, Troche in his
despair threw himself overboard and was drowned, others reported that he
was brought back to Rome and strangled in a prison in Trastevere.

The following questions crave answer:

If it was Troche's design to betray such a treachery of the Borgias
against France, what was he doing on board a vessel bound for Corsica a
fortnight after his flight from Rome?  Would not his proper goal have
been the French camp in Naples, which he could have reached in a quarter
of that time, and where not only could he have vented his desire for
vengeance by betraying Alexander and Valentinois, but he could further
have found complete protection from pursuit?

It is idle and unprofitable to dwell further upon the end of Francesco
Troche.  The matter is a complete mystery, and whilst theory is very well
as theory, it is dangerous to cause it to fill the place of fact.

Troche was drowned or was strangled as a consequence of his having fled
out of motives that were "against the honour of the King of France."  And
straightway the rumour spread of Valentinois's intended treachery, and
the rumour was kept alive and swelled by Venice and Florence in pursuit
of their never-ceasing policy of discrediting Cesare with King Louis, to
the end that they might encompass his expedient ruin.

The lie was given to them to no small extent by the Pope, when, in the
Consistory of July 28, he announced Cesare's departure to join the French
army in Naples with five hundred horse and two thousand foot assembled
for the purpose.

For this Cesare made now his preparations, and on the eve of departure he
went with his father--on the evening of August 5--to sup at the villa of
Cardinal Adriano Corneto, outside Rome.

Once before we have seen him supping at a villa of the Suburra on the eve
of setting out for Naples, and we know the tragedy that followed--a
tragedy which he has been accused of having brought about.  Here again,
in a villa of the Suburra, at a supper on the eve of setting out for
Naples, Death was the unseen guest.

They stayed late at the vineyard of Cardinal Corneto, enjoying the
treacherous cool of the evening, breathing the death that was omnipresent
in Rome that summer, the pestilential fever which had smitten Cardinal
Giovanni Borgia (Seniore) on the 1st of that month, and of which men were
dying every day in the most alarming numbers.

On the morning of Saturday 12, Burchard tells us, the Pope felt ill, and
that evening he was taken with fever.  On the 15th Burchard records that
he was bled, thirteen ounces of blood being taken from him.  It relieved
him somewhat, and, seeking distraction, he bade some of the cardinals to
come and sit by his bed and play at cards.

Meanwhile, Cesare was also stricken, and in him the fever raged so fierce
and violently that he had himself immersed to the neck in a huge jar of
ice-cold water--a drastic treatment in consequence of which he came to
shed all the skin from his body.

On the 17th the Pope was much worse, and on the 18th, the end being at
hand, he was confessed by the Bishop of Culm, who administered Extreme
Unction, and that evening he died.

That, beyond all manner of question, is the true story of the passing of
Alexander VI, as revealed by the Diarium of Burchard, by the testimony of
the physician who attended him, and by the dispatches of the Venetian,
Ferrarese, and Florentine ambassadors.  At this time of day it is
accepted by all serious historians, compelled to it by the burden of

The ambassador of Ferrara had written to Duke Ercole, on August 14, that
it was no wonder the Pope and the duke were ill, as nearly everybody in
Rome was ill as a consequence of the bad air ("Per la mala condictione de

Cardinal Soderini was also stricken with the fever, whilst Corneto was
taken ill on the day after that supper-party, and, like Cesare, is said
to have shed all the skin of his body before he recovered.

Even Villari and Gregorovius, so unrestrained when writing of the
Borgias, discard the extraordinary and utterly unwarranted stories of
Guicciardini, Giovio, and Bembo, which will presently be considered. 
Gregorovius does this with a reluctance that is almost amusing, and with
many a fond, regretful, backward glance--so very apparent in his manner--
at the tale of villainy as told by Guicciardini and the others, which the
German scholar would have adopted but that he dared not for his credit's
sake.  This is not stated on mere assumption.  It is obvious to any one
who reads Gregorovius's histories.

Burchard tells us--as certainly matter for comment--that, during his last
illness, Alexander never once asked for Cesare nor ever once mentioned
the name of Lucrezia.  So far as Cesare is concerned, the Pope knew, no
doubt, that he was ill and bedridden, for all that the gravity of the
duke's condition would, probably, have been concealed from him.  That he
should not have mentioned Lucrezia--nor, we suppose, Giuffredo--is
remarkable.  Did he, with the hand of Death already upon him, reproach
himself with this paternity which, however usual and commonplace in
priests of all degrees, was none the less a scandal, and the more
scandalous in a measure as the rank of the offender was higher?  It may
well be that in those last days that sinful, worldly old man bethought
him of the true scope and meaning of Christ's Vicarship, which he had so
wantonly abused and dishonoured, and considered that to that Judge before
whom he was summoned to appear the sins of his predecessors would be no
justification or mitigation of his own.  It may well be that, grown
introspective upon his bed of death, he tardily sought to thrust from his
mind the worldly things that had so absorbed it until the spiritual were
forgotten, and had given rise to all the scandal concerning him that was
spread through Christendom, to the shame and dishonour of the Church
whose champion he should have been.

Thus may it have come to pass that he summoned none of his children in
his last hours, nor suffered their names to cross his lips.

When the news of his father's death was brought to Cesare, the duke, all
fever-racked as he was, more dead than living, considered his position
and issued his orders to Michele da Corella, that most faithful of all
his captains, who so richly shared with Cesare the execration of the
latter's enemies.

Of tears for his father there is no record, just as at no time are we
allowed to see that stern spirit giving way to any emotion, conceiving
any affection, or working ever for the good of any but himself.  Besides,
in such an hour as this, the consciousness of the danger in which he
stood by virtue of the Pope's death and his own most inopportune
sickness, which disabled him from taking action to make his future
secure, must have concerned him to the exclusion of all else.

Meanwhile, however, Rome was quiet, held so in the iron grip of Michele
da Corella and the ducal troops.  The Pope's death was being kept secret
for the moment, and was not announced to the people until nightfall, by
when Corella had carried out his master's orders, including the seizure
of the Pope's treasure.  And Burchard tells us how some of Valentinois's
men entered the Vatican--all the gates of which were held by the ducal
troops--and, seizing Cardinal Casanova, they demanded, with a dagger at
his throat and a threat to fling his corpse from the windows if he
refused them, the Pope's keys.  These the cardinal surrendered, and
Corella possessed himself of plate and jewels to the value of some
200,000 ducats, besides two caskets containing about 100,000 ducats in
gold.  Thereafter the servants of the palace completed the pillage by
ransacking the wardrobes and taking all they could find, so that nothing
was left in the papal apartments but the chairs, a few cushions, and the
tapestries of the walls.

All his life Alexander had been the victim of the most ribald calumnies. 
Stories had ever sprung up and thriven, like ill weeds, about his name
and reputation.  His sins, great and scandalous in themselves, were
swelled by popular rumour, under the spur of malice, to monstrous and
incredible proportions.  As they had exaggerated and lied about the
manner of his life, so--with a consistency worthy of better scope--they
exaggerated and lied about the manner of his death, and, the age being a
credulous one, the stories were such that writers of more modern and less
credulous times dare not insist upon them, lest they should discredit--as
they do--what else has been alleged against him.

Thus when, in his last delirium, the Pope uttered some such words as: "I
am coming; I am coming.  It is just.  But wait a little," and when those
words were repeated, it was straightway asserted that the Devil was the
being he thus addressed in that supreme hour.  The story grew in detail;
that is inevitable with such matter.  He had bargained with the devil, it
was said, for a pontificate of twelve years, and, the time being
completed, the devil was come for him.  And presently, we even have a
description of Messer the Devil as he appeared on that occasion--in the
shape of a baboon.  The Marquis Gonzaga of Mantua, in all seriousness,
writes to relate this.  The chronicler Sanuto, receiving the now
popularly current story from another source, in all seriousness gives it
place in his Diarii, thus:

"The devil was seen to leap out of the room in the shape of a baboon. 
And a cardinal ran to seize him, and, having caught him, would have
presented him to the Pope; but the Pope said, 'Let him go, let him go. 
It is the devil,' and that night he fell ill and died."(1)

1  "Il diavolo sarebbe saltato fuori della camera in forma di babuino, et
un cardinale corso per piarlo, e preso volendolo presentar al papa, il
papa disse lasolo, lasolo ché ii diavolo.  E poi la notte si amaló e
morite."--Marino Sanuto, Diarii.

