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C.M.G., V.D., L.R.C.S.I., Colonel A.A.M.C. Late O.C. 4th Field Ambulance, late A.D.M.S. New Zealand and Australian Division
ANGUS & ROBERTSON LTD.
89 CASTLEREAGH STREET
W.C. Penfold & Co. Ltd., Printers,
183 Pitt Street, Sydney.
THE OFFICERS, NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND MEN OF THE 4th FIELD AMBULANCE, A.I.F., OF WHOSE LOYALTY AND DEVOTION TO DUTY THE WRITER HEREBY EXPRESSES HIS DEEP APPRECIATION.
Shortly after the outbreak of War—after the first contingent had been mobilised, and while they were undergoing training—it became evident that it would be necessary to raise another force to proceed on the heels of the first. Three Infantry Brigades with their Ambulances had already been formed; orders for a fourth were now issued, and naturally the Ambulance would be designated Fourth Field Ambulance.
The Fourth Brigade was composed of the 13th Battalion (N.S.W.), 14th (Victoria), 15th (Queensland) and 16th (Western Australia)—commanded respectively by Lieutenant-Colonel Burnage, Lieutenant-Colonel Courtnay, Lieutenant-Colonel Cannon and Lieutenant-Colonel Pope. The Brigade was in charge of Colonel Monash, V.D., with Lieutenant-Colonel McGlinn as his Brigade Major.
As it will be necessary from time to time to allude to the component parts of the Ambulance, it may be as well to describe how an ambulance is made up. It is composed of three sections, known as A, B, and C, the total of all ranks being 254 on a war strength. It is subdivided into Bearer, Tent and Transport Divisions. Each section has its own officers, and is capable of acting independently. Where there is an extended front, it is frequently desirable to detach sections and send them to positions where the work is heaviest.
As the name implies, the Bearers convey the wounded to the dressing station (or Field Hospital, as the case may be). Those in the Tent Division dress the cases and perform nursing duties, while the Transport Division undertakes their conveyance to Base Hospital.
It was decided to recruit the Fourth Field Ambulance from three States, A Section from Victoria, B from South Australia, C from Western Australia. Recruiting started in Broadmeadows, Victoria, on the 19th October, 1914, and thirty men enrolled from New South Wales were included in A Section. Towards the end of November B Section from South Australia joined us, and participated in the training. On the 22nd December we embarked on a transport forming one of a convoy of eighteen ships. The nineteenth ship —— joined after we left Albany.
Details from the Ambulance were supplied to different ships and the officers distributed among the fleet. Our last port in Australia was Albany, which was cleared on the last day of 1914—a beautiful night and clear day, with the sea as smooth as the proverbial glass.
The fleet was arranged in three lines, each ship being about three lengths astern of the one ahead. The sight was most inspiriting, and made one feel proud of the privilege of participation. The —— towed the submarine AE2, and kept clear of the convoy, sometimes ahead, then astern, so that we viewed the convoy from all points.
The day after leaving Albany a steamer, which proved to be the ——, joined us with C Section of our Ambulance. Signals were made for the —— —— to move ahead and the —— to drop astern, the —— moving into the vacant place. The manoeuvre was carried out in a most seamanlike manner, and Captain Young of the —— received many compliments on his performance.
Three days later a message was flagged from the —— that Major Stewart (who commanded the C Section of the Ambulance) was ill with enteric, and that his condition was serious. The flagship then sent orders (also by flag) "Colonel Beeston will proceed to —— and will remain there until next port. —— to provide transport." A boat was hoisted out, and Sergeant Draper as a nurse, Walkley my orderly, my little dog Paddy and I were lowered from the boat deck. What appeared smooth water proved to a long undulating swell; no water was shipped, but the fleet at times was not visible when the boat was in the trough of the sea.
However, the —— was manoeuvred so as to form a shelter, and we gained the deck by means of the companion ladder as comfortably as if we had been in harbour. Major Stewart's illness proved to be of such a nature that his disembarkation at Colombo was imperative, and on our arrival there he was left in the hospital.
The heat in the tropics was very oppressive, and the horses suffered considerably. One day all the ships carrying horses were turned about and steamed for twenty minutes in the opposite direction in order to obtain a breath of air for the poor animals. In the holds the temperature was 90° and steamy at that. The sight of horses down a ship's hold is a novel one. Each is in a stall of such dimensions that the animal cannot be knocked about. All heads are inwards, and each horse has his own trough. At a certain time in the day lucerne hay is issued. This is the signal for a prodigious amount of stamping and noise on the part of the animals. They throw their heads about, snort and neigh, and seem as if they would jump over the barriers in their frantic effort to get a good feed. Horses on land are nice beasts, but on board ship they are a totally different proposition. One intelligent neddy stabled just outside my cabin spent the night in stamping on an adjacent steam pipe; consequently my sleep was of a disturbed nature, and not so restful as one might look for on a sea voyage. When he became tired, the brute on the opposite side took up the refrain, so that it seemed like Morse signalling on a large scale.
We reached Colombo on the 13th January, and found a number of ships of various nationalities in the harbour. Our convoy almost filled it. We were soon surrounded by boats offering for sale all sorts of things, mostly edibles. Of course no one was allowed on board.
After arranging for Major Stewart's accommodation at the hospital, we transferred from the —— to the ——. The voyage was resumed on the 15th. When a few days out, one of the ships flagged that there were two cases of appendicitis on board. The convoy was stopped; the ship drew near ours, and lowered a boat with the two cases, which was soon alongside. Meanwhile a large box which had been made by our carpenter was lowered over the side by a winch on the boat deck; the cases were placed in it and hoisted aboard, where the stretcher-bearers conveyed them to the hospital. Examination showed that operation was necessary in both cases, and the necessary preparations were made.
The day was a glorious one—not a cloud in the sky, and the sea almost oily in its smoothness. As the hospital was full of cases of measles, it was decided to operate on deck a little aft of the hospital. A guard was placed to keep inquisitive onlookers at a distance, and the two operations were carried out successfully. It was a novel experience to operate under these conditions. When one looked up from the work, instead of the usual tiled walls of a hospital theatre, one saw nothing but the sea and the transports. After all, they were ideal conditions; for the air was absolutely pure and free from any kind of germ.
While the convoy was stopped, the opportunity was taken to transfer Lieutenant-Colonel Bean from the —— to the ——. There had been a number of fatal cases on board the latter vessel, and it was deemed advisable to place a senior officer on board.
On arrival at Aden I had personal experience of the worth of the Red Cross Society. A number of cases had died aboard one of the transports, and I had to go over to investigate. The sea was fairly rough, the boat rising and falling ten or twelve feet. For a landsman to gain a ladder on a ship's side under these conditions is not a thing of undiluted joy. Anyhow I missed the ladder and went into the water. The first fear one had was that the boat would drop on one's head; however, I was hauled on board by two hefty sailors. The inspection finished, we were rowed back to our own ship, wet and cold. By the time "home" was reached I felt pretty chilly; a hot bath soon put me right, and a dressing gown was dug out of the Red Cross goods supplied to the ship, in which I remained while my clothes were drying. Sewn inside was a card on which was printed: "Will the recipient kindly write his personal experiences to George W. Parker, Daylesford, Victoria, Australia." I wrote to Mr. Parker from Suez. I would recommend everyone sending articles of this kind to put a similar notice inside. To be able to acknowledge kindness is as gratifying to the recipient as the knowledge of its usefulness is to the giver.
The voyage to Suez (which was reached on the 28th January) was uneventful. We arrived there about 4 in the morning and found most of our convoy around us when we got on deck at daylight. Here we got news of the Turks' attack on the Canal. We heard that there had been a brush with the Turks, in which Australians had participated, and all the ships were to be sandbagged round the bridge. Bags of flour were used on the ——.
The submarine cast off from the —— outside and came alongside our ship. I was invited to go and inspect her, and Paddy accompanied me. On going below, however, I left him on the deck, and by some means he slipped overboard (this appears to run in the family on this trip); one of the crew fished him out, and he was sent up on to the ——. When I got back I found Colonel Monash, the Brigadier, running up and down the deck with the dog so that he would not catch cold! The Colonel was almost as fond of the dog as I was.
All along the canal we saw troops entrenched—chiefly Indians. This at the time was very novel—we little knew then how familiar trenches would become. At various points—about every four or five miles-a warship was passed. The troops on each ship stood to attention and the bugler blew the general salute. Port Said was reached in the afternoon, and here a great calamity overtook me. Paddy was lost! He was seen going ashore in the boat which took the mails. Though orders were out against any one's leaving the ship, Colonel Monash offered me permission to go and look for him. With Sergeant Nickson and Walkley I started off and tramped through all sorts of slums and places, without any success. Finally we returned to the water front, where one of the natives (a little more intelligent than the others) took me to the Custom House close by. One of the officials could speak a little English, and in response to my enquiry he turned up a large book. Then I saw, among a lot of Egyptian writing, PADDY 4 A.M.C. MORMON. This corresponded to his identity disc, which was round his neck. He was out at the abattoirs, where after a three-mile drive we obtained him. His return to the ship was hailed by the men with vociferous cheers.
On arrival at Alexandria we made arrangements for the disembarkation of all our sick, Lieutenant-Colonel Beach superintending their transport. We left soon after by rail for Heilwan, arriving after nightfall. A guide was detailed to conduct us to camp, and we set out to march a couple of miles across the desert. It was quite cold, so that the march was rather good; but, loaded as we were, in full marching order and soft after a long sea voyage, it was a stiff tramp. In the pitch dark, as silent as the grave, we stumbled along, and finally arrived at the camp outside Heliopolis, a place known as the Aerodrome.
Lieutenant-Colonel Sutherland and Major Helsham were camped with their Ambulance close by, and with most kindly forethought had pitched our tents for us. We just lay down in our greatcoats and slept until morning. Our Brigade was camped just across the road, and formed part of the New Zealand and Australian Division under General Sir Alexander Godley.
Training soon began, and everyone seemed full of the idea of making himself "fit." Our peace camps and continuous training at home look very puny and small in comparison with the work which now occupied our time. At manoeuvres the number of troops might be anything up to thirty thousand. To march in the rear of such a column meant that each of the Ambulances soon swallowed its peck of dirt. But with it all we were healthy and vigorous. As an Ambulance we practiced all sorts of movements. Under supposition that we might have to retreat suddenly, the whole camp would be struck, packed on the waggon and taken down the Suez road, where it was pitched again, ready to receive patients; then tents would be struck and a return made to camp. Or we would make a start after nightfall and practise the movements without lights; the transport handling the horses in the dark. Or the different sections would march out independently, and concentrate on a point agreed upon. It was great practice, but in the end not necessary; for we went, not to France, as we expected, but to Gallipoli, where we had no horses. However, it taught the men to believe in themselves. That period of training was great. Everyone benefited, and by the beginning of April we felt fit for anything.
We were exceedingly well looked after in the way of a standing camp. Sand of course was everywhere, but when watered it became quite hard, and the quadrangle made a fine drill ground. Each unit had a mess house in which the men had their meals; there was an abundant supply of water obtained from the Nile, so that shower baths were plentiful. Canteens were established, and the men were able to supplement their rations. The Y.M.C.A. erected buildings for the men's entertainment, which served an excellent purpose in keeping the troops in camp. Cinematographs showed pictures, and all round the camp dealers established shops, so that there was very little inducement for men to leave at night. A good deal of our time was occupied in weeding out undesirables from the Brigade. Thank goodness, I had not to send a man from the Ambulance back for this reason.
Apart from the instructive side of our stay in Egypt, the sojourn was most educational. We were camped just on the edge of the Land of Goshen; the place where Joseph obtained his wife was only about a mile away from my tent, and the well where the Virgin Mother rested with our Saviour was in close proximity. The same water wheels are here as are mentioned in the Bible, and one can see the camels and asses brought to water, and the women going to and fro with pitchers on their heads. Then in the museum in Cairo one could see the mummy of the Pharaoh of Joseph's time. All this made the Bible quite the most interesting book to read.
The troops having undergone pretty strenuous training, we were inspected by Sir Ian Hamilton, who was to command us in the forthcoming campaign. Then, early in April, the commanding officers of units were assembled at Headquarters and the different ships allotted. Finally, on the evening of the 11th April, our camp was struck, and; we bade good-bye to Heliopolis. The waggons were packed and the Ambulance moved off, marching to the Railway Station in Cairo. Nine-thirty was the time fixed for our entraining, and we were there on the minute—and it was as well that such was the case, for General Williams stood at the gate to watch proceedings.
The waggons with four horses (drivers mounted, of course) were taken at a trot up an incline, through a narrow gateway on to the platform. The horses were then taken out and to the rear, and the waggons placed on the trucks by Egyptian porters.
We had 16 vehicles, 69 horses, 10 officers and 245 men. The whole were entrained in 35 minutes. The General was very pleased with the performance, and asked me to convey his approbation to the men. Certainly they did well.
At midnight we left Cairo and arrived at daybreak at Alexandria, the train running right on to the wharf, alongside which was the transport to convey us to Gallipoli—the Dardanelles we called it then. Loading started almost immediately, and I found that I—who in ordinary life am a peaceful citizen and a surgeon by profession—had to direct operations by which our waggons were to be removed from the railway trucks on to the wharf and thence to the ship's hold. Men with some knowledge of the mysteries of steam winches had to be specially selected and instructed in these duties, and I—well, beyond at times watching a ship being loaded at Newcastle, I was as innocent of their details as the unborn babe. However, everyone went at it, and the transport was loaded soon after dinner. We had the New Zealand Battery of Artillery, Battery Ammunition Column, 14th Battalion Transport and Army Service Corps with us, the whole numbering 560 men and 480 horses. At 4 p.m. the ship cast off, and we went to the outer harbour and began to shake down. The same hour the next day saw us under weigh for the front. The voyage was quite uneventful, the sea beautifully calm, and the various islands in the Egean Sea most picturesque. Three days later we arrived at Lemnos, and found the harbour (which is of considerable size) packed with warships and transports. I counted 20 warships of various sizes and nationalities. The Agamemnon was just opposite us, showing signs of the damage she had received in the bombardment of the Turkish forts a couple of months before. We stayed here a week, and every day practised going ashore in boats, each man in full marching order leaving the ship by the pilot ladder.
It is extraordinary how one adapts oneself to circumstances. For years it has been almost painful to me to look down from a height; as for going down a ladder, in ordinary times I could not do it. However, here there was no help for it; a commanding officer cannot order his men to do what he will not do himself, so up and down we went in full marching order. Bearer work was carried out among the stony hills which surround the harbour.
Finally, on the 24th April, the whole armada got under weigh, headed by the Queen Elizabeth, or as the men affectionately termed her, "Lizzie." We had been under steam for only about four hours when a case of smallpox was reported on board. As the captain informed me he had time to spare, we returned to Lemnor and landed the man, afterwards proceeding on our journey. At night the ship was darkened. Our ship carried eight horse-boats, which were to be used by the 29th Division in their landing at Cape Helles.
Just about dawn on Sunday the 25th I came on deck and could see the forms of a number of warships in close proximity to us, with destroyers here and there and numbers of transports. Suddenly one ship fired a gun, and then they were all at it, the Turks replying in quick time from the forts on Seddul Bahr, as well as from those on the Asiatic side. None of our ships appeared to be hit, but great clouds of dust were thrown up in the forts opposite us. Meanwhile destroyers were passing us loaded with troops, and barges filled with grim and determined-looking men were being towed towards the shore. One could not help wondering how many of them would be alive in an hour's time. Slowly they neared the cliffs; as the first barge appeared to ground, a burst of fire broke out along the beach, alternately rifles and machine guns. The men leaped out of the barges—almost at once the firing on the beach ceased, and more came from halfway up the cliff. The troops had obviously landed, and were driving the Turks back. After a couple of hours the top of the cliff was gained; there the troops became exposed to a very heavy fire from some batteries of artillery placed well in the rear, to which the warships attended as soon as they could locate them. The Queen Elizabeth was close by us, apparently watching a village just under the fort. Evidently some guns were placed there. She loosed off her two fifteen-inch guns, and after the dust had cleared away we could see that new streets had been made for the inhabitants. Meanwhile the British had gained the top and were making headway, but losing a lot of men—one could see them falling everywhere.