That story, transcending the things which this more practical age
considers possible, is universally rejected; but it is of vast importance
to the historical student; for it is to be borne in mind that it finds a
place in the pages of those same Diarii upon the authority of which are
accepted many defamatory stories without regard to their extreme
improbability so long as they are within the bounds of bare possibility.

After Alexander was dead it was said that water boiled in his mouth, and
that steam issued from it as he lay in St. Peter's, and much else of the
same sort, which the known laws of physiology compel so many of us very
reluctantly to account exaggerations.  But, again, remember that the
source of these stories was the same as the source of many other
exaggerations not at issue with physiological laws.

The circumstances of Alexander's funeral are in the highest degree
scandalous, and reflect the greatest discredit upon his age.

On the morrow, as the clergy were chanting the Libera me, Domine in St.
Peter's, where the body was exposed on a catafalque in full pontificals,
a riot occurred, set on foot by the soldiers present for reasons which
Burchard--who records the event--does not make clear.

The clerics fled for shelter to the sacristy, the chants were cut short,
and the Pope's body almost entirely abandoned.

But the most scandalous happening occurred twenty-four hours later.  The
Pope's remains were removed to the Chapel of Santa Maria delle Febbre by
six bearers who laughed and jested at the expense of the poor corpse,
which was in case to provoke the coarse mirth of the lower classes of an
age which, setting no value upon human life, knew no respect for death. 
By virtue of the malady that had killed him, of his plethoric habit of
body, and of the sweltering August heat, the corpse was decomposing
rapidly, so that the face had become almost black and assumed an aspect
grotesquely horrible, fully described by Burchard:

"Factus est sicut pannus vel morus nigerrimus, livoris totus plenus,
nasus plenus, os amplissimum, lingua duplex in ore, que labia tota
implebat, os apertum et adeo horribile quod nemo viderit unquam vel esse
tale dixerit."

Two carpenters waited in the chapel with the coffin which they had
brought; but, either through carelessness it had been made too narrow and
too short, or else the body, owing to its swollen condition, did not
readily fit into this receptable; whereupon, removing the mitre, for
which there was no room, they replaced it by a piece of old carpet, and
set themselves to force and pound the corpse into the coffin.  And this
was done "without candle or any light being burned in honour of the dead,
and without the presence of any priest or other person to care for the
Pope's remains."  No explanation of this is forthcoming; it was probably
due to the panic earlier occasioned the clergy by the ducal men-at-arms.

The story that he had been poisoned was already spreading like a
conflagration through Rome, arising out of the appearance of the body,
which was such as was popularly associated with venenation.

But a Borgia in the rôle of a victim was altogether too unusual to be
acceptable, and too much opposed to the taste to which the public had
been educated; so the story must be edited and modified until suitable
for popular consumption.  The supper-party at Cardinal Corneto's villa
was remembered, and upon that a tale was founded, and trimmed by degrees
into plausible shape.

Alexander had intended to poison Corneto--so ran this tale--that he might
possess himself of the cardinal's vast riches; in the main a well-worn
story by now.  To this end Cesare had bribed a butler to pour wine for
the cardinal from a flask which he entrusted to him.  Exit Cesare.  Exit
presently the butler, carelessly leaving the poisoned wine upon a buffet. 
(The drama, you will observe, is perfectly mechanical, full of author's
interventions, and elementary in its "preparations").  Enter the Pope. 
He thirsts, and calls for wine.  A servant hastens; takes up, of course,
the poisoned flask in ignorance of its true quality, and pours for his
Beatitude.  Whilst the Pope drinks re-enters Cesare, also athirst, and,
seating himself, he joins the Pope in the poisoned wine, all unsuspicious
and having taken no precautions to mark the flask.  Poetic justice is
done, and down comes the curtain upon that preposterous tragi-farce.

Such is the story which Guicciardini and Giovio and a host of other more
or less eminent historians have had the audacity to lay before their
readers as being the true circumstances of the death of Alexander VI.

It is a noteworthy matter that in all that concerns the history of the
House of Borgia, and more particularly those incidents in it that are
wrapped in mystery, circumstantial elucidation has a habit of proceeding
from the same quarters.

You will remember, for instance, that the Venetian Paolo Capello (though
not in Rome at the time) was one of those who was best informed in the
matter of the murder of the Duke of Gandia.  And it was Capello again who
was possessed of the complete details of the scarcely less mysterious
business of Alfonso of Aragon.  Another who on the subject of the murder
of Gandia "had no doubts"--as he himself expressed it--was Pietro Martire
d'Anghiera, in Spain at the time, whence he wrote to inform Italy of the
true circumstances of a case that had happened in Italy.

It is again Pietro Martire d'Anghiera who, on November 10, 1503, writes
from Burgos in Spain to inform Rome of the true facts of Alexander's
death--for it is in that letter of his that the tale of the flask of
wine, as here set down, finds place for the first time.

It is unprofitable to pursue the matter further, since at this time of
day even the most reluctant to reject anything that tells against a
Borgia have been compelled to admit that the burden of evidence is
altogether too overwhelming in this instance, and that it is proved to
the hilt that Alexander died of the tertian fever then ravaging Rome.

And just as the Pope's death was the subject of the wildest fictions
which have survived until very recent days, so too, was Cesare's

Again, it was the same Pietro Martire d'Anghiera who from Burgos wrote to
inform Rome of what was taking place in the privacy of the Duke of
Valentinois's apartments in the Vatican.  Under his facile and magic pen,
the jar of ice-cold water into which Cesare was believed to have been
plunged was transmuted into a mule which was ripped open that the fever-
stricken Cesare might be packed into thc pulsating entrails, there to
sweat the fever out of him.

But so poor and sexless a beast as this seeming in the popular mind
inadequate to a man of Cesare's mettle, it presently improved upon and
converted it into a bull--so much more appropriate, too, as being the
emblem of his house.

Nor does it seem that even then the story has gone far enough.  Facilis
inventis addere.  There comes a French writer with an essay on the
Borgias, than which--submitted as sober fact--nothing more amazingly
lurid has been written.  In this, with a suggestive cleverness entirely
Gallic, he causes us to gather an impression of Cesare in the intestinal
sudatorium of that eventrated bull, as of one who is at once the
hierophant and devotee of a monstrous, foul, and unclean rite of some
unspeakable religion--a rite by comparison with which the Black Mass of
the Abbé Gribourg becomes a sweet and wholesome thing.

But hear the man himself:

"Cet homme de meurtres et d'inceste, incarné dans l'animal des hécatombes
et des bestialités antiques en évoque les monstrueuses images.  Je crois
entendre le taureau de Phalaris et le taureau de Pasiphaë répondre, de
loin, par d'effrayants mugissements, aux cris humains de ce bucentaure."

That is the top note on this subject.  Hereafter all must pale to anti-



The fever that racked Cesare Borgia's body in those days can have been as
nothing to the fever that racked his mind, the despairing rage that must
have whelmed his soul to see the unexpected--the one contingency against
which he had not provided--cutting the very ground from underneath his

As he afterwards expressed himself to Macchiavelli, and as Macchiavelli
has left on record, Cesare had thought of everything, had provided for
everything that might happen on his father's death, save that in such a
season--when more than ever he should have need for all his strength of
body and of mind--he should, himself, be lying at the point of death.

Scarce was Alexander's body cold than the duke's enemies began to lift
their heads.  Already by the 20th of that month--two days after the Pope
had breathed his last--the Orsini were in arms and had led a rising, in
retort to which Michele da Corella fired their palace on Montegiordano.

Venice and Florence bethought them that the protection of France had been
expressly for the Church and not for Cesare personally.  So the Venetians
at once supplied Guidobaldo da Montefeltre with troops wherewith to
reconquer his dominions, and by the 24th he was master of S. Leo.  In the
city of Urbino itself Ramires, the governor, held out as long as
possible, then beat a retreat to Cesena, whilst Valentinois's partisans
in Urbino were mercilessly slaughtered and their houses pillaged.

Florence supported the Baglioni in the conquest of Magione from the
Borgias, and they aided Giacopo d'Appiano to repossess himself of
Piombino, which had so gladly seen him depart out of it eighteen months

From Magione, Gianpaolo Baglioni marches his Florentine troops to
Camerino to aid the only remaining Varano to regain the tyranny of his
fathers.  The Vitelli are back in Città di Castello, carrying a golden
calf in triumph through the streets; and so by the end of August, within
less than a fortnight, all the appendages of the Romagna are lost to
Cesare, whilst at Cesare's very gates the Orsini men-at-arms are
clamouring with insistent menace.