The horse-boats having been got overboard, we continued our voyage towards what is now know as Anzac. Troops—Australians and New Zealanders—were being taken ashore in barges. Warships were firing apparently as fast as they could load, the Turks replying with equal cordiality. In fact, as Captain Dawson remarked to me, it was quite the most "willing" Sunday he had ever seen.
Our troops were ascending the hills through a dwarf scrub, just low enough to let us see the men's heads, though sometimes we could only locate them by the glint of the bayonets in the sunshine. Everywhere they were pushing on in extended order, but many falling. The Turks appeared to have the range pretty accurately. About mid-day our men seemed to be held up, the Turkish shrapnel appearing to be too much for them. It was now that there occurred what I think one of the finest incidents of the campaign. This was the landing of the Australian Artillery. They got two of their guns ashore, and over very rough country dragged them up the hills with what looked like a hundred men to each. Up they went, through a wheat-field, covered and plastered with shrapnel, but with never a stop until the crest of the hill on the right was reached. Very little time was wasted in getting into action, and from this time it became evident that we were there to stay.
The practice of the naval guns was simply perfect. They lodged shell after shell just in front of the foremost rank of our men; in response to a message asking them to clear one of the gullies, one ship placed shell after shell up that gully, each about a hundred yards apart, and in as straight a line as if they were ploughing the ground for Johnny Turk, instead of making the place too hot to hold him.
The Turks now began to try for this warship, and in their endeavours almost succeeded in getting the vessel we were on, as a shell burst right overhead.
The wounded now began to come back, and the one hospital ship there was filled in a very short time. Every available transport was then utilised for the reception of casualties, and as each was filled she steamed off to the base at Alexandria. As night came on we appeared to have a good hold of the place, and orders came for our bearer division to land. They took with them three days' "iron" rations, which consisted of a tin of bully beef, a bag of small biscuits, and some tea and sugar, dixies, a tent, medical comforts, and (for firewood) all the empty cases we could scrape up in the ship. Each squad had a set of splints, and every man carried a tourniquet and two roller bandages in his pouch. Orders were issued that the men were to make the contents of their water-bottles last three days, as no water was available on shore.
The following evening the remainder of the Ambulance, less the transport, was ordered ashore. We embarked in a trawler, and steamed towards the shore in the growing dusk as far as the depth of water would allow. The night was bitterly cold, it was raining, and all felt this was real soldiering. None of us could understand what occasioned the noise we heard at times, of something hitting the iron deck houses behind us; at last one of the men exclaimed: "Those are bullets, sir," so that we were having our baptism of fire. It was marvellous that no one was hit, for they were fairly frequent, and we all stood closely packed. Finally the skipper of the trawler, Captain Hubbard, told me he did not think we could be taken off that night, and therefore intended to drop anchor. He invited Major Meikle and myself to the cabin, where the cook served out hot tea to all hands. I have drunk a considerable number of cups of tea in my time, but that mug was very, very nice. The night was spent dozing where we stood, Paddy being very disturbed with the noise of the guns.
At daylight a barge was towed out and, after placing all our equipment on board, we started for the beach. As soon as the barge grounded, we jumped out into the water (which was about waist deep) and got to dry land. Colonel Manders, the A.D.M.S. of our Division, was there, and directed us up a gully where we were to stay in reserve for the time being, meantime to take lightly-wounded cases. One tent was pitched and dug-outs made for both men and patients, the Turks supplying shrapnel pretty freely. Our position happened to be in rear of a mountain battery, whose guns the Turks appeared very anxious to silence, and any shells the battery did not want came over to us. As soon as we were settled down I had time to look round. Down on the beach the 1st Casualty Clearing Station (under Lieutenant-Colonel Giblin) and the Ambulance of the Royal Marine Light Infantry were at work. There were scores of casualties awaiting treatment, some of them horribly knocked about. It was my first experience of such a number of cases. In civil practice, if an accident took place in which three or four men were injured, the occurrence would be deemed out of the ordinary: but here there were almost as many hundreds, and all the flower of Australia. It made one feel really that, in the words of General Sherman, "War is hell," and it seemed damnable that it should be in the power of one man, even if be he the German Emperor, to decree that all these men should be mutilated or killed. The great majority were just coming into manhood with all their life before them. The stoicism and fortitude with which they bore their pain was truly remarkable. Every one of them was cheery and optimistic; there was not a murmur; the only requests were for a cigarette or a drink of water. One felt very proud of these Australians, each waiting his turn to be dressed without complaining. It really quite unnerved me for a time. However, it was no time to allow the sentimental side of one's nature to come uppermost.
I watched the pinnaces towing the barges in. Each pinnace belonged to a warship and was in charge of a midshipman—dubbed by his shipmates a "snotty." This name originates from the days of Trafalgar. The little chaps appear to have suffered from chronic colds in the head, with the usual accompaniment of a copious flow from the nasal organs. Before addressing an officer the boys would clean their faces by drawing the sleeve of their jacket across the nose; and, I understand that this practice so incensed Lord Nelson that he ordered three brass buttons to be sewn on the wristbands of the boys' jackets. However, this is by the way. These boys, of all ages from 14 to 16, were steering their pinnaces with supreme indifference to the shrapnel falling about, disdaining any cover and as cool as if there was no such thing as war. I spoke to one, remarking that they were having a great time. He was a bright, chubby, sunny-faced little chap, and with a smile said: "Isn't it beautiful, sir? When we started, there were sixteen of us, and now there are only six!" This is the class of man they make officers out of in Britain's navy, and while this is so there need be no fear of the result of any encounter with the Germans.
Another boy, bringing a barge full of men ashore, directed them to lie down and take all the cover they could, he meanwhile steering the pinnace and standing quite unconcernedly with one foot on the boat's rail.
Casualties began to come in pretty freely, so that our tent was soon filled. We now commenced making dug-outs in the side of the gully and placing the men in these. Meantime stores of all kinds were being accumulated on the beach—stacks of biscuits, cheese and preserved beef, all of the best. One particular kind of biscuit, known as the "forty-niners," had forty-nine holes in it, was believed to take forty-nine years to bake, and needed forty-nine chews to a bite. But there were also beautiful hams and preserved vegetables, and with these and a tube of Oxo a very palatable soup could be prepared. A well-known firm in England puts up a tin which they term an Army Ration, consisting of meat and vegetables, nicely seasoned and very palatable. For a time this ration was eagerly looked for and appreciated, but later on, when the men began to get stale, it did not agree with them so well; it appeared to be too rich for many of us. We had plenty of jam, of a kind—one kind. Oh! how we used to revile the maker of "Damson and Apple'!" The damson coloured it, and whatever they used for apple gave it body.
One thing was good all the time, and that was the tea. The brand never wavered, and the flavour was always full. Maynard could always make a good cup of it. It has been already mentioned that water was not at first available on shore. This was soon overcome, thanks to the Navy. They convoyed water barges from somewhere, which they placed along shore; the water was then pumped into our water carts, and the men filled their water-bottles from them. The water, however, never appeared to quench our thirst. It was always better made up into tea, or taken with lime juice when we could get it.
Tobacco, cigarettes and matches were on issue, but the tobacco was of too light a brand for me, so that Walkley used to trade off my share of the pernicious weed for matches. The latter became a precious commodity. I have seen three men light their pipes from one match. Captain Welch was very independent; he had a burning glass, and obtained his light from the sun. After a few days the R.M.L.I. were ordered away, and we were directed to take up their position on the beach. A place for operating was prepared by putting sandbags at either end, the roof being formed by planks covered with sandbags and loose earth. Stanchions of 4 x 4 in. timber were driven into the ground, with crosspieces at a convenient height; the stretcher was placed on these, and thus an operating table was formed. Shelves were made to hold our instruments, trays and bottles; these were all in charge of Staff-Sergeant Henderson, a most capable and willing assistant. Close by a kitchen was made, and a cook kept constantly employed keeping a supply of hot water, bovril, milk and biscuits ready for the men when they came in wounded, for they had to be fed as well as medically attended to.
One never ceased admiring our men, and their cheeriness under these circumstances and their droll remarks caused us many a laugh. One man, just blown up by a shell, informed us that it was a —— of a place—'no place to take a lady.' Another told of the mishap to his "cobber," who picked up a bomb and blew on it to make it light; "all at once it blew his —— head off—Gorblime! you would have laughed!" For lurid and perfervid language commend me to the Australian Tommy. Profanity oozes from him like music from a barrel organ. At the same time, he will give you his idea of the situation, almost without exception in an optimistic strain, generally concluding his observation with the intimation that "We gave them hell." I have seen scores of them lying wounded and yet chatting one to another while waiting their turn to be dressed. The stretcher-bearers were a fine body of men. Prior to this campaign, the Army Medical Corps was always looked upon as a soft job. In peacetime we had to submit to all sorts of flippant remarks, and were called Linseed Lancers, Body-snatchers, and other cheery and jovial names; but, thanks to Abdul and the cordiality of his reception, the A.A.M.C. can hold up their heads with any of the fighting troops. It was a common thing to hear men say: "This beach is a hell of a place! The trenches are better than this." The praises of the stretcher-bearers were in all the men's mouths; enough could not be said in their favour. Owing to the impossibility of landing the transport, all the wounded had to be carried; often for a distance of a mile and a half, in a blazing sun, and through shrapnel and machine-gun fire. But there was never a flinch; through it all they went, and performed their duty. Of our Ambulance 185 men and officers landed, and when I relinquished command, 43 remained. At one time we were losing so many bearers, that carrying during the day-time was abandoned, and orders were given that it should only be undertaken after night-fall. On one occasion a man was being sent off to the hospital ship from our tent in the gully. He was not very bad, but he felt like being carried down. As the party went along the beach, Beachy Bill became active; one of the bearers lost his leg, the other was wounded, but the man who was being carried down got up and ran! All the remarks I have made regarding the intrepidity and valour of the stretcher-bearers apply also to the regimental bearers. These are made up from the bandsmen. Very few people think, when they see the band leading the battalion in parade through the streets, what happens to them on active service. Here bands are not thought of; the instruments are left at the base, and the men become bearers, and carry the wounded out of the front line for the Ambulance men to care for. Many a stretcher-bearer has deserved the V.C.
One of ours told me they had reached a man severely wounded in the leg, in close proximity to his dug-out. After he had been placed on the stretcher and made comfortable, he was asked whether there was anything he would like to take with him. He pondered a bit, and then said: "Oh! you might give me my diary—I would like to make a note of this before I forget it!"
It can be readily understood that in dealing with large bodies of men, such as ours, a considerable degree of organization is necessary, in order to keep an account, not only of the man, but of the nature of his injury (or illness, as the case may be) and of his destination. Without method chaos would soon reign. As each casualty came in he was examined, and dressed or operated upon as the necessity arose. Sergeant Baxter then got orders from the officer as to where the case was to be sent. A ticket was made out, containing the man's name, his regimental number, the nature of his complaint, whether morphia had been administered and the quantity, and finally his destination. All this was also recorded in our books, and returns made weekly, both to headquarters and to the base. Cases likely to recover in a fortnight's time were sent by fleet-sweeper to Mudros; the others were embarked on the hospital ship. They were placed in barges, and towed out by a pinnace to a trawler, and by that to the hospital ship, where the cases were sorted out. When once they had left the beach, our knowledge of them ceased, and of course our responsibility. One man arriving at the hospital ship was describing, with the usual picturesque invective, how the bullet had got into his shoulder. One of the officers, who apparently was unacquainted with the Australian vocabulary, said: "What was that you said, my man?" The reply came, "A blightah ovah theah put a bullet in heah."
At a later period a new gun had come into action on our left, which the men christened "Windy Annie." Beachy Bill occupied the olive grove, and was on our right. Annie was getting the range of our dressing station pretty accurately, and requisition on the Engineers evoked the information that sandbags were not available. However, the Army Service came to our rescue with some old friends, the "forty-niners." Three tiers of these in their boxes defied the shells just as they defied our teeth.
As the sickness began to be more manifest, it became necessary to enlarge the accommodation in our gully. The hill was dug out, and the soil placed in bags with which a wall was built, the intervening portion being filled up with the remainder of the hill. By this means we were able to pitch a second tent and house more of those who were slightly ill. It was in connection with this engineering scheme that I found the value of W.O. Cosgrove. He was possessed of a good deal of the suaviter in modo, and it was owing to his dextrous handling of Ordnance that we got such a fine supply of bags. This necessitated a redistribution of dug-outs, and a line of them was constructed sufficient to take a section of bearers. The men christened this "Shrapnel Avenue." They called my dug-out "The Nut," because it held the "Kernel." I offer this with every apology. It's not my joke.
The new dug-outs were not too safe. Murphy was killed there one afternoon, and Claude Grime badly wounded later on. Claude caused a good deal of amusement. He had a rooted objection to putting on clothes and wore only a hat, pants, boots and his smile. Consequently his body became quite mahogany-coloured. When he was wounded he was put under an anæsthetic so that I could search for the bullet. As the anæsthetic began to take effect, Claude talked the usual unintelligible gibberish. Now, we happened to have a Turkish prisoner at the time, and in the midst of Claude's struggles and shouts in rushed an interpreter. He looked round, and promptly came over to Claude, uttering words which I suppose were calculated to soothe a wounded Turk; and we had some difficulty in assuring him that the other man, not Claude, was the Turk he was in quest of.
4th Field Ambulance in Head Quarters Gully.
4th Field Ambulance Dressing Station on the beach.
The German aeroplanes flew over our gully pretty regularly. As first we were rather perturbed, as they had a nasty habit of dropping bombs, but as far as I know they never did any damage. Almost all the bombs dropped into the water. One of them sent some steel arrows down, about six or eight inches in length, with a metal point something like a carpenter's bit. In order to conceal our tents, we covered them with holly-bushes, cut and placed over the canvas. Our aeroplanes were constantly up, and were easily recognised by a red ring painted underneath, while the Taube was adorned with a large black cross; but after we had been there a little time we found it was not necessary to use glasses in order to ascertain whose flying machine was over us; we were able to tell by listening, as their engines had a different sound from those belonging to us.
Our aeroplanes were the source of a good deal of annoyance to the Turks. They continually fired at them, but, as far as I was able to judge, never went within cooee of one. The bursts of shrapnel away in the air made a pretty sight, puffs of white smoke like bits of cotton-wool in succession, and the aeroplane sailing unconcernedly along. It appears to be very difficult to judge distance away in the air, and even more difficult to estimate the rate at which the object is travelling. What became of the shell-cases of the shrapnel used to puzzle us. One day Walkley remarked that it was peculiar that none fell on us. I replied "surely there is plenty of room other than where we are for them to fall." Scarcely were the words uttered than down one came close by. We knew it was a case from above and not one fired direct, because the noise was so different.
The hydroplanes used by the Navy were interesting. Floating on the water, they would gather way and soar upwards like a bird. Their construction was different from that of the aeroplanes.
A captive balloon was used a good deal to give the ranges for the warships. It was carried on the forepart of a steamer and was, I believe, in connection with it by telephone or wireless.
We kept up the custom of having an officers' mess right through the campaign. When we first landed, while everything was in confusion, each man catered for himself; but it was a lonely business, and not conducive to health. When a man cooked his own rations he probably did not eat much. So a dug-out was made close to the hospital tent, and we all had our meals together. A rather pathetic incident occurred one day. Just after we had finished lunch three of us were seated, talking of the meals the "Australia" provided, when a fragment of shell came through the roof on to the table and broke one of the enamel plates. This may seem a trivial affair and not worth grousing about; but the sorry part of it was that we only had one plate each, and this loss entailed one man having to wait until the others had finished their banquet.
I have elsewhere alluded to the stacks of food on the beach. Amongst them bully beef was largely in evidence. Ford, our cook, was very good in always endeavouring to disguise the fact that "Bully" was up again. He used to fry it; occasionally he got curry powder from the Indians and persuaded us that the resultant compound was curried goose; but it was bully beef all the time. Then he made what he called rissoles—onions entered largely into their framework, and when you opened them you wanted to get out into the fresh air. Preserved potatoes, too, were very handy. We had them with our meat, and what remained over we put treacle on, and ate as pancakes. Walkley and Betts obtained flour on several occasions, and made very presentable pancakes. John Harris, too, was a great forager—he knew exactly where to put his hand on decent biscuits, and the smile with which he landed his booty made the goods toothsome in the extreme. Harris had a gruesome experience. One day he was seated on a hill, talking to a friend, when a shell took the friend's head off and scattered his brains over Harris.
Before leaving the description of the officers' mess, I must not omit to introduce our constant companions, the flies. As Australians we rather prided ourselves on our judgment regarding these pests, and in Gallipoli we had every opportunity of putting our faculties to the test. There were flies, big horse flies, blue flies, green flies, and flies. They turned up everywhere and with everything. While one was eating one's food with the right hand, one had to keep the left going with a wisp, and even then the flies beat us. Then we always had the comforting reflection of those dead Turks not far away—the distance being nothing to a fly. In order to get a little peace at one meal in the day, our dinner hour was put back until dusk. Men wounded had a horrible time. Fortunately we had a good supply of mosquito netting purchased with the Red Cross money. It was cut up into large squares and each bearer had a supply.
On the 23rd of May anyone looking down the coast could see a man on Gaba Tepe waving a white flag. He was soon joined by another occupied in a like manner. Some officers came into the Ambulance and asked for the loan of some towels; we gave them two, which were pinned together with safety pins. White flags don't form part of the equipment of Australia's army.
Seven mounted men had been observed coming down Gaba Tepe, and they were joined on the beach by our four. The upshot was that one was brought in blindfolded to General Birdwood. Shortly after we heard it announced that a truce had been arranged for the following day in order to bury the dead.
The following morning Major Millard and I started from our right and walked up and across the battle-field. It was a stretch of country between our lines and those of the Turks, and was designated No Man's Land. At the extreme right there was a small farm; the owner's house occupied part of it, and was just as the man had left it. Our guns had knocked it about a good deal. In close proximity was a field of wheat, in which there were scores of dead Turks. As these had been dead anything from a fortnight to three weeks their condition may be better imagined than described. One body I saw was lying with the leg shattered. He had crawled into a depression in the ground and lay with his great-coat rolled up for a pillow; the stains on the ground showed that he had bled to death, and it can only be conjectured how long he lay there before death relieved him of his sufferings. Scores of the bodies were simply riddled with bullets. Midway between the trenches a line of Turkish sentries were posted. Each was in a natty blue uniform with gold braid, and top boots, and all were done "up to the nines." Each stood by a white flag on a pole stuck in the ground. We buried all the dead on our side of this line and they performed a similar office for those on their side. Stretchers were used to carry the bodies, which were all placed in large trenches. The stench was awful, and many of our men wore handkerchiefs over their mouths in their endeavour to escape it. I counted two thousand dead Turks. One I judged to be an officer of rank, for the bearers carried him shoulder-high down a gully to the rear. The ground was absolutely covered with rifles and equipment of all kinds, shell-cases and caps, and ammunition clips. The rifles were all collected and the bolts removed to prevent their being used again. Some of the Turks were lying right on our trenches, almost in some of them. The Turkish sentries were peaceable-looking men, stolid in type and of the peasant class mostly. We fraternised with them and gave them cigarettes and tobacco. Some Germans were there, but they viewed us with malignant eyes. When I talked to Colonel Pope about it afterwards he said the Germans were a mean lot of beggars: "Why," said he most indignantly, "they came and had a look into my trenches." I asked "What did you do?" He replied, "Well, I had a look at theirs."
The day after the armistice, at fifteen minutes after noon, I was in my dug-out when one of the men exclaimed that something was wrong with the Triumph. I ran out and was in time to see the fall of the water sent up by the explosive. It was a beautifully calm day, and the ship was about a mile and a quarter from us; she had a decided list towards us, and it was evident that something was radically wrong. With glasses one could see the men lined up in two ranks as if on parade, without the least confusion. Then two destroyers went over and put their noses on each side of the big ship's bows; all hands from the Triumph marched aboard the destroyers. She was gradually heeling over, and all movables were slipping into the sea. One of the destroyers barked three or four shots at something which we took to be the submarine. In fifteen minutes the Triumph was keel up, the water spurting from her different vent pipes as it was expelled by the imprisoned air. She lay thus for seventeen minutes, gradually getting lower and lower in the water, when quietly her stern rose and she slipped underneath, not a ripple remaining to show where she had sunk. I have often read of the vortex caused by a ship sinking, but as far as I could see there was in this case not the slightest disturbance. It was pathetic to see this beautiful ship torpedoed and in thirty-two minutes at the bottom of the sea. I believe the only lives lost were those of men injured by the explosion. Meanwhile five destroyers came up from Helles at a terrific speed, the water curling from their bows; they and all the other destroyers circled round and round the bay, but the submarine lay low and got off. Her commander certainly did his job well.
After the torpedoing of the Triumph here, and the Majestic in the Straits all the big ships left and went to Mudros, as there was no sense in leaving vessels costing over a million each to the mercy of submarines. This gave the destroyers the chance of their lives. Up to this they had not been allowed to speak, but now they took on much of the bombardment required. They were constantly nosing about, and the slightest movement on the part of the Turks brought forth a bang from one of their guns. If a Turk so much as winked he received a rebuke from the destroyer. The Naval men all appeared to have an unbounded admiration for the Australians as soldiers, and boats rarely came ashore without bringing some fresh bread or meat or other delicacy; their tobacco, too, was much sought after. It is made up from the leaf, and rolled up in spun yarn. The flavour is full, and after a pipe of it—well, you feel that you have had a smoke.
We had a good many Indian regiments in the Army Corps. The mountain battery occupied a position on "Pluggey's Plateau" in the early stage of the campaign, and they had a playful way of handing out the shrapnel to the Turks. It was placed in boiling water to soften the resin in which the bullets are held. By this means the bullets spread more readily, much to the joy of the sender and the discomfiture of Abdul. The Indians were always very solicitous about their wounded. When one came in to be attended to, he was always followed by two of his chums bearing, one a water bottle, the other some food, for their caste prohibits their taking anything directly from our hands. When medicine had to be administered, the man came in, knelt down, and opened his mouth, and the medicine was poured into him without the glass touching his lips. Food was given in the same way. I don't know how they got on when they were put on the ship. When one was killed, he was wrapped up in a sheet and his comrades carried him shoulder-high to their cemetery, for they had a place set apart for their own dead. They were constantly squatting on their haunches making a sort of pancake. I tasted one; but it was too fatty and I spat it out, much to the amusement of the Indians.
One of them saw the humorous side of life. He described to Mr. Henderson the different attitudes adopted towards Turkish shells by the British, Indian and Australian soldiers. "British Tommy," said he, "Turk shell, Tommy says 'Ah!' Turk shell, Indian say 'Oosh!' Australian say 'Where the hell did that come from?'"
The Divisional Ammunition Column was composed of Sikhs, and they were a brave body of men. It was their job to get the ammunition to the front line, so that they were always fair targets for the Turks. The mules were hitched up in threes, one in rear of the other, each mule carrying two boxes of ammunition. The train might number anything from 15 to 20 mules. All went along at a trot, constantly under fire. When a mule was hit he was unhitched, the boxes of ammunition were rolled off, and the train proceeded; nothing stopped them. It was the same if one of the men became a casualty; he was put on one side to await the stretcher-bearers—but almost always one of the other men appeared with a water bottle.
They were very adept in the management of mules. Frequently a block would occur while the mule train occupied a sap; the mules at times became fractious and manipulated their hind legs with the most marvellous precision—certainly they placed a good deal of weight in their arguments. But in the midst of it all, when one could see nothing but mules' heels, straps and ammunition boxes, the Indian drivers would talk to their charges and soothe them down. I don't know what they said, but presume it resembled the cooing, coaxing and persuasive tongue of our bullock-driver. The mules were all stalled in the next gully to ours, and one afternoon three or four of us were sitting admiring the sunset when a shell came over. It was different from that usually sent by Abdul, being seemingly formed of paper and black rag; someone suggested, too, that there was a good deal of faultiness in the powder. From subsequent inquiries we found that what we saw going over our dug-outs was Mule! A shell had burst right in one of them, and the resultant mass was what we had observed. The Ceylon Tea Planter's Corps was bivouacked just below us and were having tea at the time; their repast was mixed with mule.
Donkeys formed part of the population of the Peninsula. I am referring here to the four-footed variety, though, of course, others were in evidence at times. The Neddies were docile little beasts, and did a great deal of transport work. When we moved out in August, orders were issued that all equipment was to be carried. I pointed out a drove of ten of these little animals, which appeared handy and without an owner, and suggested to the men that they would look well with our brand on. It took very little time to round them up, cut a cross in the hair on their backs and place a brassard round their ears. They were then our property. The other type of donkey generally indulged in what were known as Furfys or Beachograms. Furfy originated in Broadmeadows, Victoria; the second title was born in the Peninsula. The least breath of rumour ran from mouth to mouth in the most astonishing way. Talk about a Bush Telegraph! It is a tortoise in its movements compared with a Beachogram. The number of times that Achi Baba fell cannot be accurately stated but it was twice a day at the least. A man came in to be dressed on one occasion; suddenly some pretty smart rifle fire broke out on the right. "Hell!" said the man, "what's up?" "Oh!" said Captain Dawson, "There's a war on—didn't you hear about it?"
One thing that was really good in Anzac was the swimming. At first we used to dive off the barges; then the Engineers built Watson's pier, at the end of which the water was fifteen feet deep and as clear as crystal, so that one could see every pebble at the bottom. At times the water was very cold, but always invigorating. General Birdwood was an enthusiastic swimmer, but he always caused me a lot of anxiety. That pier was well covered by Beachy Bill, and one never knew when he might choose to give it his attention. This did not deter the General. He came down most regularly, sauntered out to the end, went through a lot of Sandow exercises and finally jumped in. He then swam out to a buoy moored about a quarter of a mile away. On his return he was most leisurely in drying himself. Had anything happened to him I don't know what the men would have done, for he was adored by everyone.
Swimming was popular with all hands. Early in the campaign we had a Turkish attack one morning; it was over by midday, and an hour later most of the men were in swimming. I think it not unlikely that some of the "missing" men were due to this habit. They would come to the beach and leave their clothes and identity discs ashore, and sometimes they were killed in the water. In this case there was no possibility of ascertaining their names. It often struck me that this might account for some whose whereabouts were unknown.
While swimming, the opportunity was taken by a good many to soak their pants and shirts, inside which there was, very often, more than the owner himself. I saw one man fish his pants out; after examining the seams, he said to his pal: "They're not dead yet." His pal replied "Never mind, you gave them a —— of a fright." These insects were a great pest, and I would counsel friends sending parcels to the soldiers to include a tin of insecticide; it was invaluable when it could be obtained. I got a fright myself one night. A lot of things were doing the Melbourne Cup inside my blanket. The horrible thought suggested itself that I had got "them" too, but a light revealed the presence of fleas. These were very large able-bodied animals and became our constant companions at nighttime; in fact, one could only get to sleep after dosing the blanket with insecticide.
My little dog Paddy enjoyed the swim almost as much as I did. He was a great favourite with everybody but the Provost-Martial. This official was a terror for red tape, and an order came out that dogs were to be destroyed. That meant that the Military Police were after Paddy. However, I went to General Birdwood, who was very handsome about it, and gave me permission to keep the little chap. Almost immediately after he was reprieved he ran down to the Provost-Martial's dug-out and barked at him. Paddy was very nearly human. One day we were down as usual when Beachy Bill got busy, and I had to leave the pier with only boots and a smile on. I took refuge behind my old friends the biscuits, and Paddy ran out to each shell, barking until it exploded. Finally one burst over him and a bullet perforated his abdomen. His squeals were piteous. He lived until the next day, but he got a soldier's burial.
We saw a good many Turkish prisoners at one time or another, and invariably fraternised with them. They were kept inside a barbed-wire enclosure with a guard over them; but there was no need to prevent their escape—they would not leave if they got the chance. On one occasion twelve of them were told to go some distance into the scrub and bring in some firewood. No one was sent with them, the idea being to encourage them to go to their lines and persuade some of the Turks to desert to us. But they were like the cat; they all came back—with the firewood.
I saw two of our men on one occasion bringing in a prisoner. They halted on the hill opposite us, and one of them went to headquarters to ascertain how the prisoner was to be disposed of. In a very short time he was surrounded by fourteen or fifteen of our soldiers, trying to carry on a conversation, and giving him cigarettes and in fact anything he would accept. An hour before they had been trying their best to shoot one another. In one of the attacks on our left the Turks were badly beaten off and left a lot of their dead close up to our trenches. As it was not safe to get over and remove the bodies, a number of boat-hooks were obtained, and with them the bodies were pulled in to our trenches. One of the "bodies" proved to be a live Turk who had been unable to get back to his line for fear of being shot by our men. He was blindfolded and sent down to the compound with the other prisoners.
The difficulty of obtaining sufficient exercise was very great at times. We only held a piece of territory under a square mile in extent, and none of it was free from shell or rifle-fire, so that our perambulations were carried on under difficulty. Major Meikle and I had our regular walk before breakfast. At first we went down the beach towards Gaba Tepe, and then sat for a while talking and trying to see what we could see; but a sniper apparently used to watch for us, for we were invariably saluted by the ping of a rifle in the distance and the dust of the bullet in close proximity to our feet. We concluded that, if we continued to walk in this direction someone would be getting hurt, so our walks were altered to the road round "Pluggey's Plateau." We were seated there one morning when our howitzer in the gully was fired, and we felt that the shell was not far from where we sat. We went down to the Battery, and I interrogated some of the gunners. "How far off the top of that hill does that shell go?" said I. "About a yard, sir," replied the man; "one time we hit it." I asked him if it would be convenient for the battery to elevate a bit if we were sitting there again.
The postal arrangements on the whole were good, considering the circumstances under which the mails were handled. It was always a matter of interest for all of us when we saw mail-bags in the barges, whether or no we were to participate in the good luck of receiving letters. And here I might make the suggestion to correspondents in Australia to send as many snap-shot photos. as possible. They tell more than a letter, for one can see how the loved ones are looking. Papers were what we needed most, and we got very few indeed of these. I wrote home once that I was fortunate in having a paper to read that had been wrapped round greasy bacon. This was a positive fact. We were up the gully at the advance dressing station, and a machine gun was playing right down the position. Four men were killed and six wounded right in front of us, so that it was not prudent to leave until night fell. It was then that reading matter became so necessary. The paper was the Sydney Morning Herald and contained an advertisement stating that there was a vacancy for two boarders at Katoomba; I was an applicant for the vacancy. The Bulletin was a God-send when it arrived, as was Punch. Norman Morris occasionally got files of the Newcastle Morning Herald, which he would hand on to us, as there were a lot of men from the Newcastle district in the Ambulance. Later on it was possible to register a small parcel in the Field Post Office—for home.
In order to keep the health of the troops good it was necessary to be exceedingly careful in the matter of sanitation. Lieutenant-Colonel Millard was the Sanitary Officer for our Division, and Lieutenant-Colonel Stokes for the 1st Australian Division.
The garbage at first was collected in casks, placed in a barge and conveyed out into the bay; it was found, however, that a lot of it drifted back. It reminded one so much of Newcastle and Stockton. The same complaints were made by the men on the right as are put forth by Stockton residents regarding the Newcastle garbage. We, of course, occupied the position of the Newcastle Council, and were just as vehement in our denial of what was a most obvious fact. The situation was exactly the same—only that, instead of dead horses, there were dead mules. Three incinerators were started, enclosures built up with stone, and a fire lighted. This was effective, but gave rise to a very unpleasant smell along the beach. The only time I was shot was from an incinerator; a cartridge had been included in the rubbish and exploded just as I was passing. The bullet gave me a nasty knock on the shin.
It was a fairly common practice among men just arrived to put a cartridge in their fire just to hear the noise. Of course down on the beach it was not usual to hear a rifle fired at close range, and the sound would make everybody look up to "see where the —— that came from." The discovery of the culprit would bring out a chorus from the working parties: "Give him a popgun, give him a popgun!" "Popgun" was preceded by the usual Australian expletive.
The water found on the Peninsula was always subjected to careful examination, and, before the troops were allowed to use it notices were placed on each well stating whether the water was to be boiled or if only to be used for washing.