The Duke's best friend, in that crisis, was his secretary Agabito
Gherardi.  For it is eminently probable--as Alvisi opines--that it was
Gherardi who urged his master to make an alliance with the Colonna,
Gherardi himself being related to that powerful family.  The alliance of
these old enemies--Colonna and Borgia--was in their common interests,
that they might stand against their common enemy, Orsini--the old friends
of the Borgias.

On August 22 Prospero Colonna came to Rome, and terms were made and
cemented, in the usual manner, by a betrothal--that of the little
Rodrigo--(Lucrezia's child)--to a daughter of the House of Colonna.  On
the same day the Sacred College confirmed Cesare in his office of
Captain-General and Gonfalonier of the Church, pending the election of a
new Pope.

Meanwhile, sick almost to the point of death, and scarce able to stir
hand or foot, so weak in body had he been left by the heroic treatment to
which he had submitted, Cesare continued mentally a miracle of energy and
self-possession.  He issued orders for the fortifying of the Vatican, and
summoned from Romagna 200 horse and 1,000 foot to his aid in Rome,
bidding Remolino, who brought these troops, to quarter himself at
Orvieto, and there await his further orders.

Considering that the Colonna were fighting in Naples under the banner of
Gonzalo de Cordoba, it was naturally enough supposed, from Cesare's
alliance with the former, that this time he was resolved to go over to
the side of Spain.  Of this, M. de Trans came to protest to Valentinois
on behalf of Louis XII, to be answered by the duke's assurances that the
alliance into which he had entered was strictly confined to the Colonna,
that it entailed no treaty with Spain; nor had he entered into any; that
his loyalty to the King of France continued unimpaired, and that he was
ready to support King Louis with the entire forces he disposed of,
whenever his Majesty should desire him so to do.  In reply, he was
assured by the French ambassador and Cardinal Sanseverino of the
continued protection of Louis, and that France would aid him to maintain
his dominions in Italy and reconquer any that might have seceded; and of
this declaration copies were sent to Florence, Venice, and Bologna on
September 1, as a warning to those Powers not to engage in anything to
the hurt of Valentinois.

Thus sped the time of the novendiali--the nine days' obsequies of the
dead Pope--which were commenced on September 4.

As during the conclave that was immediately to follow it was against the
law for armed men to be in Rome, Cesare was desired by the Sacred College
to withdraw his troops.  He did so on September 2, and himself went with

Cardinal Sanseverino and the French ambassador escorted him out of Rome
and saw him take the road to Nepi--a weak, fever-ravaged, emaciated man,
borne in a litter by a dozen of his halberdiers, his youth, his beauty,
his matchless strength of body all sapped from him by the insidious
disease which had but grudgingly spared his very life.

At Nepi he was awaited by his brother Giuffredo, who had preceded him
thither from Rome.  A shadowy personage this Giuffredo, whose unimportant
personality is tantalizingly elusive in the pages where mention is made
of him.  His incontinent wife, Doña Sancia, had gone to Naples under the
escort of Prospero Colonna, having left the Castle of Sant' Angelo where
for some time she had been confined by order of her father-in-law, the
Pope, on account of the disorders of her frivolous life.

And now the advices of the fresh treaty between Cesare Borgia and the
King of France were producing their effect upon Venice and Florence, who
were given additional pause by the fierce jealousy of each other, which
was second only to their jealousy of the duke.

From Venice--with or without the sanction of his Government--Bartolomeo
d'Alviano had ridden south into the Romagna with his condotta immediately
upon receiving news of the death of Alexander, and, finding Pandolfaccio
Malatesta at Ravenna, he proceeded to accompany him back to that Rimini
which the tyrant had sold to Cesare.  Rimini, however, refused to receive
him back, and showed fight to the forces under d'Alviano.  So that, for
the moment, nothing was accomplished.  Whereupon the Republic, which at
first had raised a feeble, make-believe protest at the action of her
condottiero, now deemed it as well to find a pretext for supporting him. 
So Venice alleged that a courier of hers had been stripped of a letter,
and, with such an overwhelming cause as that for hostilities, dispatched
reinforcements to d'Alviano to the end that he might restore Pandolfaccio
to a dominion in which he was abhorred.  Further, d'Alviano was
thereafter to proceed to do the like office for Giovanni Sforza, who
already had taken ship for Pesaro, and who was restored to his lordship
on September 3.

Thence, carrying the war into the Romagna itself, d'Alviano marched upon
Cesena.  But the Romagna was staunch and loyal to her duke.  The governor
had shut himself up in Cesena with what troops he could muster, including
a thousand veterans under the valiant Dionigio di Naldo, and there,
standing firm and resolute, he awaited the onslaught of the Venetians.

D'Alviano advanced rapidly and cruelly, a devastator laying waste the
country in his passage, until to check him came suddenly the Borgia
troops, which had ventured upon a sally.  The Venetians were routed and
put to flight.

On September 16 the restored tyrants of Rimini, Pesaro, Castello,
Perugia, Camerino, Urbino, and Sinigaglia entered into and signed at
Perugia a league, whose chiefs were Bartolomeo d'Alviano and Gianpaolo
Baglioni, for their common protection.

Florence was invited to join the allies.  Intimidated, however, by
France, not only did the Signory refuse to be included, but--in her usual
manner--actually went so far as to advise Cesare Borgia of that refusal
and to offer him her services and help.

On the same date the Sacred College assembled in Rome, at the Mass of the
Holy Spirit, to beseech the grace of inspiration in the election of the
new Pontiff.  The part usually played by the divine afflatus in these
matters was so fully understood and appreciated that the Venetian
ambassador received instructions from the Republic(1) to order the
Venetian cardinals to vote for Giuliano della Rovere, whilst the King of
France sent a letter--in his own hand--to the Sacred College desiring it
to elect his friend the Cardinal d'Amboise, and Spain, at the same time,
sought to influence the election of Carvajal.

1  See Sanuto's Diarrii.

The chances of the last-named do not appear ever to have amounted to very
much.  The three best supported candidates were della Rovere, d'Amboise,
and Ascanio Sforza--who made his reappearance in Rome, released from his
French prison at last, in time to attend this Conclave.

None of these three factions was strong enough to ensure the election of
its own candidate, but any two were strong enough to prevent the election
of the candidate of the third.  Wherefore it happened that, as a result
of so much jealousy and competition, recourse was had to temporizing by
electing the oldest and feeblest cardinal in the College.  Thus there
should presently be another election, and meantime the candidates would
improve the time by making their arrangements and canvassing their
supporters so as to control the votes of the College at that future
Conclave.  Therefore Francesco Piccolomini, Cardinal of Siena (nephew of
Pius II), a feeble octogenarian, tormented by an ulcer, which, in
conjunction with an incompetent physician, was to cut his life even
shorter than they hoped, was placed upon the throne of St. Peter, and
assumed with the Pontificate the name of Pius III.

The new Pope was entirely favourable to Cesare Borgia, and confirmed him
in all his offices, signifying his displeasure to Venice at her attempt
upon the Romagna, and issuing briefs to the allied tyrants commanding
them to desist from their opposition to the will of the Holy See.

Cesare returned to Rome, still weak on his legs and ghastly to behold,
and on October 6 he received in St. Peter's his confirmation as Captain-
General and Gonfalonier of the Church.

The Venetians had meanwhile been checked by a letter from Louis from
lending further assistance to the allies.  The latter, however, continued
their hostilities in spite of that.  They had captured Sinigaglia, and
now they made an attempt on Fano and Fermo, but were repulsed in both
places by Cesare's loyal subjects.  At the same time the Ordelaffi--who
in the old days had been deposed from the Tyranny of Forli to make room
for the Riarii--deemed the opportunity a good one to attempt to regain
their lordship; but their attempt, too, was frustrated.

Cesare sat impotent in Rome, no doubt vexed by his own inaction.  He
cannot have lacked the will to go to the Romagna to support the subjects
who showed him such loyalty; but he lacked the means.  Owing to the
French and Spanish dispute in Naples, his army had practically melted
away.  The terms of his treaty with Louis compelled him to send the bulk
of it to the camp at Garigliano to support the French, who were in
trouble.  The force that Remolino had quartered at Orvieto to await the
duke's orders he had been unable to retain there.  Growing uneasy at
their position, and finding it impossible either to advance or to
retreat, being threatened on the one side by the Baglioni and on the
other by the Orsini, these troops had steadily deserted; whilst most of
Cesare's Spanish captains and their followers had gone to the aid of
their compatriots under Gonzalo de Cordoba in response to that captain's
summons of every Spaniard in the peninsula.