Everyone knows of Simpson and his donkey. This man belonged to one of the other Ambulances, but he made quite frequent trips backwards and forwards to the trenches, the donkey always carrying a wounded man. Simpson was frequently warned of the danger he ran, for he never stopped, no matter how heavy the firing was. His invariable reply was "My troubles!" The brave chap was killed in the end. His donkey was afterwards taken over by Johnstone, one of our men, who improvised stirrups out of the stretcher-slings, and conveyed many wounded in this manner.
No account of the war would be complete without some mention of the good work of the chaplains. They did their work nobly, and gave the greatest assistance to the bearers in getting the wounded down. I came into contact chiefly with those belonging to our own Brigade. Colonel Green, Colonel Wray, and Captain Gillitson; the latter was killed while trying to get one of our men who had been wounded. Services were held whenever possible, and sometimes under very peculiar circumstances. Once service was being conducted in the gully when a platoon was observed coming down the opposite hill in a position exposed to rifle fire. The thoughts of the audience were at once distracted from what the Padre was expounding by the risk the platoon was running; and members of the congregation pointed out the folly of such conduct, emphasizing their remarks by all the adjectives in the Australian vocabulary. Suddenly a shell burst over the platoon and killed a few men. After the wounded had been cared for, the Padre regained the attention of his congregation and gave out the last verse of "Praise God from Whom all blessings flow." There was one man for whom I had a great admiration—a clergyman in civil life but a stretcher-bearer on the Peninsula—Private Greig McGregor. He belonged to the 1st Field Ambulance, and I frequently saw him. He always had a stretcher, either carrying a man or going for one, and in his odd moments he cared for the graves of those who were buried on Hell Spit. The neatness of many of them was due to his kindly thought. He gained the D.C.M., and richly deserved it.
All the graves were looked after by the departed one's chums. Each was adorned with the Corps' emblems: thus the Artillery used shell caps, the Army Medical Corps a Red Cross in stone, etc.
Mules in a Gully.
Graves of Major Ellis and Lieut.-Col. Braund.
Wounded being placed on Hospital Ship.
Stretcher Bearers carrying Col. Cox.
The Engineers did wonderfully good work, and to a layman their ingenuity was most marked. Piers were made out of all sorts of things; for instance, a boat would be sunk and used as a buttress, then planks put over it for a wharf. They built a very fine pier which was afterwards named Watson's. Again, the "monkey" of a pile driver they erected was formed out of an unexploded shell from the Goeben. This warship, a German cruiser taken over by the Turks, was in the Sea of Marmora, and occasionally the Commander in a fit of German humour would fire a few shells over Gallipoli neck into the bay—a distance of about eight or nine miles. As soon as the Goeben began firing, one of our aeroplanes would go up, and shortly afterwards the Queen Elizabeth could be seen taking up a position on our side of the Peninsula, and loosing off. Whether she hit the Goeben or not we never heard. It was Mafeesh.
The Engineers also made miles upon miles of roads and, furthermore, created the nucleus of a water storage. A number of large tanks from Egypt were placed high up on "Pluggey's," whence the water was reticulated into the far distant gullies.
One night in May the Turks made a fierce attack on us, apparently determined to carry out their oft-repeated threat of driving us into the sea. The shells just rained down over our gully, lighting up the dug-outs with each explosion. It was like Hell let loose. Word came up from the beach station that they were full of casualties and on getting down there one found that the situation had not been over-estimated. The whole beach was filled with stretchers, the only light being that from bursting shells. We worked hard all night operating and dressing, and when one had time to think, one's thoughts generally took the shape of wondering how the men were keeping the Turks off. It was useless to be sentimental, although many of my friends were amongst those injured; the work just had to be done in the best way possible.
One night a strong wind got up, just like our "Southerly Busters," and in the middle of it all firing began on our left. I heard that the Turks nearly got into the trenches, but they were beaten off and rolled right round the position—passed on, as it were, from battalion to battalion.
It was very interesting to watch the warships bombarding Turkish positions. One ship, attacking Achi Baba, used to fire her broadside, and on the skyline six clouds would appear at regular intervals, for all the world like windmills. On another occasion I watched two ships bombarding the same hill a whole afternoon. One would think there was not a square yard left untouched, and each shot seemed to lift half the hill. Twenty minutes after they had ceased firing, a battery of guns came out from somewhere and fired in their turn. They must have been in a tunnel to have escaped that inferno. One day we were up on "Pluggey's" while our beach was being shelled; at last the stack of ammunition caught fire and was blazing fiercely until some of the men got buckets and quenched the fire with sea water most courageously. Later a shell landed among a lot of dug-outs. There was quietness for a bit; then one man began scraping at the disturbed earth, then another; finally about six of them were shovelling earth away; at last a man appeared with his birthday suit for his only attire. He ran like a hare for the next gully, amid the yells of laughter of all who witnessed the occurrence. I think he had been swimming, and being disturbed by "Beachy," had run for a dug-out only to be buried by the shell.
That was the extraordinary thing about our soldiers. Shelling might be severe and searching, but only if a man was hit was it taken seriously. In that case a yell went up for stretcher-bearers; if it was a narrow squeak, then he was only laughed at.
That beach at times was the most unhealthy place in the Peninsula. Men frequently said they would sooner go back to the trenches. One day we had five killed and twenty-five wounded. Yet, had Johnny Turk been aware of it, he could have made the place quite untenable. I saw one shell get seven men who were standing in a group. The effect was remarkable. All screwed themselves up before falling. They were all lightly wounded.
About the middle of July I sent a corporal and two men over to Heliopolis with a letter to Lieutenant-Colonel Barrett, asking for some Red Cross goods. I had already received issue vouchers for two lots, but these had been intercepted in transit, so the men were ordered to sit on the cases until they gave delivery to the Ambulance. Fifty cases came, filled with pyjamas, socks, shirts, soap and all sorts of things. The day they arrived was very, very hot, and our hospital was full of men whose uniform had not been off since they landed. No time was lost in getting into the pyjamas, and the contented look on the men's faces would have gratified the ladies who worked so hard for the Red Cross. Talk about peace and contentment—they simply lolled about in the scrub smoking cigarettes, and I don't believe they would have changed places with a Federal Senator.
Those Red Cross goods saved one man's life at least. All the unopened cases were placed outside the tent. One afternoon a shell came over into a case of jam, went through it, and then into another containing socks. A man was lying under the shelter of this box, but the socks persuaded the shell to stay with them, and thus his life was saved. It was on this day that my nephew, Staff-Sergeant Nickson, was wounded. He had just left his dug-out to go to the dressing station on the beach when a shrapnel shell severely wounded him in the leg. The same shell killed Staff-Sergeant Gordon, a solicitor from Adelaide, and one of the finest characters I knew. He was shot through the spine and killed instantly. Two other men were wounded.
Our Ambulance was ordered to pitch a hospital up Canterbury Gully to provide for a possible outbreak of cholera, as almost every writer on the subject stated that, when European troops occupied trenches that had been previously held by Turks, an outbreak of cholera invariably followed. Major Clayton was detailed for the work, and soon had accommodation for a hundred men. As there was no cholera, the sick men were kept here. We had been so long in this place without a change, and so many troops were crowded into such a small area, without a possibility of real rest, that the men began to get very stale. Sickness was prevalent, and this hospital seemed to help them a great deal. It was a picture to see them all lying in their pyjamas reading the Bulletin and Punch, and swapping lies.
The New Zealanders held a concert here one night. Major Johnston, the O.C., filled the position of chairman, the chair being a cask. One man with a cornet proved a good performer; several others sang, while some gave recitations. We all sat round in various places in the gully, and joined in the choruses. It was very enjoyable while it lasted; but, as darkness came on, rifle-fire began on the tops of the surrounding hills—also, occasionally, shell fire. This completely drowned the sound of the performers' voices, and the concert had to be brought to a close; Abdul had counted us out.
Towards the end of July great preparations were made for an offensive movement, the object being to take Hill 971 and so turn the Turk's right. Large platforms were dug out of the hillsides in Monash Gully, each capable of holding three to five hundred men; they were constructed well below the sky line, and were fairly secure from shell fire. On these the incoming battalions were placed. There was not much room for sleep, but the main object seemed to be to have as many men handy as possible. The Turks seemed to be aware of the influx of troops, as they shelled the whole position almost all night. The beach, of course, was attended to most fervently, but considering the numbers of men landing few casualties occurred.
A 4.7 naval gun, which, I understand, had served in the relief of Ladysmith, was swathed in bags and landed on a barge, which conveyed it to a position alongside the pier. A party was put on to make a shield on the pier of boxes of our faithful friends the "forty-niners," in case there were any Turks of an enquiring turn of mind along the beach towards Suvla.
The Engineers then constructed a landing place, and the gun was hauled ashore, again covered up, and conveyed to its position on our right during the night. General Birdwood outwitted the Turks that time, as they did not fire a shot during the whole operation.
On the third of August we received orders to remove to the left flank, the right being held by the Australian Division which participated in the operation known afterwards as Lone Pine. The last day on the beach proved to be pretty hot with shelling, chiefly from Beachy Bill. A number of pinnaces were busy all day towing in barges from the transports, and this could be easily seen from the olive grove where Bill had his lair. At one time the shells came over like rain; two of the pinnaces were hit below the water-line, and were in imminent danger of sinking. Through all the shelling Commander Cater ran along the pier to give some direction regarding the pinnaces, but was killed before he got there. He was a brave man, and always very courteous and considerate.
Our casualties during this afternoon were pretty considerable, and our stretcher-bearers were constantly on the "go" getting men under shelter.
Early in the morning the Ghurkas came ashore, but the Turks spotted them, and gave them a cordial welcome to Anzac. They are a small-sized set of men, very dark (almost black), with Mongol type of face and very stolid. One was killed while landing. They were evidently not accustomed to shell-fire, and at first were rather scared, but were soon reassured when we told them where to stand in safety. Each carried in addition to his rifle a Kukri—a heavy, sharp knife, shaped something like a reaping-hook, though with a curve not quite so pronounced. It was carried in a leather case, and was as keen as a razor. I believe the Ghurkas' particular delight is to use it in lopping off arms at the shoulder-joint. As events turned out we were to see a good deal of these little chaps, and to appreciate their fighting qualities.
The 2nd Field Ambulance was to take our position on the beach. We packed up our panniers and prepared to leave the spot where we had done so much work during the last three months, and where we had been the unwilling recipients of so much attention from Beachy Bill and his friend Windy Annie. Our donkeys carried the panniers, and each man took his own wardrobe. Even in a place like this one collects rubbish, just as at home, and one had to choose just what he required to take away; in some cases this was very little, for each had to be his own beast of burden. Still, with our needs reduced to the minimum, we looked rather like walking Christmas-trees. The distance to Rest Gully was about a mile and a half, through saps and over very rough cobble-stones, and our household goods and chattels became heavy indeed before we halted; I know mine did.
Our Ambulance was attached to the Left Assaulting Column, which consisted of the 29th Indian Brigade, 4th Australian Infantry Brigade, Mountain Battery and one company of New Zealand Engineers under Brigadier-General Cox.
The commanding officers of all the ambulances in General Godley's Division met in the gully and had the operation orders explained to them by the A.D.M.S. of the Division, Colonel Manders, a very capable officer. To my great regret he was killed two days later; we had been acquainted for some time, and I had a great regard for him.
The 4th Infantry Brigade was to operate in what was known as the Aghyl Dere (Dere in Turkish means "gully"). The operation order gave out that we were to establish our Field Hospital in such a position as to be readily accessible for the great number of wounded we expected. Meantime, after making all arrangements for the move and ascertaining that each man knew his job exactly, we sat about for a while. The bombardment was to commence at 5 p.m. Precisely at that hour the Bacchante opened fire, the howitzers and our field guns co-operating, the Turks making a hearty response. The din was frightful. To make a man sitting beside me hear what I was saying, I had to shout at the top of my voice. However, there were not many men hit. We had tea—for which Walkley had got three eggs from somewhere, the first I had tasted since leaving Egypt. We tried to get some sleep, but that was impossible, the noise being so great; it was hard, too, to know where one was safe from bullets. Mr. Tute, the Quartermaster, and I got a dug-out fairly well up the hill, and turned in. We had not been long there when a machine-gun appeared to be trained right on to us—bullets were coming in quantities. It was pitch-dark, so we waited until they stopped, and then got further down the gully and tried to sleep there—but this particular dug-out had more than ourselves in it, and we passed the night hunting for things. The Division started to march out just after dark, the 4th Brigade leading. It was almost daylight before the rear of the column passed the place at which we were waiting. The men were all in great spirits, laughing and chaffing and giving the usual "Are we down'earted?". I think those men would laugh if they were going to be hanged. Our bearer divisions, in charge respectively of Captains Welch, Jeffries and Kenny, followed in rear of the Brigade, while the tent divisions came in rear of the whole column.
Major Meikle and I had often, like Moses viewing the Land of Promise, looked at the country over which the fight was now to take place—a stretch of flats about three miles long, from the beach up to the foot of the hills. As the day broke, we found a transformation at Nibronesi Point, which is the southernmost part of Suvla Bay. At nightfall not a ship was there; now there was a perfect forest of masts. The place looked like Siberia in Newcastle when there was a strike on. I counted ten transports, seven battle-cruisers, fourteen destroyers, twelve trawlers and a lot of pinnaces. These had landed the force which was afterwards known as the Suvla Bay Army. A balloon ship and five hospital ships were also at anchor in the bay. As we passed what was known as our No. 3 Outpost, we came across evidences of the fight—dead men, dead mules, equipment, ammunition boxes and rifles lying all over the place. We noted, too, little hillocks of sand here and there, from behind which the Turks had fired at our column. It was evident that our men had soon got in touch with the enemy and had driven him back. The Aghyl Dere proved to be a fairly wide gully with steep hills on either side. A little distance, about three quarters of a mile up, we came to what had been the Turkish Brigade Headquarters. Here everything was as they had left it. The surprise had been complete, and we had given them very short notice to quit. Clothing, rifles, equipment, copper pans and boilers were in abundance, and it was evident that Abdul makes war with regard to every comfort, for there were visible also sundry articles of wearing apparel only used by the gentler sex. The men had comfortable bivouacs and plenty of bed-clothing of various patterns. The camp was situated in a hollow, round in shape and about a hundred yards in diameter, with dug-outs in the surrounding hillsides; all was very clean, except for the fleas, of which a good assortment remained. The dug-outs were roofed in with waterproof sheets, buttoned together and held up by pegs which fitted into one another. These sheets, with the poles, made handy bivouac shelters, easily pitched and struck. Altogether, their camp equipment was better than ours.
We annexed all the pans and boilers and made good use of them for our own Ambulance. Then, proceeding further up the gully, we found it almost impassable by reason of dead Ghurkas and mules; a gun on a ridge had the range of this place to a nicety, and the ammunition train was held up for a time. I never saw such a mess of entangled mules; they were kicking and squealing, many of them were wounded, and through it all the Indian drivers were endeavouring to restore some kind of order. One had to keep close under the banks to escape the shells. Not far from here was the emplacement of our old friend "Windy Annie," but alas! Annie was constant to Abdul, and they had taken her with them. It was a great pity we did not get the gun. No wonder our guns never found the place. The ground had been dug out to some depth and then roofed over with great logs and covered with earth and sandbags; the ammunition—plenty of it—was in deep pits on either side; artillery quarters were in close proximity, and the tracks of the gun were clearly seen.
The shelling was far too heavy to let us pitch a dressing station anywhere here, so we retired to the beach to find a place more sheltered under the hills; the bearers meanwhile followed the troops. Soon scores of casualties began to arrive, and we selected a position in a dry creek about six yards wide, with high banks on either side. The operating tent was used as a protection from the sun and stretched from bank to bank, the centre being upheld by rifles lashed together; the panniers were used to form the operating table, and our drugs were placed round the banks. We were, however, much handicapped by not having any transport, as our donkeys had been requisitioned by the Army Service Corps. Everything had to be carried from a distance, and water was exceedingly scarce. All day we were treating cases and operating until late at night. Major Meikle and I divided the night, and we were kept going. From one until four in the morning I slept in a hole in a trench like a tomb.
At daylight we could see our men righting their way through the scrub over Sari Bair, the warships firing just ahead of them to clear the scrub of the Turkish Infantry. The foremost men carried flags, which denoted the farthest point reached and the extent of the two flanks, as a direction to the ship. With the glasses one could see that the bayonet was being used pretty freely; the Turks were making a great stand, and we were losing a lot of men. They could be seen falling everywhere.
Our bearers were doing splendid work; it was a long and dangerous carry, and a lot of them were wounded themselves. The miserable part of the affair was that the Casualty Clearing Station on the beach broke down and could not evacuate our wounded. This caused a block, and we had numbers of wounded on our hands. A block of a few hours can be dealt with, but when it is impossible to get cases away for forty hours the condition of the men is very miserable. However, we got the cooks going, and had plenty of Bovril and Oxo, which we boiled up with biscuits broken small. It made a very sustaining meal, but caused thirst, which was troublesome, as it was particularly difficult to obtain water. Shelter from the sun, too, was hard to get; the day was exceedingly hot, and there were only a few trees about. As many as could be got into the shade were put there, but we had to keep moving them round to avoid the sun. Many of the cases were desperate, but they uttered not a word of complaint—they all seemed to understand that it was not our fault that they were kept here.
As the cases were treated by us, they were taken down towards the beach and kept under cover as much as possible. At one time we had nearly four hundred waiting for removal to the ship. Then came a message asking for more stretchers to be sent to the firing line, and none were to be obtained; so we just had to remove the wounded from those we had, lay them on the ground, and send the stretchers up. Thank goodness, we had plenty of morphia, and the hypodermic syringe relieved many who would otherwise have suffered great agony.
Going through the cases, I found one man who had his arm shattered and a large wound in his chest. Amputation at the shoulder-joint was the only way of saving his life. Major Clayton gave the anaesthetic, and we got him through.
Quite a number of Ghurkas and Sikhs were amongst the wounded, and they all seemed to think that it was part of the game; patience loomed large among their virtues. Turkish wounded were also on our hands, and, though they could not speak our language, still they expressed gratitude with their eyes. One of the Turks was interrogated, first by the Turkish interpreter with no result; the Frenchman then had a go at him, and still nothing could be got out of him. After these two had finished, Captain Jefferies went over to the man and said, "Would you like a drink of water?" "Yes, please," was the reply.
During one afternoon, after we had been in this place for three days, a battalion crossed the ground between us and the beach. This brought the Turkish guns into action immediately, and we got the time of our lives. We had reached a stage when we regarded ourselves as fair judges of decent shell-fire, and could give an unbiassed opinion on the point, but—to paraphrase Kipling—what we knew before was "Pop" to what we now had to swallow. The shells simply rained on us, shrapnel all the time; of course our tent was no protection as it consisted simply of canvas, and the only thing to do was to keep under the banks as much as possible. We were jammed full of wounded in no time. Men rushing into the gully one after another, and even a company of infantry tried to take shelter there; but that, of course, could not be allowed. We had our Geneva Cross flag up, and their coming there only drew fire.
Getting Wounded off after a Fight.
Water Carts protected by Sand Bags
Burial Parties during the Armistice.
Simpson and his Donkey
In three-quarters of an hour we put through fifty-four cases. Many bearers were hit, and McGowen and Threlfall of the 1st Light Horse Field Ambulance were killed. Seven of our tent division were wounded. One man reported to me that he had been sent as a reinforcement, had been through Samoa, and had just arrived in Gallipoli. While he was speaking, he sank quietly down without a sound. A bullet had come over my shoulder into his heart. That was another instance of the fortune of war. Many men were hit, either before they landed or soon after, while others could go months with never a scratch. From 2 till 7 p.m. we dealt with 142 cases.
This shelling lasted for an hour or more, and when it subsided a party of men arrived with a message from Divisional Headquarters. They had been instructed to remove as many of the Ambulance as were alive. Headquarters, it appears, had been watching the firing. We lost very little time in leaving, and for the night we dossed down in the scrub a mile further along the beach, where we were only exposed to the fire of spent bullets coming over the hills. Our fervent prayer was that we had said good-bye to shells.
The new position was very nice; it had been a farm—in fact the plough was still there, made of wood, no iron being used in its construction. Blackberries, olives, and wild thyme grew on the place, and also a kind of small melon. We did not eat any; we thought we were running enough risks already; but the cooks used the thyme to flavour the bovril, and it was a nice addition.
Not far from us something happened that was for all the world like an incident described by Zola in his "Dèbacle," when during the bombardment before Sedan a man went on ploughing in a valley with a white horse, while an artillery duel continued over his head. Precisely the same thing occurred here—the only difference being that here a man persisted in looking after his cattle, while the guns were firing over his head.
Walkley and Betts proved ingenious craftsmen. They secured two wheels left by the Signalling Corps, and on these fastened a stretcher; out of a lot of the web equipment lying about they made a set of harness; two donkeys eventuated from somewhere, and with this conveyance quite a lot of transport was done. Water and rations were carried as well, and the saving to our men was great. Goodness knows the bearers were already sufficiently worked carrying wounded.
The Bacchante did some splendid firing, right into the trenches every time. With one shot, amongst the dust and earth, a Turk went up about thirty feet: arms and legs extended, his body revolving like a catherine wheel. One saw plenty of limbs go up at different times, but this was the only time when I saw a man go aloft in extenso.
It was while we were in this position that W.O. Henderson was hit; the bullet came through the tent, through another man's arm and into Mr. Henderson. He was a serious loss to the Ambulance, as since its inception he had had sole charge of everything connected with the supply of drugs and dressings, and I missed his services very much.
We were now being kept very busy and had little time for rest, numbers of cases being brought down. Our table was made of four biscuit boxes, on which were placed the stretchers. We had to be very sparing of water, as all had to be carried. The donkey conveyance was kept constantly employed. Whenever that party left we used to wonder whether they would return, for one part of the road was quite exposed to fire; but Betts and Walkley both pulled through.
One night I had just turned in at nine-thirty, when Captain Welch came up to say that a bad casualty had come in, and so many came in afterwards that it was three o'clock in the following morning before I had finished operating. While in the middle of the work I looked up and found G. Anschau holding the lantern. He belonged to the 1st Field Ambulance, but had come over to our side to give any assistance he could. He worked like a Trojan.
We still had our swim off the beach from this position. It will be a wonderful place for tourists after the war is over. For Australians particularly it will have an unbounded interest. The trenches where the men fought will be visible for a long time, and there will be trophies to be picked up for years to come. All along the flat land by the beach there are sufficient bullets to start a lead factory. Then searching among the gullies will give good results. We came across the Turkish Quartermaster's store, any quantity of coats and boots and bully beef. The latter was much more palatable than ours.
Our men had a novel way of fishing; they threw a bomb into the water, and the dead fish would either float and be caught or go to the bottom—in which case the water was so clear that they were easily seen. Wilson brought me two, something like a mackerel, that were delicious.
As there was still a good deal of delay in getting the cases off, our tent was brought over from Canterbury Gully and pitched on the beach; the cooks keeping the bovril and biscuits going. We could not maintain it there long, however, as the Turks' rifle-fire was too heavy, so the evacuation was all done from Walker's Ridge about two miles away. The Casualty Clearing Station here (the 16th) was a totally different proposition from the other one. Colonel Corkery was commanding officer, and knew his job. His command was exceedingly well administered, and there was no further occasion to fear any block in getting our wounded off.
Amongst the men who came in to be dressed was one wounded in the leg. The injury was a pretty bad one, though the bone was not fractured. The leg being uncovered, the man sat up to look at it. He exclaimed "Eggs a cook! I thought it was only a scratch!"
Our bearers did great work here, Sergeant Baber being in charge and the guiding spirit amongst them. Carberry from Western Australia proved his worth in another manner. The 4th Brigade were some distance up the gully and greatly in want of water. Carberry seems to have the knack of divining, for he selected a spot where water was obtained after sinking. General Monash drew my attention to this, and Carberry was recommended for the D.C.M.
Early in August, soon after Colonel Manders was killed, I was promoted to his position as Assistant Director of Medical Services, or, as it is usually written, A.D.M.S. On this I relinquished command of the 4th Field Ambulance, and though I appreciated the honour of the promotion yet I was sorry to leave the Ambulance. We had been together so long, and through so much, and every member of it was of such sterling worth, that when the order came for me to join Headquarters I must say that my joy was mingled with regret. Everyone—officers, non-commissioned officers and men—had all striven to do their level best, and had succeeded. With one or two exceptions it was our first experience on active service, but all went through their work like veterans. General Godley, in whose division we were, told me how pleased he was with the work of the Ambulance and how proud he was to have them in his command. The Honour list was quite sufficient to satisfy any man. We got one D.S.O., two D.C.M.s, and sixteen "Mentioned in Despatches." Many more deserved recognition, but then all can't get it.
Major Meikle took charge, and I am sure the same good work will be done under his command. Captain Dawson came over with me as D.A.D.M.S. He had been Adjutant from the start until the landing, when he "handed over" to Captain Finn, D.S.O., who was the dentist. Major Clayton had charge of C Section; Captains Welch, Jeffries and Kenny were the officers in charge of the Bearer Divisions. Jeffries and Kenny were both wounded. Captain B. Finn, of Perth, Western Australia, was a specialist in eye and ear diseases. Mr. Cosgrove was the Quartermaster, and Mr. Baber the Warrant Officer; Sergeant Baxter was the Sergeant Clerk. To mention any of the men individually would be invidious. They were as fine a set of men as one would desire to command. In fact, the whole Ambulance was a very happy family, all doing their bit and doing it well.
On the 21st of August an attack was made on what were know as the W Hills—so named from their resemblance to that letter of the alphabet. Seated on a hill one had a splendid view of the battle. First the Australians went forward over some open ground at a slow double with bayonets fixed, not firing a shot; the Turks gave them shrapnel and rifle-fire, but very few fell. They got right up to the first Turkish trench, when all the occupants turned out and retired with more speed than elegance. Still our men went on, taking a few prisoners and getting close to the hills, over which they disappeared from my view. Next, a battalion from Suvla came across as supports. The Turks meanwhile had got the range to a nicety; the shrapnel was bursting neatly and low and spreading beautifully—it was the best Turkish shooting I had seen. The battalion was rather badly cut up, but a second body came across in more open order than the others, and well under the control of their officers; they took advantage of cover, and did not lose so many men. The fight was more like those one sees in the illustrated papers than any hitherto—shells bursting, men falling, and bearers going out for the wounded. The position was gained and held, but there was plenty of work for the Ambulance.
There were very few horses on the Peninsula, and those few belonged to the Artillery. But at the time I speak of we had one attached to the New Zealand and Australian Headquarters, to be used by the despatch rider. Anzac, the Headquarters of General Birdwood, was about two and a half miles away; and, being a true Australian, the despatch-carrier declined to walk when he could ride, so he rode every day with despatches. Part of the journey had to be made across a position open to fire from Walker's Ridge. We used to watch for the man every day, and make bets whether he would be hit. Directly he entered the fire zone, he started as if he were riding in the Melbourne Cup, sitting low in the saddle, while the bullets kicked up dust all round him. One day the horse returned alone, and everyone thought the man had been hit at last; but in about an hour's time he walked in. The saddle had slipped, and he came off and rolled into a sap, whence he made his way to us on foot.
When going through the trenches it is not a disadvantage to be small of stature. It is not good form to put one's head over the sandbags; the Turks invariably objected, and even entered their protest against periscopes, which are very small in size. Numbers of observers were cut about the face and a few lost their eyes through the mirror at the top being smashed by a bullet. On one occasion I was in a trench which the men were making deeper. A rise in the bottom of it just enabled me, by standing on it, to peer through the loophole. On commending the man for leaving this lump, he replied, "That's a dead Turk, sir!"
Watching the Field Artillery firing is very interesting. I went one day with General Johnstone of the New Zealand Artillery to Major Standish's Battery, some distance out on the left, and the observing station was reached through a long sap. It was quite close to the Turk's trenches, close enough to see the men's faces. All directions were given by telephone, and an observer placed on another hill gave the result of the shot—whether under, over, or to the right or left. Errors were corrected and the order to fire again given, the target meanwhile being quite out of sight of the battery commander.
It was amusing to hear the heated arguments between the Artillery and Infantry, in which the latter frequently and vehemently asseverated that they "could have taken the sanguinary place only our own Artillery fired on them." They invariably supported these arguments by the production of pieces of shell which had "blanky near put their Australian adjective lights out." Of course the denials of the Artillery under these accusations were very emphatic; but the production of the shell-fragments was awkward evidence, and it was hard to prove an alibi.
The advent of the hospital ship Maheno resulted in a pleasant addition to our dietary, as the officers sent ashore some butter, fresh bread and a case of apples. The butter was the first I had tasted for four and a half months. The Maheno belonged to the Union Company, and had been fitted up as a hospital ship under the command of Colonel Collins. He was the essence of hospitality, and a meal on board there was a dream.
While we were away along the beach for a swim one afternoon, the Turks began shelling our quarters. It had not happened previously, and everyone thought we were out of range. The firing lasted for about an hour and a half. I fully expected that the whole place would be smashed. On the contrary, beyond a few mules and three men hit, nothing had happened, and there was little in the ground to show the effects of the firing. (I noticed the same with regard to the firing of the naval guns. They appeared to lift tons of earth, but when one traversed the position later very little alteration could be detected.) The Turks, however started at night again, and one shot almost buried me in my dug-out.
The number of transports that came in and out of Anzac while we were there was marvellous, and a great tribute to the British Navy. There is no question as to who is Mistress of the Sea. Occasionally we heard of one being torpedoed, but considering the number constantly going to and fro those lost were hardly noticeable. The Southland was torpedoed while we were in Gallipoli, and Major Millard (who was on board) told me that there was not the slightest confusion, and only one life was lost.
One cannot conclude these reminiscences without paying a tribute to Abdul as a fighting man. All I know about him is in his favour. We have heard all about his atrocities and his perfidy and unspeakablenesses, but the men we met fought fairly and squarely; and as for atrocities it is always well to hear the other side of the question. At the beginning of the campaign it was commonly reported that the Turks mutilated our wounded. Now I believe that to be an unmitigated lie, probably given a start by men who had never set foot in the Peninsula—or who, if they did, had taken an early opportunity of departure. We were in a position to know whether any mutilation had occurred, and I certainly saw none. I believe that similar reports were existent among the Turks regarding us, and I formed that opinion from the attitude and behaviour of one of the prisoners when I went to dress his wound. He uttered most piteous cries and his conduct led me to believe that he thought he was to be illtreated. I have mentioned before the class to which most of the prisoners were. They were always most grateful for any kindness shown them.
As to their sense of fair play, when the Triumph was sunk, they never fired on her—though I understand it would have been quite allowable directly the men set foot on another warship. Again, about a fortnight after the landing at Anzac, we tried to land a force at Gaba Tepe, but had to retire and leave our wounded. The Turks signalled us to bring them off, and then they never fired or abused the white flag. The third instance occurred on our left, when we made the advance in August. Our Ambulance was under a hill, and a howitzer battery took up a position just in front. The Turk sent word that either the Ambulance or the battery would have to move, otherwise they would be forced to fire on the Ambulance.
The shells we got on the beach could not be attributed to any disregard of the Red Cross, for they could not see the flag, and moreover the Ordnance was next to us, a thing utterly out of order, but unavoidable under the circumstances.
My career on the Peninsula came to a close at the end of September, when I fell ill and was put on the hospital ship. The same evening a very willing attack was put up by the Turk. One had a good and most interesting view, as one was in perfect safety. The bursting shells in the darkness were very picturesque.
Prior to going off we had often discussed the pleasure of getting between sheets and into a decent bed—how one would curl up and enjoy it. But my first night under those conditions was spent in tossing about, without a wink of sleep. It was too quiet. Being accustomed to be lulled to sleep by the noise of six-inch guns from a destroyer going over my dug-out, I could now hear a pin drop, and it was far too quiet. We found we were to be sent to England. Malta was no place in which to get rid of Mediterranean fever. The treatment the people of England give the Australians is handsome in the extreme. They cannot do enough to make them comfortable. Country houses are thrown open to the invalided men, perfect strangers though they are, and all are welcome.
Together with Major Courtenay (with whom I came over) I was taken to Lockleys, in Hertfordshire. Sir Evelyn and Lady de La Rue had a standing invitation at Horseferry Road, the Australian Military Headquarters, for six officers. We happened to be among the lucky ones to be included, and the kindness I received from our host and hostess will be remembered during the remainder of my life.