Thus did it come about that Cesare had no force to afford his Romagna
subjects.  His commissioners in the north did what was possible to repair
the damage effected by the allies, and they sent Dionigio di Naldo with
six hundred of his foot, and, further, a condotta of two hundred horse,
against Rimini.  This was captured by them in one day and almost without
resistance, Pandolfaccio flying for his life to Pesaro.

Next the allies, by attempting to avenge the rout they had suffered at
Cesena, afforded the ducal troops an opportunity of scoring another
victory.  They prepared a second attack against Cesare's capital, and
with an army of considerable strength they advanced to the very walls of
the stronghold, laying the aqueduct in ruins and dismantling what other
buildings they found in their way.  But in Cesena the gallant Pedro
Ramires lay in wait for them.  Issuing to meet them, he not only put them
to flight and drove them for shelter into the fortress of Montebello, but
laid siege to them there and broke them utterly, with a loss, as was
reputed, of some three hundred men in slain alone.

The news of this came to cheer Valentinois, who, moreover, had now the
Pope and France to depend upon.  Further, and in view of that same
protection, the Orsini were already treating with him for a
reconciliation, despite the fact that the Orsini blood was scarce dry
upon his hands.  But he had a resolute, sly, and desperate enemy in
Venice, and on October 10 there arrived in Rome Bartolomeo d'Alviano and
Gianpaolo Baglioni, who repaired to the Venetian ambassador and informed
him that they were come in quest of the person of Valentinois, intending
his death.

To achieve their ends they united themselves to the Orsini, who were now
in arms in Rome, their attempted reconciliation with Cesare having
aborted.  Valentinois's peril became imminent, and from the Vatican he
withdrew for shelter to the Castle of Sant' Angelo, going by way of the
underground passage built by his father.

Thence he summoned Michele da Corella, who was at Rocca Soriana with his
foot, and Taddeo della Volpe (a valiant captain and a great fighter, who
had already lost an eye in Cesare's service) and Baldassare Scipione, who
were in the Neapolitan territory with their men-at-arms.  He was
gathering his sinews for a spring, when suddenly the entire face of
affairs was altered and all plans were checked by the death of Pius III
on October 18, after a reign of twenty-six days.

Once more there was an end to Cesare's credit.  No man might say what the
future held in store.  Giustiniani, indeed, wrote to his Government that
Cesare was about to withdraw to France, and that he had besought a safe-
conduct of the Orsini--which report is as true as many another
communication from the same Venetian pen, ever ready to write what it
hoped might be true; and it is flatly contradicted by the better-informed
Macchiavelli, who was writing at the same time:

"The duke is in Sant' Angelo, and is more hopeful than ever of
accomplishing great things, presupposing a Pope according to the wishes
of his friends."

But the Romagna was stirred once more to the turbulence from which it had
scarcely settled.  Forli and Rimini were lost almost at once, the
Ordelaffi succeeding in capturing the former in this their second
attempt, whilst Pandolfaccio once more sat in his palace at Rimini,
having cut his way to it through a sturdy resistance.  Against Imola
Bentivogli dispatched a force of two thousand foot; but this was beaten

The authority of France appeared to have lost its weight, and in vain did
Cardinal d'Amboise thunder threats in the name of his friend King Louis,
and send envoys to Florence, Venice, Bologna, and Urbino, to complain of
the injuries that were being done to the Duke of Valentinois.



Giuliano della Rovere, Cardinal of S. Pietro in Vincoli, had much in his
character that was reminiscent of his terrible uncle, Sixtus IV.  Like
that uncle of his, he had many failings highly unbecoming any Christian--
laic or ecclesiastic--which no one has attempted to screen; and,
incidentally, he cultivated morality in his private life and observed his
priestly vows of chastity as little as did any other churchman of his
day.  For you may see him, through the eyes of Paride de Grassi,(1)
unable one Good Friday to remove his shoes for the adoration of the cross
in consequence of his foot's affliction--ex morbo gallico.  But with one
great and splendid virtue was he endowed in the eyes of the enemies of
the House of Borgia--contemporary, and subsequent down to our times--a
most profound, unchristian, and mordacious hatred of all Borgias.

1 Burchard's successor in the office of Master of Ceremonies.

Roderigo Borgia had defeated him in the Conclave of 1492, and for twelve
years had kept him out of the coveted pontificate.  You have seen how he
found expression for his furious jealousy at his rival's success.  You
have seen him endeavouring to his utmost to accomplish the deposition of
the Borgia Pope, wielding to that end the lever of simony and seeking a
fulcrum for it, first in the King of France and later in Ferdinand and
Isabella; but failing hopelessly in both instances.  You have seen him,
when he realized the failure of an attempt which had made Rome too
dangerous for him and compelled him to remain in exile, suddenly veering
round to fawn and flatter and win the friendship of one whom his enmity
could not touch.

This man who, as Julius II, was presently to succeed Pius III, has been
accounted a shining light of virtue amid the dark turpitude of the Church
in the Renaissance.  An ignis fatuus, perhaps; a Jack-o'-lanthorn
begotten of putrescence.  Surely no more than that.

Dr. Jacob Burckhardt, in that able work of his to which reference already
has been made, follows the well-worn path of unrestrained invective
against the Borgias, giving to the usual empty assertions the place which
should be assigned to evidence and argument.  Like his predecessors along
that path, he causes Giuliano della Rovere to shine heroically by
contrast--a foil to throw into greater relief the blackness of Alexander. 
But he carries assertion rather further than do others when he says of
Cardinal della Rovere that "He ascended the steps of St. Peter's Chair
without simony and amid general applause, and with him ceased, at all
events, the undisguised traffic in the highest offices of the Church."

Other writers in plenty have suggested this, but none has quite so
plainly and resoundingly thrown down the gauntlet, which we will make
bold to lift.

That Dr. Burckhardt wrote in other than good faith is not to be imputed. 
It must therefore follow that an entry in the Diarium of the
Caerimoniarius under date of October 29, 1503, escaped him utterly in the
course of his researches.  For the Diarium informs us that on that day,
in the Apostolic Palace, Giuliano della Rovere, Cardinal of S. Pietro in
Vincoli, concluded the terms of an agreement with the Duke of Valentinois
and the latter's following of Spanish cardinals, by which he undertook
that, in consideration of his receiving the votes of these Spanish
cardinals and being elected Pope, he would confirm Cesare in his office
of Gonfalonier and Captain-General, and would preserve him in the
dominion of the Romagna.  And, in consideration of that undertaking, the
Spanish cardinals, on their side, promised to give him their suffrages.

Here are the precise words in which Burchard records the transaction:

"Eadem die, 29 Octobris, Rmus. D. S. Petri ad Vincula venit in palatio
apostolico cum duce Valentino et cardinalibus suis Hispanis et
concluserunt capitula eorum per que, inter alia, cardinalis S. Petri ad
Vincula, postquam esset papa, crearet confalonierium Ecclesiae generalem
ducem ac ei faveret et in statibus suis (relinqueret) et vice versa dux
pape; et promiserunt omnes cardinalis Hispani dare votum pro Cardinali S.
Petri ad Vincula ad papatum."

If that does not entail simony and sacrilege, then such things do not
exist at all.  More, you shall hunt in vain for any accusation so
authoritative, formal and complete, regarding the simony practised by
Alexander VI on his election.  And this same Julius, moreover, was the
Pope who later was to launch his famous Bull de Simoniaca Electione, to
add another stain to the besmirched escutcheon of the Borgia Pontiff.

His conciliation of Cesare and his obtaining, thus, the support of the
Spanish cardinals, who, being Alexander's creatures, were now Cesare's
very faithful servants, ensured the election of della Rovere; for, whilst
those cardinals' votes did not suffice to place him in St. Peter's Chair,
they would abundantly have sufficed to have kept him out of it had Cesare
so desired them.

In coming to terms with Cardinal della Rovere, Cesare made the first
great mistake of his career, took the first step towards ruin.  He should
have known better than to have trusted such a man.  He should have
remembered the ancient bitter rancour; should have recognized, in the
amity of later times, the amity of the self-seeker, and mistrusted it. 
But della Rovere had acquired a reputation for honesty and for being a
man of his word.  How far he deserved it you may judge from what is
presently to follow.  He had acquired it, however, and Cesare, to his
undoing, attached faith to that reputation.  He may, to some extent, have
counted upon the fact that, of Cardinal della Rovere's bastard children,
only a daughter--Felice della Rovere--survived.  Raffaele, the last of
his bastard boys, had died a year ago.  Thus, Cesare may have concluded
that the cardinal having no sons whose fortunes he must advance, would
lack temptation to break faith with him.