ANGUS & ROBERTSON
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Intending purchasers are requested to write direct to the publishers if they have any difficulty in obtaining the books required.
English and Foreign trade orders should be sent to the publishers whose names appear in the body of the Catalogue; where no other name appears, they should be sent to the Oxford University Press, Amen Corner, London, E.C.
The costs of postage stated herein apply only to the Commonwealth of Australia.
THE SONGS OF A SENTIMENTAL BLOKE.
By C.J. Dennis. Tenth thousand. With 14 full-page Drawings by Hal Gye and Foreword by Henry Lawson. Cloth, 3s. 6d.
THE BULLETIN (Sydney): "'The Songs of a Sentimental Bloke' is the most typically Australian book published for a decade. Its humour, its sentiment, its genuine humanity, are expressed with feeling and an assured poetic craftsmanship. C.J. Dennis is not only an Australian poet: he is a poet."
SYDNEY MORNING HERALD: "Bill is a wholly delightful person, and from what he tells us of Doreen, she must be equally delightful ... Mr. Hal Gye's illustrations deserve mention; their idea is distinctly original, and the scheme is carried out cleverly."
DAILY TELEGRAPH (Sydney): "Captivatingly fresh and original ... The verse is very human and clean, and its appeal is universal, for it depicts the simple emotions that are not confined to the class that uses dialect ... Sure to be popular, because it has the qualities of humour and lifelikeness. Also the feeling in it rings true."
THE ARGUS (Melbourne): "The genuine humour of these larrikin love poems is all the more effective because beneath the surface fun there is a suggestion of deeper feelings that ennoble men and unite them in the bonds of common fellow ship."
THE AGE (Melbourne): "'The Sentimental Bloke' is a striking conception and his portrayal masterly."
THE HERALD (Melbourne): "The Bloke is a character who is likely long to remain deservedly popular in this country's literature. 'The sonnet shining in the eyes' has been fixed by Mr. Dennis in what is certainly a classic of its class, and he secures an effect of true poetry without straining a simile or defying the canons of Australia's colloquial speech."
QUEENSLANDER: "A well-printed, cleverly-illustrated, and pleasant to handle little volume. The humour of the 'Sentimental Bloke' has an exquisite quality, its sentiment a tenderness, and its philosophy a soundness which compel attention ... genuine poetry ... a sensitive appreciation of the beautiful ... wholesome philosophy.. admirable verses."
THE THREE KINGS, AND OTHER VERSES.
By WILL LAWSON. With portrait. Cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d.; full morocco, gilt edges, 6s. (postage 2d.)
Will Lawson is a New Zealander who, through the Bulletin, has made an Australasian reputation. His verses are bright and lively, in the Kipling manner, and full of human interest.
A BOOK OF AUSTRALIAN VERSE FOR BOYS AND GIRLS.
Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by BERTRAM STEVENS. With numerous portraits. Cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d.; full morocco, gilt edges, 6s. (postage 2d.)
This book is thoroughly representative of the best Australian verse, and, although intended mainly as a selection suitable for young folks, it contains many pieces favoured by older readers. A number of the poems are not obtainable in any other book.
THE GOLDEN TREASURY OF AUSTRALIAN VERSE.
Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by BERTRAM STEVENS. New (fourth) edition, revised and enlarged. Cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d.; full morocco, gilt edges, 6s. (postage 2d.)
ATHENAEUM: "May be regarded as representative of the best short pieces written by Australians or inspired by life in Australia or New Zealand."
London: Macmillan & Co., Limited.
THE POETICAL WORKS OF BRUNTON STEPHENS.
As finally revised by the author, re-arranged and printed from new type, with photogravure portrait. Cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d.; full morocco, gilt edges, 6s. (postage 2d.)
THE TIMES: "This collection of the works of the Queensland poet, who has for a generation deservedly held a high place in Australian literature, well deserves study."
DAILY NEWS: "In turning over the pages of this volume, one is struck by his breadth, his versatility, his compass, as evidenced in theme, sentiment, and style."
WHERE THE DEAD MEN LIE AND OTHER POEMS.
By BARCROFT HENRY BOAKE. Second edition, revised and enlarged, with memoir, portraits, and 32 illustrations. Cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d.; full morocco, gilt edges, 6s. (postage 2d.)
J. BRUNTON STEPHENS, in THE BULLETIN: "Boake's work is often praised for its local colour; but it has something better than that. It has atmosphere—Australian atmosphere, that makes you feel the air of the place—breathe the breath of the life."
AT DAWN AND DUSK: Poems.
By VICTOR J. DALEY. Fourth edition. With photogravure portrait. Cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d.; full morocco, gilt edges, 6s. (postage 2d.)
BOOKMAN: "These verses are full of poetic fancy musically expressed."
SYDNEY MORNING HERALD: "The indefinable charm is here, and the spell, and the music.... A distinct advance for Australian verse in ideality, in grace and polish, in the study of the rarer forms of verse, and in the true faculty of poetic feeling and expression."
WINE AND ROSES: A New Volume of Poems.
By VICTOR J. DALEY. With portrait. Cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d.; full morocco, gilt edges, 6s. (postage 2d.)
DAILY TELEGRAPH: "Most of his verse is tinged with sadness—as in most Irish poetry—but there is a fine imaginative quality that lifts it to a far higher plane than that of the conventional melancholy rhymer. There are poems in this book that recall the magic of Rossetti.... Victor Daley has left his mark in the beginnings of an Australian literature."
HOW HE DIED, AND OTHER POEMS..
By JOHN FARRELL. Fourth edition. With memoir, appreciations, and photogravure portrait. Cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d.; full morocco, gilt edges, 6s. (postage 2d.)
MELBOURNE AGE: "Farrells contributions to the literature of this country were always distinguished by a fine, stirring optimism, a genuine sympathy, and an idealistic sentiment, which in the book under notice find their fullest expression."
THE MAN FROM SNOWY RIVER, AND OTHER VERSES.
By A.B. Paterson. Fifty-eighth thousand. With photogravure portrait and vignette title. Cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d.; full morocco, gilt edges, 6s. (postage 2d.)
ATHENAEUM: "Swinging, rattling ballads of ready humour, ready pathos, and crowding adventure ... Stirring and entertaining ballads about great rides, in which the lines gallop like the very hoofs of the horses."
London: Macmillan & Co., Limited.
RIO GRANDE'S LAST RACE, AND OTHER VERSES.
By A.B. Paterson. Seventeenth thousand. Cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d.; full morocco, gilt edges, 6s. (postage 2d.)
SPECTATOR: "There is no mistaking the vigour of Mr. Paterson's verse; there is no difficulty in feeling the strong human interest which moves in it."
London: Macmillan & Co., Limited.
THE SECRET KEY, AND OTHER VERSES.
By George Essex Evans. Second edition, with portrait. Cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d.; full morocco, gilt edges, 6s. (postage 2d.)
GLASGOW HERALD: "There is ... the breath of that apparently immortal spirit which has inspired ... almost all that is best in English higher song."
THE BOOKMAN: "Mr. Evans has written many charming and musical poems ... many pretty and haunting lines."
IN THE DAYS WHEN THE WORLD WAS WIDE, AND OTHER VERSES.
By Henry Lawson. Twentieth thousand. With photogravure portrait. Cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d.; full morocco, gilt edges, 6s. (postage 2d.)
THE ACADEMY: "These ballads (for such they mostly are) abound in spirit and manhood, in the colour and smell of Australian soil. They deserve the popularity which they have won in Australia, and which, we trust, this edition will now give them in England."
VERSES, POPULAR AND HUMOROUS.
By HENRY LAWSON. Eighteenth thousand. Cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d.; full morocco, gilt edges, 6s. (postage 2d.)
NEW YORK JOURNAL: "Such pride as a man feels when he has true greatness as his guest, this newspaper feels in introducing to a million readers a man of ability hitherto unknown to them. Henry Lawson is his name."
WHEN I WAS KING, AND OTHER VERSES.
By HENRY LAWSON. Tenth thousand. Cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d.; full morocco, gilt edges, 6s. (postage 2d.)
THE SPECTATOR: "A good deal of humour, a great deal of spirit, and a robust philosophy are the main characteristics of these Australian poets. Because they write of a world they know, and of feelings they have themselves shared in, they are far nearer the heart of poetry than the most accomplished devotees of a literary tradition."
ON THE TRACK AND OVER THE SLIPRAILS.
By HENRY LAWSON. Twentieth thousand. Cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d.; full morocco, gilt edges, 6s. (postage 2d.)
DAILY CHRONICLE: "Will well sustain the reputation its author has already won as the best writer of Australian short stories and sketches."
FAIR GIRLS AND GRAY HORSES, WITH OTHER VERSES.
By WILL H. OGILVIE. Revised edition, completing twentieth thousand. With portrait. Cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d.; full morocco, gilt edges, 6s. (postage 2d.)
SCOTSMAN: "Its verses draw their natural inspiration from the camp, the cattle trail, and the bush; and their most characteristic and compelling rhythms from the clatter of horses' hoofs."
HEARTS OF GOLD, AND OTHER VERSES.
By WILL H. OGILVIE. Fourth thousand. Cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d.; full morocco, gilt edges, 6s. (postage 2d.)
DAILY TELEGRAPH: "Will be welcomed by all who love the stirring music and strong masculine feeling of this poet's verse."
WHILE THE BILLY BOILS.
By HENRY LAWSON. With eight illustrations by F.P. Mahony. Thirty-second thousand. Cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d.; full morocco, gilt edges, 6s. (postage 2d.)
THE ACADEMY: "A book of honest, direct, sympathetic, humorous writing about Australia from within is worth a library of travellers' tales ... The result is a real book—a book in a hundred. His language is terse, supple, and richly idiomatic. He can tell a yarn with the best."
CHILDREN OF THE BUSH.
By HENRY LAWSON. Eleventh thousand. Cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d.; full morocco, gilt edges, 6s. (postage 2d.)
THE BULLETIN: "These stories are the real Australia, written by the foremost living Australian author ... Lawson's genius remains as vivid and human as when he first boiled his literary billy."
JOE WILSON AND HIS MATES.
By HENRY LAWSON. Eleventh thousand. Cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d.; full morocco, gilt edges, 6s. (postage 2d.)
THE ATHENAEUM: "This is a long way the best work Mr. Lawson has yet given us. These stories are so good that (from the literary point of view of course) one hopes they are not autobiographical. As autobiography they would be good, as pure fiction they are more of an attainment."
London: Wm. Blackwood & Sons.
LAURENCE HOPE'S LOVE LYRICS.
Uniformly bound in fancy boards with cloth back. 6s. (postage 3d.) per volume.
THE GARDEN OF KAMA.
DAILY CHRONICLE: "No one has so truly interpreted the Indian mind—no one, transcribing Indian thought into our literature, has retained so high and serious a level, and quite apart from the rarity of themes and setting—the verses remain—true poems."
STARS OF THE DESERT.
OUTLOOK: "It is not merely that these verses describe Oriental scenes and describe them with vividness, there is a feeling in the rhythm—a timbre of the words that seems akin to the sand and palm-trees and the changeless East."
SPECTATOR: "The poetry of Laurence Hope must hold a unique place in modern letters. No woman has written lines so full of a strange primeval savagery—a haunting music—the living force of poetry."
London: William Heinemann.
THE WITCH MAID, AND OTHER VERSES.
By DOROTHEA MACKELLAR. Cloth gilt, gilt top, 3s. 6d. (postage 2d.)
SYDNEY MORNING HERALD: "She possesses to a remarkable degree the faculty of conjuring up before our eyes an extraordinarily vivid picture in a single line or even a word or two. Miss Mackellar can grasp the essential spirit of a scene, and what is rarer still, can find words to make us, too, see it, where before we have been blind."
London: J.M. Dent & Co. Ltd.
TO-MORROW: A Dramatic Sketch of the Character and Environment of Robert Greene.
By J. LE GAY BRERETON. Paper cover, 1s. 6d. (postage 1d.)
SYDNEY MORNING HERALD: "The first Australian play of literary worth."
SONGS OF A SUNLIT LAND.
By COLONEL J.A. KENNETH MACKAY. Cloth gilt, 3s. 6d. (postage 2d.)
STORIES OF OLD SYDNEY.
By CHARLES H. BERTIE. With 53 pen and pencil drawings by SYDNEY URE SMITH. Cloth cover, printed in colours, 3s. 6d. (postage 1d.)
SYDNEY MORNING HERALD: "A charming and interesting little book ... they live and breathe, and he has contrived to make actual to us those remote and almost incredible days.... Mr. Smith's admirable illustrations are an equally important feature of the book, which, in addition to its interest, presents a great antiquarian value."
THE RISING OF THE COURT, AND OTHER SKETCHES IN PROSE AND VERSE.
By HENRY LAWSON. With picture cover (Commonwealth Series), 1s. (postage 1d.)
QUEENSLAND TIMES: "These stories show Lawson at his best, and Lawson at his best is not to be beaten by short story writers in current literature."
AN OUTBACK MARRIAGE: A Story of Australian Life.
By A.B. PATERSON. Ninth thousand, with picture cover (Commonwealth Series), 1s. (postage 1d.)
SCOTSMAN: "The chief virtue of the book lies in its fresh and vivid presentment of the wild life and the picturesque manners of the Australian bush, while in form and style it claims recognition as a work of considerable literary distinction."
THE OLD BUSH SONGS.
Collected and edited by A.B. PATERSON. Thirteenth thousand, with picture cover (Commonwealth Series), 1s. (postage 1d.)
DAILY TELEGRAPH: "Rude and rugged these old bush songs are, but they carry in their vigorous lines the very impress of their origin and of their genuineness.... Mr. Paterson has done his work like an artist."
GODS AND WOOD THINGS.
By L.H. ALLEN. Paper boards, 1s. (postage 1d.)
SYDNEY MORNING HERALD: "Mr. Allen is one of the select band who are saturated with classic lore and who seek to translate the beings of pagan mythology to the Australian bush. 'Gods and Wood Things' contains both prose and verse—the latter rhapsodical, the former mystical."
By AMY ELEANOR MACK. Second edition, with coloured illustrations and decorated cloth cover, 3s. 6d. (postage 2d.)
ACADEMY: "It is not often that we have the pleasure to welcome from Australia a book of so many charming short stories as are contained in the volume before us."
SCOTSMAN: "Charming and simple nursery tales, appetisingly touched with local colour of the Bush."
BIRMINGHAM DAILY POST: "There is a daintiness and distinct charm in these fairy tales."
SCRIBBLING SUE, AND OTHER STORIES.
By AMY ELEANOR MACK. With coloured and other illustrations and decorated cloth cover, 3s. 6d. (postage 2d.)
These stories are written in the same happy vein as "Bushland Stories." Miss Mack's intense love of nature is reflected in all her books, and her readers, both young and old, are at once attracted by the natural ring of her work.
GEM OF THE FLAT: A. Story of Young Australians.
By CONSTANCE MACKNESS. With coloured and other illustrations and decorated cloth cover, 3s. 6d. (postage 2d.)
"Gem of the Flat" is a story of Australian bush children. The local colouring is distinctly good; the children are alive, and talk like real children; the incidents are natural and well described. The style is fresh, the dialogue well managed, and the story as a whole is interesting and pleasant, with a good tone about it.
DOT AND THE KANGAROO.
By ETHEL C. PEDLEY. Illustrated by F.P. Mahony. Third edition, with decorated cloth cover, 2s. 6d. (postage 2d.)
SYDNEY MORNING HERALD: "'Dot and the Kangaroo' is without doubt one of the most charming books that could be put into the hands of a child. It is admirably illustrated by Frank P. Mahony, who seems to have entered thoroughly into the animal world of Australia. The story is altogether Australian.... It is told so simply, and yet so artistically, that even the 'grown-ups' amongst us must enjoy it."
THE ANNOTATED CONSTITUTION OF THE AUSTRALIAN COMMONWEALTH.
By Sir JOHN QUICK, LL.D., and R.R. GARRAN, C.M.G. Royal 8vo., cloth gilt, 21s.
THE TIMES: "A monument of industry."
THE STATE AND FEDERAL CONSTITUTIONS OF AUSTRALIA.
By K.R. CRAMP, M.A., Examiner, N.S.W. Department of Public Instruction. With portraits and illustrations. Second edition, revised. Cloth gilt, 3s. 6d. (postage 2d.)