From all this it resulted that, at the Conclave of November 1, Giuliano
della Rovere was elected Pope, and took the name of Julius II; whilst
Valentinois, confident now that his future was assured, left the Castle
of Sant' Angelo to take up his residence at the Vatican, in the
Belvedere, with forty gentlemen constituting his suite.

On November 3 Julius II issued briefs to the Romagna, ordering obedience
to Cesare, with whom he was now in daily and friendliest intercourse.

In the Romagna, meanwhile, the disturbances had not only continued, but
they had taken a fresh turn.  Venice, having reseated Malatesta on the
throne, now vented at last the covetousness she had ever, herself,
manifested of that dominion, and sent a force to drive him out again and
conquer Rimini for the Republic.

Florence, in a spasm of jealous anger at this, inquired was the Pope to
become the chaplain of Venice, and dispatched Macchiavelli to bear the
tale of these doings to Julius.

Under so much perpetual strife the strength of the Romagna was gradually
crumbling, and Cesare, angry with Florence for never going beyond lip-
service, expressed that anger to Macchiavelli, informing the ambassador
that the Signory could have saved the Romagna for him with a hundred men-

The duke sent for Giustiniani, the ambassador of Venice, who, however,
excused himself and did not go.  This within a week of the new Pope's
election, showing already how men discerned what was in store for
Valentinois.  Giustiniani wrote to his Government that he had not gone
lest his going should give the duke importance in the eyes of others.(1) 
The pettiness and meanness of the man, revealed in that dispatch, will
enable you to attach to Giustiniani the label that belongs to him.

1  "Per non dar materia ad altri che fazino un po di lui mazor estimazion
di quel che fanno quando lo vedessero in parte alcuna favorito."--
Giustiniani, Dispatch of November 6, 1503.

To cheer Valentinois in those days of depression came news that his
subjects of Imola had successfully resisted an attack on the part of the
Venetians.  So stimulated was he that he prepared at once to go, himself,
into the Romagna, and obtained from the Pope, from d'Amboise, and from
Soderini, letters to Florence desiring the Signory to afford him safe-
conduct through Tuscany for himself and his army.

The Pope expressed himself, in his letter, that he would count such safe-
conduct as a great favour to himself, and urged the granting of it out of
his "love for Cesare," owing to the latter's "great virtues and shining
merits."(2)  Yet on the morrow of dispatching that brief, this man, who
was accounted honest, straightforward, and imbued with a love of truth,
informed Giustiniani--or else Giustiniani lied in his dispatches--that he
understood that the Venetians were assailing the Romagna, not out of
enmity to the Church, but to punish the demerits of Cesare, and he made
it plain to Giustiniani that, if he complained of the conduct of the
Venetians, it was on his own behalf and not on Cesare's, as his aim was
to preserve the Romagna, not for the duke, but for the Church.

2  "In quo nobis rem gratissimam facietis ducis enim ipsum propter ejus
insignes virtutes et praeclara merita praecipuo affectur et caritate
praecipua complectimur."--Archivio di Stato, Firenze.  (See Alvisi, Doct.

With the aim we have no quarrel.  It was laudable enough in a Pontiff. 
But it foreshadows Cesare's ruin, in spite of the love-protesting letter
to Florence, in spite of the bargain struck by virtue of which Julius had
obtained the pontificate.  Whether the Pope went further in his
treachery, whether, having dispatched that brief to Florence, he sent
other communications to the Signory, is not ascertainable; but the
suspicion of some such secret action is inspired by what ensued.

On November 13 Cesare was ready to leave Rome; but no safe-conduct had
arrived.  Out of all patience at this, he begged the Pope that the
captain of the pontifical navy should prepare him five galleons at Ostia,
by which he could take his foot to Genoa, and thence proceed into Romagna
by way of Ferrara.

Macchiavelli, at the same time, was frenziedly importuning Florence to
grant the duke the desired safe-conduct lest in despair Cesare should
make a treaty with Venice--"or with the devil"--and should go to Pisa,
employing all his money, strength, and influence to vent his wrath upon
the Signory.  But the Signory knew more, perhaps, than did Macchiavelli,
for no attention was paid to his urgent advice.

On the 19th Cesare left Rome to set out for Genoa by way of Ostia, and
his departure threw Giustiniani into alarm--fearing that the duke would
now escape.

But there was no occasion for his fears.  On the very day of Cesare's
departure Julius sent fresh briefs to the Romagna, different indeed from
those of November 3.  In these he now expressed his disapproval of
Alexander's having conferred the vicarship of the Romagna upon Cesare
Borgia, and he exhorted all to range themselves under the banner of the
Church, under whose protection he intended to keep them.

Events followed quickly upon that.  Two days later news reached the Pope
that the Venetians had captured Faenza, whereupon he sent a messenger
after Valentinois to suggest to the latter that he should surrender Forli
and the other fiefs into pontifical hands.  With this Cesare refused to
comply, and, as a result, he was detained by the captain of the navy, in
obedience to the instructions from Julius.  At the same time the Pope
broke the last link of the treaty with Cesare by appointing a new
Governor of Romagna in the person of Giovanni Sacchi, Bishop of Ragusa. 
He commanded the latter to take possession of the Romagna in the name of
the Church, and he issued another brief--the third within three weeks--
demanding the State's obedience to the new governor.

On November 26, Remolino, who had been at Ostia with Cesar; came to Rome,
and, throwing himself at the feet of the Pontiff, begged for mercy for
his lord, whom he now accounted lost.  He promised Julius that Cesare
should give him the countersigns of the strongholds, together with
security for their surrender.  This being all that the Pope could desire,
he issued orders that Cesare be brought back to Rome, and in Consistory
advised the Sacred College--by way, no doubt, of exculpating himself to
men who knew that he was refusing to pay the price at which he had bought
the Papacy--that the Venetians in the Romagna were not moving against the
Church, but against Cesare himself--wherefore he had demanded of Cesare
the surrender of the towns he held, that thus there might be an end to
the war.

It was specious--which is the best that can be said for it.

As for putting an end to the war, the papal brief was far indeed from
achieving any such thing, as was instantly plain from the reception it
met with in the Romagna, which persisted in its loyalty to Cesare in
despite of the very Pope himself.  When that brief was read in Cesena a
wild tumult ensued, and the people ran through the streets clamouring
angrily for their duke.

It was very plain what short work would have been made of such men as the
Ordelaffi and the Malatesta had Cesare gone north.  But Cesare was fast
at the Vatican, treated by the Pope with all outward friendliness and
consideration, but virtually a prisoner none the less.  Julius continued
to press for the surrender of the Romagna strongholds, which Remolino had
promised in his master's name; but Cesare persisted obstinately to
refuse, until the news reached him that Michele da Corella and della
Volpe, who had gone north with seven hundred horse to support his
Romagnuoli, had been cut to pieces in Tuscany by the army of Gianpaolo

Cesare bore his burning grievance to the Pope.  The Pope sympathized with
him most deeply; then went to write a letter to the Florentines to thank
them for what had befallen and to beg them to send him Michele da Corella
under a strong escort--that redoubtable captain having been taken
prisoner together with della Volpe.

Corella was known to be fully in the duke's confidence, and there were
rumours that he was accused of many things perpetrated on the duke's
behalf.  Julius, bent now on Cesare's ruin, desired to possess himself of
this man in the hope of being able to put him upon his trial under
charges which should reflect discredit upon Cesare.

At last the duke realized that he was betrayed, and that all was lost,
and so he submitted to the inevitable, and gave the Pope the countersigns
he craved.  With these Julius at once dispatched an envoy into the
Romagna, and, knowing the temper of Cesare's captains, he insisted that
this envoy should be accompanied by Piero d'Orvieto, as Cesare's own
commissioner, to demand that surrender.

But the intrepid Pedro Ramires, who held Cesena, knowing the true facts
of the case, and conceiving how his duke had been constrained, instead of
making ready to yield, proceeded further to fortify for resistance.  When
the commissioners appeared before his gates he ordered the admission of
Piero d'Orvieto.  That done, he declared that he desired to see his duke
at liberty before he would surrender the citadel which he held for him,
and, taking d'Orvieto, he hanged him from the battlements as a traitor
and a bad servant who did a thing which the duke, had he been at liberty,
would never have had him do.

Moncalieri, the papal envoy, returned to Rome with the news, and this so
inflamed the Pope that the Cardinals Lodovico Borgia and Francesco
Remolino, together with other Borgia partisans, instantly fled from Rome,
where they no longer accounted themselves safe, and sought refuge with
Gonzalo de Cordoba in the Spanish camp at Naples, imploring his
protection at the same time for Cesare.