N.S.W. PUBLIC INSTRUCTION GAZETTE: "Not only sound and scholarly, but is written by a teacher of long experience.... Has the additional advantage of being absolutely up to date.... Altogether an admirable piece of work.... An interesting, very helpful, and very necessary handbook."
HISTORY OF AUSTRALASIA: From the Earliest Times to the Present Day.
By ARTHUR W. JOSE, author of "The Growth of the Empire." Fifth edition, thoroughly revised, with many new maps and illustrations from rare originals in the Mitchell Library. Cloth gilt, 3s. 6d. (postage 2d.)
THE BULLETIN: "It is the most complete handbook on the subject available; the tone is judicial and the workmanship thorough.... The new chapter on Australian Literature is the best view yet presented."
HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY.
By H.E. BARFF, M.A., Registrar. With numerous illustrations. Cloth gilt, 7s. 6d. (postage 2d.)
Published some years ago in connection with the Jubilee Celebrations of the University, this volume contains the official record of its foundation and growth.
THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY: ITS HISTORY AND PROGRESS.
By ROBERT A. DALLEN. With 68 illustrations from photographs. Crown 4to., 3s. 6d. (postage 1d.)
SOME EARLY RECORDS OF THE MACARTHURS OF CAMDEN, 1789-1834.
Edited by SIBELLA MACARTHUR ONSLOW. With coloured plates and numerous facsimile reproductions of original documents. Cloth gilt, 15s. (postage 6d.)
SYDNEY MORNING HERALD: "No man ever entered on a better fight with his fellow citizens, with the Governors, with the British Government, with the scientists, with the judicial authorities, indeed with almost every authority that was there to be fought, than John Macarthur when he undertook single-handed the great fight which finally established the wool industry in Australia."
Uniform with the above.
LIFE OF CAPTAIN MATTHEW FLINDERS, R.N.
By ERNEST SCOTT, Professor of History in the University of Melbourne, author of "Terre Napoléon" etc. With numerous portraits, maps, manuscripts in facsimile, etc. Cloth gilt, 21s. (postage 6d.)
THE BULLETIN: "Will take its place as one of the great biographies in our language. The inexplicable fact that hitherto no full biography of the first man to circumnavigate Australia has appeared is also a fortunate fact. Flinders has waited a century for his biographer, and it was worth this silence of a hundred years to find Ernest Scott.... And to this fervor of research must be added Ernest Scott's lucid literary style and his interest in the personal side of his subject. Equipment, style, sympathy, and his subject combine to make a brilliant achievement in biography.... A word must in mere justice be added in praise of the publishers. The appearance of the book is worthy of its contents."
LIFE OF LAPEROUSE.
By PROFESSOR ERNEST SCOTT. With Chart of Voyages in the Pacific, and 13 illustrations. Cloth, 3s. 6d. (postage 1d.) For school edition see page 31.
This story of Lapérouse's work as an explorer and his close association with Australia is a most important contribution to our history. The illustrations are from authentic sources and very interesting.
A POPULAR GUIDE TO THE WILD FLOWERS OF NEW SOUTH WALES.
By FLORENCE SULMAN. Vol. I., with 51 full-page illustrations. Cloth, 3s. 6d. Vol. II., with 72 full-page illustrations. Cloth, 6s. (postage 2d. each.)
SYDNEY MORNING HERALD: "This book can be taken into the bush, and by its aid practically any flower identified without previous knowledge of botany. It is a book that has been badly needed."
SOME FAMILIAR AUSTRALIAN WILD FLOWERS.
Photographed by Mrs. A.E. SULMAN. Paper cover, 2s. (postage 1d.)
AUSTRALIAN WILD FLOWERS: Second Series.
Photographed by Mrs. A.E. SULMAN. Paper cover, 2s. (postage 1d.)
These are the best representation by photography of Australian wild flowers, and are particularly suitable for sending to friends abroad.
THE PLANTS OF NEW SOUTH WALES: An Analytical Key to the Flowering Plants (except Grasses and Rushes) and Ferns of the State, with a list of native plants discovered since 1893.
By W.A. DIXON, F.I.C., F.C.S. With Glossary and 49 diagrams. Cloth gilt, 3s. 6d. (postage 2d.)
A BUSH CALENDAR.
By AMY ELEANOR MACK. Third edition, revised, with 42 photographs of birds, flowers, bush scenes, etc. Cloth, 3s. 6d. (postage 1d.)
LITERARY WORLD: "A pleasant little book.... There is much to interest those who have no personal knowledge of the antipodes ... and to those who know the country, the vivid descriptions will bring back many happy recollections."
By AMY ELEANOR MACK. With 39 photographs. Cloth (uniform with "A Bush Calendar"), 3s. 6d. (postage 1d.)
T.P.'s WEEKLY (London): "A delightful book of descriptive studies in nature."
THE BUTTERFLIES OF AUSTRALIA:
A Monograph of the Australian Rhopalocera.
By G.A. Waterhouse, B.Sc., B.E., F.E.S., and G. Lyell, F.E.S. With 4 coloured and 39 uncoloured full-page plates, and numerous figures in the text. Demy 4to., cloth gilt, 42s. (postage 6d.)
Nature (London) says: "The study of the butterflies of Australia is certain to be greatly advanced by the appearance of this admirable work, containing 43 excellent quarto plates, of which 4 are coloured. In addition to this abundant and most necessary illustration in plates, the reader is provided with numbers of text-figures as well as a valuable map-index of localities.... A concluding section, with 'Notes on Collecting and Collections,' complete the work by rendering it a sufficient guide to the beginner. The keen Australian naturalist is now provided with a foundation upon which to build."
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE GEOLOGY OF NEW SOUTH WALES.
By C.A. Sussmilch, F.G.S. Second edition, thoroughly revised and greatly enlarged, with folding coloured map and 100 other maps and illustrations. Cloth gilt, 7s. 6d. (postage 3d.)
Australian Mining Standard: "Students are greatly indebted to Mr. Sussmilch for the able manner in which he has presented in compact form all that is known at the present time on the subject.... The illustrations throughout are excellent, but the coloured geological map which serves as a frontispiece is a model of what such a map should be, avoiding the opposite evils of overcrowding and meagreness. Mr. Sussmilch's book should be of value, not only to students in the colleges, but to those practical miners who are also students."
THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF BOILER CONSTRUCTION.
By W.D. Cruickshank, M.I. Mech. E., late Chief Engineering Surveyor, New South Wales Government. Second edition, revised and enlarged, with 70 illustrations. Cloth gilt, 15s. (postage 3d.)
Journal of the Marine Engineers' Association: "A practical treatise on the construction and management of steam boilers ... will be found of great value to practical engineers."
CHRISTOPHER COCKLE'S AUSTRALIAN EXPERIENCES.
By "OLD BOOMERANG" (J.R. HOULDING). Revised edition, with 2 portraits. Cloth gilt, 5s. (postage 2d.)
Originally published under the title "Australian Capers," this volume has been out of print for many years, and copies which have come into the market secondhand have been purchased at enhanced prices. The author has at last consented to its republication and has thoroughly revised it. As a picture of Australian life thirty or forty years ago the book is worthy of a permanent place in our literature, and it contains plenty of fun and humour for both old and young.
THE MOTHER STATE: The Physical Features, Natural Resources, Geology, Scenery, Climate, Industries and Commerce of New South Wales.
By J.M. TAYLOR, M.A., LL.B. With 85 illustrations and maps. Cloth gilt, 3s. 6d. (postage 2d.)
This is the only up-to-date general description of New South Wales available for sending to friends abroad. All the information is drawn from the latest authentic sources and the illustrations and maps add largely to the book's interest and value.
THE HOME DOCTORING OF ANIMALS.
By HAROLD LEENEY, M.R.C.V.S. Fourth edition, thoroughly revised and greatly enlarged, with nearly 100 illustrations. 8vo., cloth, 12s. 6d. (postage 8d.)
London: Macdonald & Martin.
SIMPLE TESTS FOR MINERALS: Every Man his own Analyst.
By JOSEPH CAMPBELL, M.A., F.G.S., M.I.M.E. Fourth edition, revised and enlarged (completing the twelfth thousand). With illustrations. Cloth, round corners, 3s. 6d. (postage 1d.)
BALLARAT STAR: "This is an excellent little work, and should be in the hands of every scientific and practical miner."
BENDIGO EVENING MAIL: "Should be in every prospector's kit. It enables any intelligent man to ascertain for himself whether any mineral he may discover has a commercial value."
THE COMMONWEALTH SERIES.
Picture covers, 1s. per volume (postage 1d.)
BY HENRY LAWSON.
WHILE THE BILLY BOILS (First and Second Series) ON THE TRACK OVER THE SLIPRAILS JOE WILSON JOE WILSON'S MATES SEND ROUND THE HAT THE ROMANCE OF THE SWAG
POPULAR VERSES HUMOROUS VERSES WHEN I WAS KING THE ELDER SON THE RISING OF THE COURT (Contains Prose also)
BY A.B. PATERSON.
AN OUTBACK MARRIAGE (full-length novel) THE OLD BUSH SONGS (edited only by Mr. Paterson)
BY WILL OGILVIE.
FAIR GIRLS } A reprint in two parts of the favourite volume, "Fair GRAY HORSES } Girls and Gray Horses."
BY BRUNTON STEPHENS.
MY CHINEE COOK, AND OTHER HUMOROUS VERSES
BY CHARLES WHITE.
HISTORY OF AUSTRALIAN BUSHRANGING (in 4 parts, each complete in itself, and well illustrated)—The Early Days; 1850 to 1862; 1863 to 1869; 1869 to 1878.
BY GEORGE E. BOXALL.
HISTORY OF THE AUSTRALIAN BUSHRANGERS— Part I.: To the Time of Frank Gardiner Part II.: To the End of the Kelly Gang
HISTORY OF THE AUSTRALIAN AGRICULTURAL COMPANY, 1824-1875.
By JESSE GREGSON, Ex-Superintendent. With portraits, cloth gilt, 6s. (postage 2d.)
MAP READING AND FIELD SKETCHING SIMPLIFIED.
By CAPTAIN T.P. CONWAY, A. and I. Staff, Commonwealth Military Forces. Based on the Official Manual, thoroughly revised and greatly extended, With special reference to Australian conditions, illustrated throughout with numerous folded, coloured, and other Diagrams and Sketches. Waterproof cloth cover, 3s. 6d. (postage 1d.)
HOW TO INSTRUCT IN BAYONET FIGHTING.
Including full Detail, Hints and Lessons on all Methods used in Teaching Bayonet Fighting, with Directions and Rules for Bayonet Fighting Combats, and 55 full-page photographs illustrating all positions. By STAFF SERGEANT-MAJOR D. FALLON. Stiff paper cover, 1s. 6d. (postage 1d.)
TRUMPET AND BUGLE SOUNDS, AND SOLDIERS' SONG BOOK FOR THE AUSTRALIAN ARMY.
Including instructions for Trumpeters and Buglers, Field and Routine Calls for Mounted Units and Infantry. With words for all Calls. By CAPT. W.G. BENTLEY. Limp cloth, 1s. 6d. (post. 1d.)
MUSKETRY SMALL BOOK.
Includes Hints on Shooting, Judging Distance, Grouping Practices, etc., with a large number of diagrams for keeping a Record of Results in Instructional and Standard Test Practices in Tables A and B. Second edition. By LIEUT. R. STUPART. Manila cover, 3d. (postage 1d.)
AUSTRALIAN LANDSCAPE TARGETS.
Approved and adopted by the School of Musketry, Randwick. Five specially selected Australian Landscapes in panels, each measuring 60 inches by 36 inches, reproduced in natural colours. Price, unmounted, 3s. 6d. each (postage 1s. 8d.); mounted on calico, 7s. each (postage 2s. 8d.)
HINTS TO YOUNG OFFICERS.
In the Australian Military Forces on the Art of Command, Mess Etiquette, Dress, Military Courtesy, Discipline, Company Command, Official Correspondence, etc. By LIEUT. R. STUPART. Third edition, revised and enlarged. Stiff paper cover, 1s. 6d. (postage 1d.)
OUTPOSTS AND ADVANCED, FLANK AND REAR GUARDS.
Includes the Distribution of an Advanced Guard, Telling off of an Advanced Guard, Duties of Commander of the Vanguard, Disposition of a Small Advanced Guard, Disposition of a Flank Guard, Distribution of Outposts, Duties of Outpost Company Commander, Duties of Piquet Commander, Telling off and Posting a Piquet, etc. By LIEUT. R. STUPART. Second edition, revised and greatly enlarged, with 3 sketches. Stiff paper cover, 1s. 3d. (postage 1d.)
RIFLE EXERCISES, SIMPLIFIED.
Including Rifle Exercises, Description of S.M.L.E. Rifle, Care of Arms, Stripping and Assembling, Sword Exercises, Bayonet Fighting, Bayonet Fighting for Competitions, etc. With numerous illustrations. Compiled by LIEUT. R. STUPART. Stiff paper cover, 1s. (postage 1d.)
INFANTRY POCKET BOOK.
Compiled by LIEUT. R. STUPART. A concise guide to Regulations, Field Training, Musketry, Camp Duties, etc. With Prefatory Note by Colonel W. Holmes, D.S.O., V.D. Fourth edition, revised and enlarged. Waterproof cloth, 1s. 6d. (postage 1d.)
GUARD AND SENTRY DUTIES.
A Complete Guide to the Guard Duties of Field Officer, Captain and Subaltern of the Day, the Commander, Sergeant, Corporal, and Private Soldier of the Guard, Arrest and Military Custody, etc., with Copy of Guard Report, Orders for a Sentry on Post, Guard-room or Tent, etc. By LIEUT. R. STUPART. Fourth edition, revised and enlarged. Manila cover, 9d. (postage 1d.)
AIMING, FIRING, AND FIRE DISCIPLINE TRAINING.
As taught at the School of Musketry, Randwick. By SERGEANT-MAJOR INSTRUCTOR F.E. HART. With 52 full-page photographs and 22 diagrams illustrating the subjects as taught at the Randwick School of Musketry in accordance with "Musketry Regulations." Stiff paper cover, 1s. 6d. (postage 1d.)
HANDY NOTES ON SEQUENCE AND DETAIL OF MUSKETRY INSTRUCTION.
As taught at the School of Musketry Randwick. Second edition, revised. Manila cover, 6d. (postage 1d.)
THE NEW (1914) COMPANY DRILL SIMPLIFIED.
With Squad, Section and Platoon Drill, Illus. with about 50 diagrams, showing position of Company, Platoon and Section Commanders, and all movements in Squad Drill, Platoon Drill and Company Drill, as laid down in Infantry Training, 1914, with the Detail for all Movements. Fifth edition, revised. By LIEUT. R. STUPART. Stiff paper cover, 1s. 6d. (postage 1d.)
SIGNALLING HANDBOOK FOR AUSTRALIAN MILITARY FORCES.
Including Morse System, Semaphore System, Use and Care of Apparatus, Heliograph, Telescope, Flags, Message Forms, Station Routine, Training and Classification, completely illustrated. Compiled by a Signalling Officer. Stiff paper cover, 1s. (postage 1d.)
HINTS TO NON-COMS.
Including Hints to Non-Coms., The Word of Command, The Art of Instructing, Military Courtesy, Dress, Discipline, The Duties of Sergeant-Major, Bandmaster, Quartermaster-Sergeant, Sergeant Cook, Pioneer Sergeant, Signalling Sergeant, Band Sergeant, Transport Sergeant, Armourer Sergeant, Orderly-Room Sergeant, Colour-Sergeant, Sergeant, etc. By LIEUT. R. STUPART. Second edition, revised. Stiff paper cover, 1s. (postage 1d.)
THE COMPLETE MUSKETRY INSTRUCTOR.
Including Description of S.M.L.E. Rifle, Care and Cleaning of Arms, Military Vocabulary, Explanation of Musketry Terms, Theory of Musketry, Aiming Instruction, Firing Instruction, Miniature Range Training, Landscape Target Training, etc. By LIEUT. R. STUPART. With numerous illustrations. Stiff paper cover, 1s. 6d. (postage 1d.)
TRANSPORT NOTES FOR THE USE OF ARMY SERVICE CORPS, ARMY MEDICAL CORPS, AND REGIMENTAL TRANSPORT.