The Pope's anger first vented itself in the confiscation of the Duke of
Valentinois's property wherever possible, to satisfy the claims of the
Riarii (the Pope's nephews) who demanded an indemnity of 50,000 ducats,
of Guidobaldo, who demanded 200,000 ducats, and of the Florentine
Republic, which claimed the same.  The duke's ruin was by now--within six
weeks of the election of Julius II--an accomplished fact; and many were
those who chose to fall with him rather than abandon him in his
extremity.  They afford a spectacle of honour and loyalty that was
exceedingly rare in the Italy of the Renaissance; clinging to their duke,
even when the last ray of hope was quenched, they lightened for him the
tedium of those last days at the Vatican during which he was no better
than a prisoner of state.

Suddenly came news of Gonzalo de Cordoba's splendid victory at
Garigliano--a victory which definitely broke the French and gave the
throne of Naples to Spain.  Naturally this set Spanish influence once
more, and mightily, in the ascendant, and the Spanish cardinals, together
with the ambassador of Spain, came to exert with the Pope an influence
suddenly grown weighty.

As a consequence, Cesare, escorted by Carvajal, Cardinal of Santa Croce,
was permitted to depart to Ostia, whence he was to take ship for France. 
Leastways, such was the understanding upon which he left the Vatican. 
But the Pope was not minded, even now, to part with him so easily, and
his instructions to Carvajal were that at Ostia he should await further
orders before sailing.

But on December 26, news reaching the Spanish cardinal that the Romagna
fortresses--persuaded that Cesare had been liberated--had finally
surrendered, Carvajal took it upon himself to allow Cesare to depart,
upon receiving from him a written undertaking never to bear arms against
Pope Julius II.

So the Duke of Valentinois at last regained his freedom.  Whether, in
repairing straight to Naples, as he did, he put a preconceived plan into
execution, or whether, even now, he mistrusted his enlargement, and
thought thus to make himself secure, cannot be ascertained.  But straight
to Gonzalo de Cordoba's Spanish camp he went, equipped with a safe-
conduct from the Great Captain, obtained for Cesare by Cardinal Remolino.

There he found a court of friends already awaiting him, among whom were
his brother Giuffredo and the Cardinal Lodovico Borgia, and he received
from Gonzalo a very cordial welcome.

Spain was considering the invasion of Tuscany with the ultimate object of
assailing Milan and driving the French out of the peninsula altogether. 
Piero de'Medici--killed at Garigliano--had no doubt been serving Spain
with some such end in view as the conquest of Florence, and, though Piero
was dead, there was no reason why the plan should be abandoned; rather,
all the more reason to carry it forward, since now Spain would more
directly profit by it.  Bartolomeo d'Alviano was to have commanded the
army destined for that campaign; but Cesare, by virtue of his friends and
influence in Pisa, Siena, and Piombino, was so preferable a captain for
such an expedition that Gonzalo gave him charge of it within a few days
of his arrival at the Spanish camp.

To Cesare this would have been the thin end of a mighty edge.  Here was a
chance to begin all over again, and, beginning thus, backed by Spanish
arms, there was no saying how far he might have gone.  Meanwhile, what a
beginning!  To avenge himself thus upon that Florentine Republic which,
under the protection of France, had dared at every turn to flout him and
had been the instrument of his ultimate ruin!  Sweet to him would have
been the poetic justice he would have administered--as sweet to him as it
would have been terrible to Florence, upon which he would have descended
like another scourge of God.

Briskly and with high-running hopes he set about his preparations during
that spring of 1504 what time the Pope's Holiness in Rome was seeking to
justify his treachery by heaping odium upon the Borgias.  Thus he thought
to show that if he had broken faith, he had broken faith with knaves
deserving none.  It was in pursuit of this that Michele da Corella was
now pressed with questions, which, however, yielded nothing, and that
Asquino de Colloredo (the sometime servant of Cardinal Michaeli) was
tortured into confessing that he had poisoned his master at the
instigation of Alexander and Cesare--as has been seen--which confession
Pope Julius was very quick to publish.

But in Naples, it may well be that Cesare cared nought for these matters,
busy and hopeful as he was just then.  He dispatched Baldassare da
Scipione to Rome to enlist what lances he could find, and Scipione put it
about that his lord would soon be returning to his own and giving his
enemies something to think about.

And then, suddenly, out of clearest heavens, fell a thunderbolt to shiver
this last hope.

On the night of May 26, as Cesare was leaving Gonzalo's quarters, where
he had supped, an officer stepped forward to demand his sword.  He was
under arrest.

Julius II had out-manoeuvred him.  He had written to Spain setting forth
what was his agreement with Valentinois in the matter of the Romagna--the
original agreement which was the price of the Pontificate, had, of
course, been conveniently effaced from the pontifical memory.  He
addressed passionate complaints to Ferdinand and Isabella that Gonzalo de
Cordoba and Cardinal Carvajal between them were affording Valentinois the
means to break that agreement, and to undertake matters that were hostile
to the Holy See.  And Ferdinand and Isabella had put it upon Gonzalo de
Cordoba, that most honourable and gallant captain, to do this thing in
gross violation of his safe-conduct and plighted word to Valentinois.  It
was a deed under the shame of which the Great Captain confessedly
laboured to the end of his days, as his memory has laboured under it ever
since.  For great captains are not afforded the immunity enjoyed by
priests and popes jointly with other wearers of the petticoat from the
consequences of falsehood and violated trust.

Fierce and bitter were Valentinois's reproaches of the Great Captain for
this treachery--as fierce and bitter as they were unavailing.  On August
20, 1504, Cesare Borgia took ship for Spain--a prisoner bound for a
Spanish dungeon.  Thus, at the early age of twenty-nine, he passed from
Italy and the deeds that well might have filled a lifetime.

Conspicuous amid those he left behind him who remained loyal to their
duke was Baldassare Scipione, who published throughout Christendom a
cartel, wherein he challenged to trial by combat any Spaniard who dared
deny that the Duke of Valentinois had been detained a prisoner in Naples
in spite of the safe-conduct granted him in the name of Ferdinand and
Isabella, "with great shame and infamy to their crown."(1)

1  Quoted by Alvisi, on the authority of a letter of Luigi da Porto,
March 16, 1510, in Lettere Storiche.

This challenge was never taken up.

Amongst other loyal ones was that fine soldier of fortune, Taddeo della
Volpe, who, in his Florentine prison, refused all offers to enter the
service of the Signory until he had learnt that his lord was gone from

Fracassa and Mirafuente had held Forli until they received guarantees for
Cesare's safety (after he had left Ostia to repair to the Spanish camp). 
They then rode out, with the honours of war, lance on thigh.  Dionigio di
Naldo, that hardy captain of foot, entered the service of Venice; but to
the end he wore the device of his dear lord, and imposed the same upon
all who served under his banner.

Don Michele da Corella was liberated by Julius II after an interrogatory
which can have revealed nothing defamatory to Cesare or his father; as it
is unthinkable that a Pope who did all that man could do to ruin the
House of Borgia and to befoul its memory, should have preserved silence
touching any such revelations as were hoped for when Corella was put to
torture.  That most faithful of all Cesare's officers--and sharer of the
odium that has been heaped upon Cesare's name--entered the service of the
Signory of Florence.



Vain were the exertions put forth by the Spanish cardinals to obtain
Cesare's enlargement, and vainer still the efforts of his sister
Lucrezia, who wrote letter after letter to Francesco Gonzaga of Mantua--
now Gonfalonier of the Church, and a man of influence at the Vatican--
imploring him to use his interest with the Pope to the same end.

Julius II remained unmoved, fearing the power of Cesare Borgia, and
resolved that he should trouble Italy no more.  On the score of that, no
blame attaches to the Pope.  The States which Borgia had conquered in the
name of the Church should remain adherent to the Church.  Upon that
Julius was resolved, and the resolve was highly laudable.  He would have
no duke who controlled such a following as did Cesare, using those States
as stepping-stones to greater dominions in which, no doubt, he would
later have absorbed them, alienating them, so, from the Holy See.

In all this Julius II was most fully justified.  The odious matter in his
conduct, however, is the abominable treachery it entailed, following as
it did upon the undertaking by virtue of which he gained the tiara.

For some months after his arrival in Spain, Cesare was confined in the
prison of Chinchilla, whence--as a result, it is said, of an attempt on
his part to throw the governor bodily over the battlements--he was
removed to the fortress of Medina del Campo, and kept well guarded by
orders of the Pope.

Rumours that he had been liberated by the King of Spain overran the
Romagna more than once, and set the country in a ferment, even reaching
the Vatican and shaking the stout-hearted Julius into alarm.

One chance of regaining his ancient might, and wreaking a sweet and
terrific vengeance upon his betrayers came very close to him, but passed
him by.  This chance occurred in 1505, when--Queen Isabella being dead--
King Ferdinand discovered that Gonzalo de Cordoba was playing him false
in Naples.  The Spanish king conceived a plan--according to the
chronicles of Zurita--to employ Cesare as a flail for the punishment of
the Great Captain.  He proposed to liberate the duke, set him at the head
of an army, and loose him upon Naples, trusting to the formidable
alliance of Cesare's military talents with his hatred of Gonzalo--who had
betrayed him--to work the will of his Catholic Majesty.

Unfortunately for Cesare, there were difficulties.  Ferdinand's power was
no longer absolute in Castille now that Isabella was dead.  He sought to
overcome these difficulties; but the process was a slow one, and in the
course of it, spurred also by increased proofs of his lieutenant's
perfidy, Ferdinand lost patience, and determined--the case having grown
urgent--to go to Naples in person to deal with Gonzalo.

Plainly, Cesare's good fortune, which once had been proverbial, had now
utterly deserted him.

He had received news of what was afoot, and his hopes had run high once
more, only to suffer cruel frustration when he learnt that Ferdinand had
sailed, himself, for Naples.  In his despair the duke roused himself to a
last effort to win his freedom.

His treatment in prison was fairly liberal, such as is usually measured
out to state prisoners of consideration.  He was allowed his own chaplain
and several attendants, and, whilst closely guarded and confined to the
Homenaje Tower of the fortress, yet he was not oppressively restrained. 
He was accorded certain privileges and liberties; he enjoyed the faculty
of corresponding with the outer world, and even of receiving visits. 
Amongst his visitors was the Count of Benavente--a powerful lord of the
neighbourhood, who, coming under the spell of Cesare's fascination,
became so attached to him, and so resolved to do his will and effect his
liberation, that--says Zurita--he was prepared even to go the length of
accomplishing it by force of arms should no other way present itself.(1)

1  Sanuto confirms Zurita, in the main, by letters received by the
Venetian Senate.

Another way, however, did present itself, and Benavente and the duke
hatched a plot of evasion in which they had the collaboration of the
chaplain and a servant of the governor's, named Garcia.

One September night a cord was let down from the crenels of the tower,
and by this the duke was to descend from his window to the castle ditch,
where Benavente's men awaited him.  Garcia was to go with him since,
naturally, it would not be safe for the servants to remain behind, and
Garcia now let himself down that rope, hand over hand, from the terrible
height of the duke's window.  It was only when he had reached the end of
it that he discovered that the rope was not long enough, and that below
him there was still a chasm that might well have appalled even desperate

To return was impossible.  The duke above was growing impatient.  Garcia
loosed his hold, and dropped the remainder of the distance, breaking both
his legs in the fall.  Groaning, he lay there in the ditch, whilst hand
over hand now came the agile, athletic duke, unconscious of his
predecessor's fate, and of what awaited him at the end.  He reached it,
and was dangling there, perhaps undecided whether or not to take that
daring leap, when suddenly his doubts were resolved for him.  His evasion
was already discovered.  The castle was in alarm, and some one above him
cut the rope and precipitated him into the ditch.

Benavente's men--we do not know how many of them were at hand--ran to him
instantly.  They found him seriously injured, and that he, too, had
broken bones is beyond doubt.  They lifted him up, and bore him with all
speed to the horses.  They contrived, somehow, to mount him upon one,
and, holding him in the saddle, they rode off as fast as was possible
under the circumstances.  There was no time to go back for the
unfortunate Garcia.  The castle was all astir by now to stop the
fugitives, and to have returned would have been to suffer capture
themselves as well as the duke, without availing the servant.

So poor Garcia was left to his fate.  He was found by the governor where
he had fallen, and he was immediately put to death.

If the people of Medina organized a pursuit it availed them nothing, for
Cesare was carried safely to Benavente's stronghold at Villalon.

There he lay for some five or six weeks to recover from the hurts he had
taken in escaping, and to allow his hands--the bones of which were
broken--to become whole again.  At last, being in the main recovered,
though with hands still bandaged, he set out with two attendants and made
for Santander.  Thence they took ship to Castro Urdiales, Cesare aiming
now at reaching the kingdom of Navarre and the protection of his brother-
in-law the king.

At the inn at Santander, where, weary and famished, they sat down to dine
after one of the grooms had made arrangements for a boat, they had a near
escape of capture.  The alcalde, hearing of the presence of these
strangers, and his suspicions being aroused by the recklessly high price
they had agreed to pay the owner of the vessel which they had engaged,
came to examine them.  But they had a tale ready that they were wheat-
merchants in great haste to reach Bernico, that a cargo of wheat awaited
them there, and that they would suffer great loss by delay.  The tale was
smooth enough to satisfy the alcalde, and they were allowed to depart. 
They reached Castro Urdiales safely, but were delayed there for two days,
owing to the total lack of horses; and they were forced, in the end, to
proceed upon mules obtained from a neighbouring convent.  On these they
rode to Durango, where they procured two fresh mules and a horse, and so,
after further similar vicissitudes, they arrived at Pampeluna on December
3, 1506, and Cesare startled the Court of his brother-in-law, King Jean
of Navarre, by suddenly appearing in it--"like the devil."

The news of his evasion had already spread to Italy and set it in a
ferment, inspiring actual fear at the Vatican.  The Romagna was
encouraged by it to break out into open and armed insurrection against
the harsh rule of Julius II--who seems to have been rendered positively
vindictive towards the Romagnuoli by their fidelity to Valentinois.  Thus
had the Romagna fallen again into the old state of insufferable
oppression from which Cesare had once delivered it.  The hopes of the
Romagnuoli rose in a measure, as the alarm spread among the enemies of
Cesare--for Florence and Venice shared now the anxiety of the Vatican. 
Zurita, commenting upon this state of things, pays Cesare the following
compliment, which the facts confirm as just:

"The duke was such that his very presence was enough to set all Italy
agog; and he was greatly beloved, not only by men of war, but also by
many people of Tuscany and of the States of the Church."

Cesare's wife--Charlotte d'Albret--whom he had not seen since that
September of 1499, was at Bourges at the Court of her friend, the
saintly, repudiated first wife of Louis XII.  It is to be supposed that
she would be advised of her husband's presence at her brother's Court;
but there is no information on this score, nor do we know that they ever

Within four days of reaching Pampeluna Cesare dispatched his secretary
Federico into Italy to bear the news of his escape to his sister Lucrezia
at Ferrara, and a letter to Francesco Gonzaga, of Mantua, which was
little more than one of introduction, the more important matters to be
conveyed to Gonzaga going, no doubt, by word of mouth.  Federico was
arrested at Bologna by order of Julius II, after he had discharged his

France was now Cesare's only hope, and he wrote to Louis begging his
royal leave to come to take his rank as a prince of that country, and to
serve her.

You may justly have opined, long since, that the story here set down is
one never-ending record of treacheries and betrayals.  But you will find
little to surpass the one to come.  The behaviour of Louis at this
juncture is contemptible beyond words, obeying as it does the maxim of
that age, which had it that no inconvenient engagement should be observed
if there was opportunity for breaking it.

Following this detestable maxim, Louis XII had actually gone the length
of never paying to Charlotte d'Albret the dot of 100,000 livres Tournois,
to which he had engaged himself by written contract.  When Cesare, in
prison at Medina and in straits for money, had solicited payment through
his brother-in-law of Navarre, his claim had been contemptuously

But there was worse to follow.  Louis now answered Cesare's request for
leave to come to France by a letter (quoted in full by M. Yriarte from
the Archives des Basses Pyrénées) in which his Very Christian Majesty
announces that the duchy of Valentinois and the County of Dyois have been
restored to the crown of France, as also the lordship of Issoudun.  And
then follows the pretext, of whose basely paltry quality you shall judge
for yourselves.  It runs:

"After the decease of the late Pope Alexander, when our people and our
army were seeking the recovery of the kingdom of Naples, he [Cesare] went
over to the side of our enemies, serving, favouring, and assisting them
at arms and otherwise against ourselves and our said people and army,
which resulted to us in great and irrecoverable loss."