Includes Organization of Transport in the Field, Horse and Stable Management, Harnessing up, Transport by Rail, Transport by Sea, Loading Wagons, Shoeing and the Feet, Drivers' Orders, Treatment of Sick Animals, etc. By CAPT. S.G. GIBBS, Assistant Director of Supplies and Transport. Stiff paper cover, 1s. (postage 1d.)
LIGHT HORSE POCKET BOOK.
Compiled by LIEUT. D.C. HOWELL PRICE, A. and I. Staff. A Concise Guide to Regulations, Field Training, Camp Duties, Equitation, etc. With Nominal and other Rolls. Second edition. Pocket size, waterproof cloth, 1s. 6d. (postage 1d.)
HINTS ON HEALTH FOR SOLDIERS.
In the Field, in Camp and Bivouac. Compiled from Army Medical Sources for Hot, Cold and Temperate Climates. Manila cover, 6d. (postage 1d.)
For Platoon, Section and Squad Commanders. Including Duty Roster, Nominal and Attendance Rolls. Pocket size. Limp cloth, 9d. (postage 1d.)
Notes on the Organization and Training of Grenadiers. By LIEUT. G. DYSON. Manila cover, 9d. (postage 1d.)
FIELD MESSAGE BOOK.
For writing Orders and Reports of Reconnaissance, Outpost Duties, etc. With Concise Directions for Writing Messages, etc. 130 pages, ¼ inch ruled paper, with duplicating paper for copying messages. Pocket size, waterproof cover and elastic band. 2s. 6d. (postage 1d.)
SEMAPHORE ALPHABET MADE EASY.
An easy method of Learning How to Semaphore in a few hours by means of a pack of 30 cards, showing Sender's Position "Front View." 9d. (postage 1d.)
This is the standard system of Signalling and is of universal application.
SCOUTING: PROTECTIVE OR PRACTICAL RECONNAISSANCE.
Specially adapted to the Training of Australian Troops. By MAJOR F.A. DOVE. Second edition, with 21 diagrams. Manila cover. 6d. (postage 1d.)
THE CADET HANDBOOK.
Compiled by LIEUT. R. STUPART. A Concise Guide to Appointment and Promotion for Officers and N.-C.O's. Including Syllabus of Exams., Syllabus of Training, Duties of Non-Coms., Guards and Sentries. With Attendance Roll for Section Commanders. Second edition, revised and enlarged. Pocket size, limp cloth, 9d. (postage 1d.)
THE JUNIOR CADET MANUAL.
Including the authorized Squad Drill, Physical Exercises, Miniature Rifle Shooting, First Aid, Organized Games, Swimming and Life Saving. Second edition, thoroughly revised. Cloth cover, 3s. 6d. (postage 2d.)
RIFLE EXERCISES AND MUSKETRY INSTRUCTION FOR CADETS.
Compiled by LIEUT. R. STUPART. Third edition, greatly enlarged. Manila cover, 6d. (postage 1d.)
CALENDAR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY.
Demy 8vo., linen, 2s. 6d.; paper cover, 1s. (postage 3d.) [Published annually in June.
MANUAL OF PUBLIC EXAMINATIONS HELD BY THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY.
Demy 8vo., paper cover, 1s. (postage 1d.)
[Published annually in September, and dated the year following that in which it is issued.
IN MEMORY OF ALBERT BYTHESEA WEIGALL, Late Headmaster of Sydney Grammar School.
By PROFESSOR M.W. MACCALLUM. With portraits and illustrations, cloth gilt, 2s. 6d. (postage 1d.)
THE JUSTICES' MANUAL AND POLICE GUIDE. A Synopsis of offences punishable by indictment and on summary conviction, definitions of crimes, meanings of legal phrases, hints on evidence, procedure, police duties, etc., in New South Wales.
Compiled by DANIEL STEPHEN, Sub-Inspector of Police. Third edition, thoroughly revised, with a chapter on Finger Prints by Inspector Childs, and Supplement bringing the book up to date. Demy 8vo., cloth, 7s. 6d. (postage 3d.)
HISTORY OF THE AUSTRALIAN BUSHRANGERS.
By GEORGE E. BOXALL. New edition, cloth gilt, 3s. 6d. (postage 3d.) [Shortly.
AUSTRALIAN HOUSE DRAINAGE PRACTICE.
By H.G. WILLS, A.I.S.E., A.R. San. I., Lecturer at Sydney Technical College. With 109 illustrations. Cloth gilt, 7s. 6d. (postage 3d.)
This book is indispensable to builders, master-drainers, journeymen and students alike—the only book on House Drainage suitable for Australasian conditions. Everything is explained in a thoroughly practical manner, and the illustrations and diagrams are exceptionally valuable.
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE INFINITESIMAL CALCULUS.
By H.S. Carslaw, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.E., Professor of Mathematics in the University of Sydney. Second edition, revised. Demy 8vo., cloth, 5s. (postage 2d.)
London: Longmans, Green & Co.
EASY NUMERICAL TRIGONOMETRY OF THE RIGHT-ANGLED TRIANGLE.
By Professor H.S. Carslaw, University of Sydney. With numerous diagrams. Limp cloth, 2s. (postage 1d.)
DAIRYING IN AUSTRALASIA: Farm and Factory.
By M.A. O'Callaghan, Chief of Dairy Branch, Department of Agriculture. Contains over 700 pages and more than 200 plates. Royal 8vo., cloth, 10s. (postage 5d.)
The Dairy (London): "It gives in clear and unmistakeable language the whole of the dairy manipulation from beginning to end ... His book is of world-wide application and usefulness."
MILK AND BUTTER TABLES:
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By M.A. O'Callaghan, author of "Dairying in Australasia." Demy 8vo., 1s. (postage 1d.)
HERD TESTING RECORD BOOK.
Designed by M.A. O'Callaghan for Herd Testing Associations and Stud Cattle Breeders. 200 leaves, foolscap size, strongly bound, 5s. (postage 1s.)
By H.L. Kesteven, D.Sc., Lecturer at Sydney Technical College. Paper cover, 2s. 6d. (postage 1d.)
GEOGRAPHY OF NEW SOUTH WALES.
By J.M. Taylor, M.A., LL.B. Fourth edition, revised and enlarged, with 13 folding maps and 67 illustrations. Cloth gilt, 3s. 6d. (postage 2d.)
By J.A. POLLOCK, Professor, and O.U. VONWILLER, Assistant Professor of Physics in the University of Sydney. Part I. With 30 diagrams. Paper cover, 3s. 9d. (postage 2d.)
Edited, with Introduction, by J.D. ST. CLAIR MACLARDY, M.A., Chief Examiner, Department of Public Instruction, New South Wales. Cloth gilt, 3s. 6d. (postage 3d.)
Contains the following Tables:—Seven Figure Logarithms (1-100,000); Logarithmic Sines, Tangents and Secants; Natural Sines, Cosines, Versed Sines, Chords, etc.; Natural Tangents; Natural Secants, etc.
Not for sale outside Australia and New Zealand.
ABRIDGED MATHEMATICAL TABLES.
By S.H. BARRACLOUGH, B.E., M.M.E., Assoc. M. Inst. C.E. Cloth, 1s. (postage 1d.)
Logarithms, &c., published separately, paper cover, 6d. (postage 1d.)
AN ELEMENTARY LATIN COURSE AND GRAMMAR.
By R.P. FRANKLIN, M.A. (Camb.), Headmaster, Church of England Grammar School, Melbourne, Recommended for N.S.W. Secondary School Syllabus. Cloth, 2s. 6d. (postage 1d.)
ARITHMETIC FOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS.
By JAMES RICKARD. Prescribed for use in N.S.W. Secondary Schools. Cloth gilt. 3s. 6d. (post. 2d.)
THE AUSTRALIAN LETTERING BOOK.
Containing the Alphabets most useful in Mapping, Exercise Headings, &c., with practical applications, Easy Scrolls, Flourishes, Borders, Corners, Rulings, &c. Limp cloth, 6d. (postage 1d.)
COOKERY BOOK OF GOOD AND TRIED RECEIPTS.
Compiled for the Presbyterian Women's Missionary Association.
Fourteenth edition, enlarged, completing 200,000 copies. Cloth boards, 1s. (postage 1d.)
EXTRACT FROM PREFACE: "The aim of this book has always been, not only to provide wholesome and economical recipes for capable housewives, but to help those who have not had the benefit of maternal guidance and home training. It is significant that many discerning women have made a habit of giving a copy of the 'Presbyterian Cookery Book' to every new bride of their acquaintance."
COMMON SENSE HOUSEHOLD COOKERY BOOK.
Compiled by the Cookery Teachers' Association of N.S.W. Cloth boards, 1s. (postage 1d.) School edition, prescribed by N.S.W. Department of Public Instruction for use in Primary Schools, limp cloth, 9d. (postage 1d.)
Nearly 20,000 copies already sold. The virtue of this book is that it sets out each ingredient and every step in method separately and distinctly, so that even the veriest novice has no difficulty in following the directions.
COMMONSENSE HINTS ON PLAIN COOKERY.
A companion to the "Commonsense Cookery Book." Compiled by the N.S.W. Cookery Teachers' Association. Limp cloth, 9d. (postage 1d.)
JUNIOR COURSE OF FIRST AID:
By GEORGE LANE MULLINS, M.D., Lt.-Col. A.A.M.C., Lecturer and Examiner to St. John Ambulance Association. With 30 illustrations, 6d. (post. 1d.)
FIRST AID IN NURSING: For the Bush and Country, and for use in Schools.
By MRS. W.M. THOMAS (Sister Dickson). Illustrated. Limp cloth, 1s. (postage 1d.)
CHURCH SERVICES, FOR USE BY LAYMEN.
Prepared on the Authority of the Presbyterian Church OF Australia (State of New South Wales). Cloth gilt, 2s. 6d. (postage 1d.)
BRUSHWORK FROM NATURE, WITH DESIGN.
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THE CUTTER'S GUIDE.
A Manual of Dresscutting and Ladies' Tailoring. By M.E. ROBERTS, Lecturer at Sydney Technical College. Fourth edition, revised, with 139 diagrams. Cloth gilt, 7s. 6d. (postage 2d.)
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GARMENT CUTTING FOR GIRLS.
A Course of Scientific Garment Cutting for Schools. By M.E. ROBERTS. Prescribed for use in Girls' High Schools. With 50 diagrams. Paper boards, 2s. 6d. (postage 1d.)
DRESS-CUTTING MEASURE BOOK.
For Students and Pupils using "The Cutter's Guide,"' and "Garment Cutting for Girls." 6d. (postage 1d.)
NEW TESTAMENT LESSONS.
By REV. JOHN BURGESS, D.D. Part I.—The Life of Christ. Paper cover, 1s. (postage 1d.)
ENGLISH GRAMMAR, COMPOSITION, AND PRÉCIS WRITING.
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A SMALLER ENGLISH GRAMMAR, COMPOSITION, AND PRÉCIS WRITING.
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PRIMARY SCHOOL ENGLISH GRAMMAR. For Australian Schools. Cloth, 9d. (postage 1d.)
FORMAL GRAMMAR, WORD-BUILDING AND SPELLING.
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ENGLISH COMPOSITION, LETTER-WRITING AND POETRY.
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HISTORY AND CIVICS FOR QUALIFYING CERTIFICATE, SCHOLARSHIP AND BURSARY CANDIDATES.
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QUALIFYING CERTIFICATE MATHEMATICS.
By S.W. CANTRELL, B.A. Limp cloth, 9d. (postage 1d.) Answers, published separately, 6d. (postage 1d.)
QUESTIONS SET AT THE QUALIFYING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATIONS, 1911-1915.
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GEOGRAPHY OF AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND.
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GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE, ASIA, AFRICA AND AMERICA.
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COMMONWEALTH MANUAL TRAINING SERIES.
CONCRETE GUIDE TO PAPER-FOLDING FOR DESIGN. 1s. 6d. (postage 1d.)
PUPILS' PAPER-FOLDING BOOKS FOR CLASSES I. AND II. CLASS III., AND CLASS IV. 1d. each.
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PUPILS' CARDBOARD MODELLING AND DRAWING BOOK, 3d.
AUSTRALIAN SCHOOL SERIES.
GRAMMAR AND DERIVATION BOOK, 64 pages. 2d.
TABLE BOOK AND MENTAL ARITHMETIC. New edition, greatly enlarged. 34 pages. 1d.
HISTORY OF AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND. 80 pages. 4d. Illustrated.
GEOGRAPHY. Part I. Australasia and Polynesia, 64 pages. 2d.
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ARITHMETIC AND PRACTICAL GEOMETRY—EXERCISES FOR CLASS II., 50 pages. 3d.
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PRACTICAL AND THEORETICAL GEOMETRY. Books I. and II., 6d. each.
1916 SYLLABUS SPELLER, 32 pages. 2d.
THE CHILDREN'S TREASURY OF AUSTRALIAN VERSE.
Edited by BERTRAM STEVENS and GEORGE MACKANESS, M.A. With notes. Limp cloth, 1s. 3d. (post. 1d.)
This volume contains all the best verse written in Australia and New Zealand, suitable for junior classes. It has been adopted by the N.S.W. Department of Public Instruction for supplementary reading in primary schools.
SELECTIONS FROM THE AUSTRALIAN POETS.
Edited by BERTRAM STEVENS and GEORGE MACKANESS, M.A. With notes. Limp cloth, 1s. 6d. (post. 1d.)
The contents have been selected from the published work of Gordon, Kendall, Paterson, Lawson, Ogilvie, Daley, Essex Evans, Brunton Stephens, Mrs. Foott, Dorothea Mackellar, and many other well-known writers. In addition, the book contains a number of fine poems not obtainable in any other volume, and it is easily the best, if not the only, collection of Australian verse entirely suitable for young readers. It is prescribed for use in the High and Secondary Schools of New South Wales.
TEENS: A Story of Australian Schoolgirls.
By LOUISE MACK. Illustrated by Frank P. Mahony. Limp cloth, 1s. 6d. (postage 2d.)
GIRLS TOGETHER: A Story of Australian Schoolgirls.
By LOUISE MACK. Illustrated by George W. Lambert. Limp cloth, 1s. 3d. (postage 2d.)
DOT AND THE KANGAROO.
By ETHEL C. PEDLEY. Illustrated by F.P. Mahony. Limp cloth, 1s. 3d. (postage 1d.)
THE TOM TITS' NEST, AND OTHER FAIRY TALES.
By AMY ELEANOR MACK. Paper cover, 4d. (post. 1d.)
LIFE OF LAPEROUSE.
By PROFESSOR ERNEST SCOTT. With illustrations, Limp cloth, 1s. 3d. (postage 1d.)
THE STORY OF W.C. WENTWORTH: AUSTRALIA'S FIRST PATRIOT.
By LEWIS DEER and JOHN BARR. With portrait and illustrations. Limp cloth, 1s. (postage 1d.)
THE AUSTRALIAN COPY BOOK.
In 10 carefully-graded numbers, and a book of Plain and Ornamental Lettering, Mapping, &c. (No. 11). Price, 2d. each. Numerals are given in each number. A.C.B. Blotter (fits all sizes), 1d.
CHAMBERS'S GOVERNMENT HAND COPY BOOK.
In 12 carefully-graded numbers and a book for Pupil Teachers (No. 13). 2d. each.
The letters are continuously joined to each other, so that the pupil need not lift the pen from the beginning to the end of each word. The spaces between the letters are wide, each letter, thus standing out boldly and distinctly by itself. The slope is gentle, but sufficient to prevent the pupil from acquiring a back hand. The curves are well rounded, checking the tendency to too great angularity.
ANGUS AND ROBERTSON'S PENCIL COPY BOOK.
In nine numbers. 1d. each. No. 1 initiatory lines, curves, letters, figures; 2 and 3, short letters, easy combinations, figures; 4, long letters, short words, figures; 5, long letters, words, figures; 6, 7, and 8, capitals, words, figures; 9, short sentences, figures.
THE REFORM WRITING BOOKS.
With directions for teaching writing on the Reform system. Nos. 1, 2, and 3, 1d. each; Nos. 3a, 4 and 5, 2d. each. Pamphlet on The Teaching of Writing, 1s.
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