The climax is in the deliberate falsehood contained in the closing words. 
Poor Cesare, who had served France at her call--in spite of what was
rumoured of his intentions--as long as he had a man-at-arms to follow
him, had gone to Naples only in the hour of his extreme need.  True, he
had gone to offer himself to Spain as a condottiero when naught else was
left to him; but he took no army with him--he went alone, a servant, not
an ally, as that false letter pretends.  He had never come to draw his
sword against France, and certainly no loss had been suffered by France
in consequence of any action of his.  Louis's army was definitely routed
at Garigliano, with Cesare's troops fighting in its ranks.

But Pope Alexander was dead; Cesare's might in in Italy was dissipated;
his credit gone.  There lay no profit for Louis in keeping faith with
him; there lay some profit in breaking it.  Alas, that a king should
stain his honour with base and vulgar lies to minister to his cupidity,
and that he should set them down above his seal and signature to shame
him through centuries still in the womb of Time!

Cesare Borgia, landless, without right to any title, he that had held so
many, betrayed and abandoned on every side, had now nothing to offer in
the world's market but his stout sword and his glad courage.  These went
to the first bidder for them, who happened to be his brother-in-law King

Navarre at the time was being snarled and quarrelled over by France and
Spain, both menacing its independence, each pretending to claims upon it
which do not, in themselves, concern us.

In addition, the country itself was torn by two factions--the Beaumontes
and the Agramontes--and it was entrusted to Cesare to restore Navarre to
peace and unity at home before proceeding--with the aid upon which he
depended from the Emperor Maximilian--to deal with the enemies beyond her

The Castle of Viana was being held by Louis de Beaumont--chief of the
faction that bore his name--and refused to surrender to the king.  To
reduce it and compel Beaumont to obedience went Cesare as Captain-General
of Navarre, early in February of 1507.  He commanded a considerable
force, some 10,000 strong, and with this and his cannon he laid siege to
the citadel.

The natural strength of the place was such as might have defied any
attempt to reduce it by force; but victuals were running low, and there
was every likelihood of its being speedily starved into surrender.  To
frustrate this, Beaumont conceived the daring plan of attempting to send
in supplies from Mendavia.  The attempt being made secretly, by night and
under a strong escort, was entirely successful; but, in retreating, the
Beaumontese were surprised in the dawn of that February morning by a
troop of reinforcements coming to Cesare's camp.  These, at sight of the
rebels, immediately gave the alarm.

The most hopeless confusion ensued in the town, where it was at once
imagined that a surprise attack was being made upon the Royalists, and
that they had to do with the entire rebel army.

Cesare, being aroused by the din and the blare of trumpets calling men to
arms, sprang for his weapons, armed himself in haste, flung himself on a
horse, and, without pausing so much as to issue a command to his waiting
men-at-arms, rode headlong down the street to the Puerta del Sol.  Under
the archway of the gate his horse stumbled and came down with him.  With
an oath, Cesare wrenched the animal to its feet again, gave it the spur,
and was away at a mad, furious gallop in pursuit of the retreating
Beaumont rearguard.

The citizens, crowding to the walls of Viana, watched that last reckless
ride of his with amazed, uncomprehending eyes.  The peeping sun caught
his glittering armour as he sped, so that of a sudden he must have seemed
to them a thing of fire--meteoric, as had been his whole life's
trajectory which was now swiftly dipping to its nadir.

Whether he was frenzied with the lust of battle, riding in the reckless
manner that was his wont, confident that his men followed, yet too self-
centred to ascertain, or whether--as seems more likely--it was simply
that his horse had bolted with him, will never be known until all things
are known.

Suddenly he was upon the rearguard of the fleeing rebels.  His sword
flashed up and down; again and again they may have caught the gleam of it
from Viana's walls, as he smote the foe.  Irresistible as a thunderbolt,
he clove himself a way through those Beaumontese.  He was alone once
more, a flying, dazzling figure of light, away beyond that rearguard
which he left scathed and disordered by his furious passage.  Still his
mad career continued, and he bore down upon the main body of the escort.

Beaumont sat his horse to watch, in such amazement as you may conceive,
the wild approach of this unknown rider.

Seeing him unsupported, some of the count's men detached themselves to
return and meet this single foe and oblige him with the death he so
obviously appeared to seek.

They hedged him about--we do not know their number--and, engaging him,
they drew him from the road and down into the hollow space of a ravine.

And so, in the thirty-second year of his age, and in all the glory of his
matchless strength, his soul possessed of the lust of combat, sword in
hand, warding off the attack that rains upon him, and dealing death about
him, he meets his end.  From the walls of Viana his resplendent armour
renders him still discernible, until, like a sun to its setting, he
passes below the rim of that ravine, and is lost to the watcher's view.

Death awaited him amid the shadows of that hollow place.

Unhorsed by now, he fought with no concern for the odds against him, and
did sore execution upon his assailants, ere a sword could find an opening
in his guard to combine with a gap in his armour and so drive home.  That
blade had found, maybe, his lungs.  Still he swung his sword, swaying now
upon his loosening knees.  His mouth was full of blood.  It was growing
dark.  His hands began to fail him.  He reeled like a drunkard, sapped of
strength, and then the end came quickly.  Blows unwarded showered upon
him now.

He crashed down in all the glory of his rich armour, which those brigand-
soldiers already coveted.  And thus he died--mercifully, maybe happily,
for he had no time in which to taste the bitterness of death--that awful
draught which he had forced upon so many.

Within a few moments of his falling, this man who had been a living
force, whose word had carried law from the Campagna to the Bolognese, was
so much naked, blood-smeared carrion--for those human vultures stripped
him to the skin; his very shirt must they have.  And there, a stark,
livid corpse, of no more account than any dog that died last Saturday,
they left Cesare Borgia of France, Duke of Romagna and Valentinois,
Prince of Andria, and Lord of a dozen Tyrannies.

The body was found there anon by those who so tardily rode after their
leader, and his dismayed troopers bore those poor remains to Viana.  The
king, arriving there that very day, horror-stricken at the news and sight
that awaited him, ordered Cesare a magnificent funeral, and so he was
laid to rest before the High Altar of Sainte Marie de Viane.

To rest?  May the soul of him rest at least, for men--Christian men--have
refused to vouchsafe that privilege to his poor ashes.

Nearly two hundred years later--at the close of the seventeenth century,
a priest of God and a bishop, one who preached a gospel of love and mercy
so infinite that he dared believe by its lights no man to have been
damned, came to disturb the dust of Cesare Borgia.  This Bishop of
Calahorra--lineal descendant in soul of that Pharisee who exalted himself
in God's House, thrilled with titillations of delicious horror at the
desecrating presence of the base publican--had his pietist's eyes
offended by the slab that marked Cesare Borgia's resting-place.(1)

1  It bore the following legend:


which, more or less literally may be Englished as follows: "Here in a
little earth, lies one whom all did fear; one whose hands dispensed both
peace and war.  Oh, you that go in search of things deserving praise, if
you would praise the worthiest, then let your journey end here, nor
trouble to go farther."

The pious, Christian bishop had read of this man--perhaps that life of
him published by the apostate Gregorio Leti under the pen-name of Tommaso
Tommasi, which had lately seen the light--and he ordered the tomb's
removal from that holy place.  And thus it befell that the ashes of
Cesare Borgia were scattered and lost.

Charlotte d'Albret was bereft of her one friend, Queen Jeanne, in that
same year of Cesare's death.  The Duchess of Valentinois withdrew to La
Motte­Feuilly, and for the seven years remaining of her life was never
seen other than in mourning; her very house was equipped with sombre,
funereal furniture, and so maintained until her end, which supports the
view that she had conceived affection and respect for the husband of whom
she had seen so little.

On March 14, 1514, that poor lady passed from a life which appears to
have offered her few joys.

Louise de Valentinois--a handsome damsel of the age of fourteen--remained
for three years under the tutelage of the Duchess of Angoulême--the
mother of King Francis I--to whom Charlotte d'Albret had entrusted her
child.  Louise married, at the age of seventeen, Louis de la Trémouille,
Prince de Talmont and Vicomte de Thouars, known as the Knight Sans Peur
et Sans Reproche.  She maintained some correspondence with her aunt,
Lucrezia Borgia, whom she had never seen, and ever signed herself "Louise
de Valentinois."  At the age of thirty--Trémouille having been killed at
Pavia--she married, in second nuptials, Philippe de Bourbon-Busset.

Lucrezia died in 1519, one year after her mother, Vanozza de'Catanei,
with whom she corresponded to the end.



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